vibhkti

vibhkti ka shaabdik arth hai - ' vibhkt hone ki kriya ya bhaav' ya 'vibhaag' ya 'baaaint'

vyaakaran mein shabd (sanjnyaa, sarvanaam tatha visheshan) ke aage laga hua vah pratyaya ya chinh vibhkti kahalaata hai jisse pata lagta hai ki us shabd ka kriyaapad se kya sambandh hai.

sanskrut vyaakaran ke anusaar naam ya sanjnyaaashabdon ke baad laganevaale ve pratyaya 'vibhkti' kahalaate hain jo naam ya sanjnyaa shabdon ko pad (vaakya prayogaarth) banaate hain aur kaarak parinti ke dvaara kriya ke saath sambandh soochit karte hain. prathama, dviteeya, truteeya aadi vibhktiyaaain hain jinmein ekavachan, dvivchan, bahuvachana—aateen bachan hote hai. paanineeya vyaakaran mein inhein 'sup' aadi 27 vibhkti ke roop mein ginaaya gaya hai. sanskrut vyaakaran mein jise 'vibhkti' kehte hai, vah vaastav mein shabd ka roopaantarit ang hota hai. jaise,—araamen, raamaaya ityaadi.

aajkal ki prachalit hindi ki khadi boli mein is prakaar ki vibhktiyaaain praay: naheen hain, keval karm aur sapradaan kaarak ke sarvanaamon mein vikalp se aati hain. jaise,—amujhe, tujhe, inhein ityaadi. sanskrut mein vibhktiyon ke roop shabd ke antya akshar ke anusaar bhinn bhinn hote hain. par yeh bhed khadeeboli ke kaarakon mein naheen paaya jaata, jismein shuddh vibhktiyon ka byavahaar naheen hota, kaarakachihnon ka vyavahaar hota hai, jaise 'ne', 'mein', 'se', 'dvaara', 'ka' aadi.


neeche diya gaya shlok raamarakshaastrotr mein aaya hai aur ise vibhkti samajhaane ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. ismein 'Ram' shabd ke aath roop aaye hain jo kramash: aathon vibhktiyon ke ekavachan ke roop hain.

raamo raajamani: sada vijyate raaman rameshan bhaje.
raamen abhihta nishaacharachamoo raamaaya tasmai nam:.
raamaat naasti paraayanan parataran raamasya daasosmyaham.
raame chittalay: sada bhavatu me bho Ram ! maamudhdar..

inhein bhi dekhein

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