vest indeej sangh

vest indeej sangh
sangh
1958 – 1962
ध्वज कुल चिन्ह
dhvaj kul chinh
aadarsh vaakya
To dwell together in unity
raashtragaan
God Save the Queen (Official)

Forged from the Love of Liberty (Proposed)

Location of वेस्ट इंडीज़
rajdhani De jure Chaguaramas De facto Port of Spain
bhaasha(eain) English
sarkaar Constitutional monarchy
Queen Elizabeth II
raajyapaal Lord Hailes
Prime minister Grantley Herbert Adams
itihaas
- sansthaapit January 3
- visansthaapit May 31
kshetr
- 1960 20,253 km² (7,820 sq mi)
janasankhya
- 1960 est. 31,17,300
ghanatv 153.9 /ki.mee² (398.6 /varg meal)
mudra BWI dollar (XBWD)
doorabhaash code +1-809
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Barbados (1870–1966).png baarabaados
Flag of Jamaica (1957-1962).svg jamaika
Trinidad colonial 1889-1958.gif Trinidad aur Tobago
Missing Blue Ensign.svg british leevard aailainds
Missing Blue Ensign.svg british vindavaard aailainds
enteeguaa aur baarabuda Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg
Barbados Flag of Barbados (1870–1966).png
Cayman Islands Flag of the Cayman Islands (pre-1999).svg
Dominica Flag of Dominica.svg
Grenada Missing Blue Ensign.svg
Jamaica Flag of Jamaica.svg
Montserrat Flag of Montserrat.svg
Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla Flag of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla.svg
Saint Lucia Flag of Saint Lucia.svg
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines St Vincent colonial flag.png
Trinidad and Tobago Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg
Turks and Caicos Islands Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg
¹ West Indies Federal Labour Party

vest indeej sangh, jise angreji mein federation of the vest indeej ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, ek alpajeevi kairibiyn sangh tha jo 3 January 1958 se lekar 31 May 1962 tak astitv mein raha. ismein United Kingdom ke kai kairibiyn upanagar shaamil the. sangh ka abhivyakt uddeshya raajaneetik ikaai ka nirmaan karna tha jo ki Britain se alag ek svatantr raajya ke roop mein hota - sanbhavat: Canadai mahaasangh, Australiaee sangh, ya kendreeya afreeki sangh ke samaan hota; haalaanki aisa hone se pehle hi aantarik raajaneetik sangharsh ke kaaran yeh sangh dhvast ho gaya.

anukram

janasankhya aur bhoogol

vest indeej sangh ki kul aabaadi 3 se 4 meeliyn ke beech thi jismein pashchim afreeki mool ke ashvet logon ki sankhya adhik thi. alpasankhyakon mein upamahaadveep ke bhaarateeya (jinhein ist Indians kaha jaata tha), Europeeya cheeni aur keribs shaamil the. vahaan mishrit vansh ki ek badi aabaadi bhi maujood thi (mukhya roop se mulaato the, lekin afreeki-bhaarateeya, Europeeya-bhaarateeya aur mishrit cheeni bhi badi sankhya mein maujood the) dharm ke sandarbh mein, badi sankhya mein Catholic aur kuchh hinduon aur musalmaanon (mukhya roop se donon poorv bhaarateeya aabaadi se the) ke alaava sabse jyaada aabaadi protesteint ki thi.

vest indeej sangh (ya keval vest indeej) mein base hue lagbhag 24 mukhya dweep aur 220-230 k aas-paas chhote apatateeya dweep, taapoo aur pravaal maalaaen (kuchh base hue aur kuchh nirjan) shaamil hain. sabse bada dweep jamaika tha jo sangh ke uttar pashchim mein sthit tha. saamaanya roop se dakshin poorv mein doosra bada dweep Trinidad aur uske baad baarabaados (janasankhya ke aadhaar par) hai jo ki sangh ke poorvi chhor par sthit hai.

yeh sangh, kairibiyn mein sabhi dweep samooh mein faila hua tha:

apni chaudaai mein (poorv se pashchim), kemain dweep se baarabaados tak yeh kareeb 2,425 kilometer (1,310 samudri meal) faila hai (aur deshaantar ke kareeb 22 degree) aur uttar mein turk end koikos dweep se ikaakos pvoint tak aur dakshin mein Trinidad tak yeh 1,700 kilometer (920 samudri meal) tak vistaarit hai (aksharekha ke 12 degree tak faila hai). haalaanki, in donon dooriyon ka adhikaansh kshetr paani dvaara ghira hai (inke beech kuchh anya dveepon ke apavaad ke saath). tulanaatmak roop se great Britain akshaansh ke kareeb 10 degree bhar mein faila hai aur Spain deshaantar ke lagbhag 20 degree ke paar faila hua hai. haalaanki vest indeej itne vishaal kshetr mein faila tha ki uske adhikaansh praant poorvi caribbean mein kaafi najadeeki roop se sansparshi the, jahaan jamaika, kemain dweep samooh aur turk aur koikos dweep samooh spasht apavaad the.

adhikaansh dveepon mein androoni pahaad the jo sankeern tateeya maidaanon se ghire hue the. apavaad ke roop mein enguila, enteeguaa, baarabuda, kemain dweep, turk end koikos dweep (jo ki sabhi kaafi sapaat the) aur Trinidad the (jiske uttar mein vruhad pahaadi shrrunkhala aur bheetar ek chhota sa kendreeya parvat hai). sankeern tateeya maidaan ke saath-saath aitihaasik vyaapaar vah mukhya kaaran tha jiske chalte lagbhag sabhi pramukh bastiyaan (shahar aur kasbe) tat par sthit the. pramukh shaharon mein kingstan, port of Spain, brijtaaun, Spanish taaun, montego be, maandevil, kaisetrees, rosiu, seint George, kingsataaun, seint jauns aur bassetere shaamil hain.

sabhi dveepon ki jalavaayu garm aur aardr mausam ke saath ushnakatibandheeya hai, haalaanki bade dveepon mein antardesheeya kshetron mein adhik samasheetoshn jalavaayu hai. vrushti chhaaya ke antargat padne vaale kshetr (jamaika aur Trinidad ke dakshini tat aur lesar enteelij ke poorvi tat) apekshaakrut sookhe hain. saal mein vahaan do mausam hote hain, saal ki pehli chhamaahi mein shushk mausam hota hai aur doosari chhamaahi mein barasaat ka mausam (toofaani mausam ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai) hota hai. kai dweep paaramparik toofaan vaale hisson ke antargat aate hain jismein Trinidad apavaad ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai (haalaanki yahaan kabhi-kabhi nyoon akshaansh toofaan aate hain) iseeliye yahaan pavan jokhim aur baadh kshati ke khatre ki sambhaavana hoti hai.

Britain ne is sangh ko apne "caribbean aur uttar atalaantik kshetr" ke hisse ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya hai, vah kshetr jise baramooda jaisi anya sampattiyon ke saath baanta gaya.

vartamaan mein is sangh ko bhaugolik drushti se uttari ameriki mahaadveep ka hissa maana jaata hai kyonki iske sabhi dweep kairibiyn ke bheetar aur chaaron or hain, yadyapi sirf Trinidad dakshin America tat se door sthit hai aur usi mahaadveep par sthit hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] baayokanteeneintal desh dekhein.

praant

vestaindeej sangh ke das praant ya pradesh ikaai mein shaamil the:

aitihaasik drushti se "pashchim bhaarateeya" raashtra the bahaamaas, baramuda, beleej, british varjin aaisalaind aur guyaana ko shaamil karne ke liye naheen chuna gaya tha kyonki unka maanana tha ki unka bhavishya kramash: uttari America (bahaama aur baramooda donon ke liye), madhya America, sanyukt raajya America varjin aaisalaind, dakshin America ke saath hai. haalaanki, bahaama ne 1960 mein vest indeej federation gems mein bhaag liya, jismein bahaama ke bhaavi raashtrapati peri kristi ne ek khilaadi ke roop mein bhaag liya tha. haalaanki 1971 ke aaspaas guyaana ne sanbhavat: bade dheele tareeke se kairibiyn sangh ke liye pun: prayaas kiya tha.[1]

sarkaar aur kaanooni sthiti

sangh ek aantarik svaraajya tha jo das praanto se bana sangheeya raajya tha jismein sabhi british aupaniveshik pradesh the. is mahaasangh ka nirmaan yoonaaited Kingdom dvaara 1958 mein adhikaansh british vestaindeej se kiya gaya tha. Britain ka iraada tha ki yeh sangh jaldi hi ek svatantr raajya hoga aur is prakaar vah kshetr ke sabhi pradeshon ki svatantrata ki maangon ko poora kar raha tha. haalaanki, praanton ke beech bhaari raajaneetik vivaadon ke chalte yeh pariyojana tahas-nahas ho gayi aur yeh sangh kabhi bhi na to raashtramandal daayare ke roop mein samprabhuta haasil kar saka aur na hi raashtramandal ke bheetar ganatantr ke hi roop mein.

is mahaasangh ke liye kaanooni aadhaar british kairibiyn sangh adhiniyam 1956 tha aur gathan ki tithi - 3 January 1958 - iski sthaapana 1957 mein ghoshit ek order-in-kaaunsil dvaara ki gayi.

jaisa ki us samay ke sabhi british pradesh ke saath tha, mahaaraani Elizabeth dviteeya raajya ki mukhiya thi aur is sangh ke kaaryakaari maamalon, raksha aur vittaposhan ke liye the kraaun ke paas vaidhaanik shaktiyaan theen. unke pratinidhi, paitrik bukhan-hepabarn, pratham bairan hels ko british upanivesh ke liye aam roop se diya jaane wala Governor ki bajaae Governor general ka pad diya gaya. yeh pad raajya ke sangheeya svaroop ko parilkshit kar sakta tha, ya sangh ke jald hi svatantr ho jaane ki apekshaaon ka sanket de raha tha. british sarkaar dvaara Governor general ke paas bhi sangh dvaara paarit kisi bhi kaanoon ko veto karne ki kshamata thi.

sangheeya sansad dvisdaneeya thi, jismein ek naamit senate aur lokapriya nirvaachit house of riprejenatetiv shaamil tha. senate mein unnees sadasya shaamil the. in sadasyon ko sambandhit kshetreeya sarkaaron se salaah ke baad Governor general dvaara niyukt kiya gaya tha. pratyek ikaai ka pratinidhitv do sadasyon dvaara kiya gaya (mauntseraat se keval ek ke saath). house of riprejenatetiv mein kul 45 nirvaachit sadasya the - jamaika mein 17 seatein, Trinidad aur Tobago mein 10 seatein, baarabaados mein paanch seatein, mauntseraat mein 1 seat aur shesh ke pratyek dveepon ke 2 seatein theen.

haalaanki sarkaar (kaaryakaari) ek cabinet na hokar ek kaaunsil of state thi. iski adhyakshata Governor general dvaara ki gayi aur ismein ek pradhaanamantri aur 10 anya adhikaari shaamil the.

yahaan ek sangheeya Supreme court bhi tha jismein ek mukhya nyaayaadheesh aur teen (baad mein paanch) anya nyaayaadheesh shaamil the.

rajdhani ke liye prastaavit sthal chaugoraamaas tha jo ki port of Spain, Trinidad end Tobago ke pashchim mein kuchh meal ki doori par tha, lekin site sanyukt raajya nausena base ka ek hissa tha. saamaanyat: port of Spain sangh ke astitv ki avadhi ke liye mahaasangheeya rajdhani ke roop mein tha.

pehla chunaav

pehle sangheeya chunaav ki taiyaar ke liye, sthaaneeya raajaneetik dalon ke parisangh ke roop mein do mahaasangheeya-vyaapak paartiyon ko aayojit kiya gaya. donon ka aayojan jamaika netaaon dvaara kiya gaya: norman manale dvaara vest indeej ke sangheeya shram party aur alekjeindar bastaamante dvaara democratic lebar party. vyaapak sandarbh mein, dabalyooaaiefaelapi (WIFLP), poore sangh mein shahari aadhaarit paartiyon se bana tha, jabki deeelapi mein graameen aadhaarit paartiyaan shaamil theen. ek chhoti si truteeya party, Federal democratic party ki sthaapana November 1957 mein trinidaad ke ek samooh dvaara ki gayi thi, haalaanki yeh party ek bhi seat haasil karne mein naakaam rahi thi.

donon pramukh raashtreeya dalon ke liye kai maainon mein platform samaan the. donon ne United Kingdom, sanyukt raajya America aur Canada (ve desh jinke aaisalaind ke saath ek majboot saanskrutik aur aarthik sambandh the) ke saath sambandhon ko banaae rakhane aur majbooti banaane ki vakaalat ki: paryatan ko protsaahit aur vistaarit karne par jor diya; rin praapt karne ke liye, vitteeya sahaayata aur takaneeki sahaayata, ke liye sangh mein british gayaana aur british haunduras ko laane ka prayaas karne par jor diya. in samaanataaon ke baavajood, vahaan kaafi matabhed the. WIFLP ne krushi ke protsaahan ki vakaalat ki thi, jabki DLP ne niji udyog aur shram, maanav aur aarthik sansaadhanon ke vikaas donon ke liye anukool jalavaayu ka vaada kiya. dabalyooaaiefaelapi ne bahaama (british gayaana aur british haunduras ke alaava) ko sangh mein shaamil hone ke liye protsaahit karne ka vaada kiya, jabki naheen deeelapi ne naheen kiya. dabalyooaaiefaelapi ne kredit sansaadhanon ke vistaar ke liye ek keindreeya bank ki sthaapana ka abhiyaan bhi chalaaya aur ek lokataantrik samaajavaadi samaaj aur sabhi unit pradeshon ke liye poorn aantarik svashaasan ki vakaalat ki, jabki svatantrata aandolan ke muddo aur ek custom union se bachane ki koshish ki. deeelapi ne poorn aantarik svashaasan ke baare mein kuchh naheen kaha, par samaajavaad par hamla kiya, uchch karaadhaan (rin aur takaneeki sahaayata ke maadhyam se) se bachane ki koshish ki aur vest indeej ki ekta ki kaamna ki, pooja ki svatantrata aur abhivyakti aur trade unionon ke protsaahan par bal diya.

25 March 1958 ko sangheeya chunaav ka aayojan kiya gaya. dabalyooaaiefaelapi ne 26 seaton ke saath chunaav mein jeet haasil ki jabki deeelapi 19 seaton ko hi haasil kar paaya. dabalyooaaiefaelapi ko seaton ka bada hissa chhote dveepon se mila, jabki deeelapi ko jamaika aur Trinidad evam Tobago mein bahumat haasil hua. deeelapi ne jamaika mein 11 seaton aur trinidaad mein 6 seaton mein jeet haasil ki. senate ko niyukt karte samay, Governor general Lord hels ne mahasoos kiya ki keval seint vinseint dweep sarkaar deeelapi dvaara niyantrit kiya gaya tha, parinaamasvaroop senate, anupaataheen dhang vaale dabalyooaaiefaelapi ke paas ja raha tha. ek vivaadaaspad faisale mein unhonne jamaika aur Trinidad mein vipaksh deeelapi samoohon se sampark kiya aur un dveepon mein se pratyek se ek deeelapi senator niyukt kiya hai. is prakaar senate mein 15 dabalyooaaiefaelapi sadasya aur 4 deeelapi sadasya shaamil hue.

baarabaados ke dabalyooaaiefaelapi neta sar graantale edams pradhaan mantri bane. pradhaanamantri ke roop mein edams ka chayan, sangh ki bhaavi samasyaaon ka sanket de raha tha. dabalyooaaiefaelapi ke sambhaavi neta jamaika ke pradhaanamantri naurman manale the aur uske baad taarkik roop se Trinidad end Tobago ke Premier dau॰ erik Williams the. lekin donon hi ne sangheeya chunaav naheen lada aur apne sambandhit dweep ke niyantran ko banaae rakhane ko pasand kiya. iska arth yeh tha ki do sabse mahatvapoorn praanton ke netaaon ne sangh ko vyavahaarya ke roop mein naheen dekha. isi tarah, deeelapi ke jamaikan sansthaapak alekjeindar bastaamante ne bhi sangh ke chunaav ke liye mana kar diya aur trinidaadiyn eshaford sinaanan ke liye party netrutv chhod diya. pramukh jamaikan netaaon ki sangheeya star par kisi bhi bhoomika mein gair maujoodagi ne mahaasangh ki ekta ko kamjor kar diya.

raajya parishad ke anya sadasyon mein shaamil the:

  • up-pradhaanamantri aur vyaapaar aur udyog mantri: maananeeya. dau॰ seejeedi la korbineyar
  • vitt mantri: maananeeya Robert leveleen bredashau (seint kits)
  • sanchaar aur kaarya mantri: maananeeya. dabalyoo.A. roj
  • krushi aur praakrutik sansaadhan mantri: maananeeya ef. bi. rikets
  • shram evam saamaajik maamalon ke mantri: maananeeya. shreemati filis byaam shaind alafre (dominika)
  • portfolio ke bina mantri: maananeeya. N.H. richrds, maananeeya. shri vi. bi. vaun, senator A. ji. aar. baayafeeld (jamaika), senator J. dabalyoo. leebard aur senator J. L Charles

sarkaari sevaaen

sampoorn mahaasangh ke liye saamaanya sevaaon ke tahat kai ikaaiyaan theen[2]:

  • sangheeya nauvahan seva
  • sangheeya Supreme court
  • vestaindeej university college
  • vest indeej mausam seva
  • vest India rejimeint

sangh ki salaahakaar sevaaon mein shaamil the:

  • krushi
  • naagrik uddayan
  • shiksha
  • matsya paalan
  • vaaniki
  • pashudhan
  • samudri seva
  • vipnan
  • chikitsaashaastr
  • daak seva
  • doorasanchaar

sangheeya samasyaaen

is navajaat sangh ki raajaneeti, sangheeya sarkaar aur praanteeya sarkaaron ke beech aur do sabse bade praanton (jamaika aur Trinidad end Tobago) aur chhote praanton ke beech hone vaale sangharshon dvaara dhvast ho gayi thi.

vestaindeej sangh ka sangheeya dhaancha asaamaanya roop se kamjor tha. udaaharan ke liye, iske praant ek ekal custom union mein shaamil naheen the. is prakaar, pratyek praant terif ke saath ek alag arthavyavastha ke roop mein kaarya kar raha tha, mukhyat: kyonki chhote praant bade dweep ki arthavyavasthaaon dvaara abhibhoot hone se darate the. iske alaava, sangh ke bheetar aandolan ki poori svatantrata ko laagoo naheen kiya gaya, kyonki bade praant chhote dveepon se bade paimaane par palaayan ke baare mein chintit the. is arth mein, kaha ja sakta hai ki maujooda Europeeya sangh ne vest Indian prayaas ki tulana mein ek adhik ekeekrut aarthik maahaul ko laagoo kiya hai.

aur na hi sangheeya sarkaar kaarya karne ke liye apne ghatak raajyon ko la pai. praarambhik sangheeya bajat kaafi alp tha, jisne sangheeya sarkaar ko apni vitteeya udaarata ko ek gaajar ke roop mein upayog karne se pratibandhit kiya. vah United Kingdom aur apne sadasya deshon ke anudaan par nirbhar tha. jamaika aur Trinidad end Tobago ke praanteeya bajat donon sangheeya bajat se bade the. iske chalte un raajyon se sangheeya sarkaar ke liye adhik se adhik vitt poshan pradaan ke anurodhon ko doharaaya gaya. in anurodhon ko najaraandaaj kiya gaya kyonki jamaika aur Trinidad end Tobago, donon ne milkar sangheeya raajasv mein pehle hi lagbhag 85 pratishat ka yogadaan kar diya tha, lagbhag baraabar bhaagon mein.

iske alaava, pradhaanamantri ka pad kaafi kamjor tha. pradhaanamantri ke saath doosare vestaminstar pranaaliyon ke vipreet, vest Indian sangh ke pradhaanamantri sansad ko bhang naheen kar sakte the.

Canada ke saath sambandh

vishesh roop se sangh ne Canada ke saath kareebi sambandhon ko banaae rakha tha, jiska ateet bhi is roop mein samaan tha ki vah kai poorv british upaniveshon ka ek mahaasangh tha. praarambhik varshon mein, kai kairibiyn netaaon ne sujhaav diya ki vest indeej sangh ko ek kainediyn praant banane ki sambhaavana ki jaanch karni chaahiye, haalaanki yeh ek kshanabhangur se adhik kabhi naheen tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

vaarta ke khandit hone ke baavajood, May 1961 mein Canada ne kshetr ke do sabse mahatvapoorn upahaar ko vestaindeej sangh ko prastut kiya: do vyaapaari jahaaj, jiska naam the Federal paam aur g Federal mepal tha. ye do jahaaj mahaasangh mein maheene mein do baar har dweep ka daura karte the aur dveepon ke beech ek mahatvapoorn samudri sampark ko pradaan karte the.

vightan

sangh ke samaapt hone ke liye kai kaaranon ko ginaaya gaya hai, unamein se kuchh ko oopar "samasya" anubhaag mein vistaar se bataaya gaya hai. ismein sthaaneeya jan-saadhaaran samarthan ki kami, pratispardhi dveepeeya raashtravaad, sangheeya sarkaari ki kamjori, sangheeya karaadhaan aur aandolan ki svatantrata par rok, sangheeya samvidhaan mein kami, iske astitv ke praarambh mein hi samvidhaan ke liye buniyaadi parivartan, prabhaavashaali netaaon ke beech raajaneetik jhagade, teen sabse prabhaavashaali netaaon ki sangheeya chunaav mein bhaag na lene ka faisala, do sabse bade ikaaiyon mein janasankhya aur sansaadhanon ki bhaari ekaagrata, ikaaiyon ke beech bhaugolik aur saanskrutik doori, saarvajanik prashaasan ki itihaas ki kami aur sv-raajya ki avadhi ka prabhaav jo ki kraaun colony pranaali se chali aa rahi thi.

haalaanki, sangh ke vightan ke liye tatkaal utprerak jamaikan asantosh tha. 1961 tak, raajya ke maamalon ko lekar jamaika mein asantosh ke kai kaaran paida ho gaye the:

  • sangh mein adhikaansh dveepon se jamaika kaafi door tha, pashchim mein kai sau meal ki doori tak faila tha.
  • seaton ko bantavaare ko lekar sangheeya sansad mein jamaika ka seaton ka hissa sampoorn janasankhya mein iske hisse se kam tha.
  • yeh maana jaata tha ki chhote dweep jamaika ke dhan ko choos rahe the.
  • jamaika mein kai log is baat ko lekar naaraaj the ki kingstan ko sangh ki rajdhani ke roop mein naheen chuna gaya.

jamaika ke asantusht hone ka sabse mahatvapoorn kaaran sangh ki aupaniveshik sthiti ka jaari rahana tha. jamaika, sangh mein iseeliye shaamil hua tha kyonki uske netaaon ka maanana tha ki vest indeej ko jaldi hi svatantrata de di jaaegi. sangh ke gathan ke lagbhag teen saal baad bhi aisa naheen hua tha, isi beech, chhote british upanivesh jaise saaipras aur siyra Leon ne svatantrata praapt kar li thi. is prakaar, kai jamaikans ka maanana tha ki dweep ko apne adhikaar se svatantrata ki talaash karni chaahiye aur aisa ho sakta hai.

saath hi sangh dvaara prastaavit rajdhani chaugaaraamaasa ke saath bhi samasyaaen thi, us samay vah sanyukt raajya ke haathon mein tha (dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan United Kingdom se ek nausena base ke roop mein patte par liya gaya tha). caribbean praant ke kai neta mahaasangh ki rajdhani ke roop mein chaugaaraamaas ko chaahate the. kshetreeya neta jaise, jamaika ke norman manale aur dau॰ erik Williams ne chaugaaraamaas ko sanyukt raajya se chhuda kar sangh ko saunpe jaane ki vakaalat ki. haalaanki America aur Britain asahamat the aur mahaasangh ke pradhaanamantri graantale edams ne chaugaaraamaas ko praapt karne se praanteeya netaaon ko inkaar kar diya tha. kai jamaaikans ko tab laga ki sangh unki vikaas prakriya aur svatantrata aandolan ko baadhit kar raha hai.

parinaam svaroop bastaamaante ke netrutv waali jamaika lebar party (vest indeej deeelapi ka sthaaneeya ghatak) ne sangh se raajaneetik alagaav lene par sitmbar 1961 mein ek janamat-sangrah karaane ke liye manale ko safalataapoorvak majaboor kiya. us samay ke praanteeya pradhaanamantri manale ke virodh ke baavajood, 54 pratishat vote ke saath ise paarit kar diya gaya. swayam manale ko April 1962 ke dweep chunaavon mein shikast mili aur bastaamaante, 6 August 1962 mein svatantr jamaika ke pehle pradhaanamantri bane.

jamaika ke jaane ke baad, puraane malabe se ek naya mahaasangh khada karne ka prayaas kiya gaya. iske liye Trinidad aur Tobago ke pradhaanamantri Williams par kaafi nirbharata thi jinhonne poorv mein kaha tha ki ve ek "majboot sangh" chaahate hain. enteeguaa ke pradhaanamantri wear bird ne javaab diya ki sangh mein unka praant Trinidad ke baraabar ka hissedaar hai, "ek chhote se Tobago" ki tarah nahi hai. unhonne sanket kiya ki ek majaboot mahaasangh sveekaarya tha basharte ek ekaatmak raajya banaane ka koi bhi prayaas naheen kiya gaya ho.

is nae sangh par vaarta September 1961 mein shuroo hui; haalaanki, unhonne sanket diya ki Trinidad ko 75 se 80 pratishat tak nae mahaasangh ka raajasv pradaan karna hoga. iske alaava, bhale hi Trinidad ab nae sangh ki janasankhya ka 60 pratishat ka pratinidhitv karta, vichaaraadheen prastaav ke tahat use sansad mein aadhi seaton se bhi kam diya jaana tha.

November tak, Williams ne sanket diya ki ab vah ek ekaatmak raajya banaane ke vichaar ke paksh mein hai. usamein asafal hone par unhonne Trinidad aur Tobago ko svatantrata lene ka sankalp liya. jiske tahat 4 December 1961 ko unhein ek trinidaadiyn neta ke roop punarnirvaachan dvaara seemit kiya gaya. baad mein usi December mein baarabaados ke pradhaanamantri errol bairo, Williams ke saath mile the, lekin sangh mein Trinidad ko rakhane ke liye use manaane mein vifal ho gaye.

14 January,1962 ko naishanal people's movement ne (Williams ke netrutv waali dabalyooaaiefaelapi ki Trinidad ghatak) sangh ke saath kisi bhi aage ki bhaageedaari ko khaarij karne ke prastaav ko paarit kiya. khud Williams ne kaha ki "das mein se ek ki sankhya nikaal dein to keval shoonya hi rah jaata hai" doosare shabdon mein, jamaika ke bina, sangh sambhav naheen tha. Trinidad aur Tobago ko 31 August 1962 ko svatantrata mili.

Trinidad aur jamaika ke bina, shesh "nanhe aath" ne vest indeej sangh ke kuchh svaroop ko banaae rakhane ka prayaas kiya, jo is baar baarabaados par keindrit tha. haalaanki, ye vaartaaen antat: nirrthak saabit hui. apne do sabse bade raajyon ke bina, sangh vitteeya divaaliyepan se barbaad ho gaya tha. baarabaados is samay vitteeya bojh ko apne kandhe par uthaane se inkaar kar diya aur enteeguaa aur Grenada kramash: jamaika aur Trinidad ke saath vilay karne ke vichaar ke saath dilchaspi lena shuroo kiya.

United Kingdom ki sansad ke vest indeej adhiniyam 1962 ke saath vestaindeej sangh kaanooni taur par bhang hua. shesh "nyoon aath" praant ek baar fir alag pradesh ban gaye jise seedhe London se sanchaalit kiya gaya, inmein se adhikaansh baad mein svatantr hue, jo ki is prakaar the:

mauntseraat, United Kingdom ka ek videshi kshetr bana hua hai. kemain dweep aur turk end koikos dweep ko jamaika ke 1962 mein svatantrata ke baad isse alag kar diya gaya tha; 1980 mein seint kits aur nevis se enguila ko alag kiya gaya. ye teenon Britain ke pradesh bhi bane hue hain.

viraasat

is mahaasangh ki mudra vestaindeej dollar thi (haalaanki jamaika ne pound ke istemaal ko jaari rakha), baad mein jiska sthaan East kairibiyn dollar, baarbediyn dollar aur Tobago Trinidad aur dollar ne liya. uttaraadhikaari sangathanon mein shaamil hain vestaindeej associated states aur kaireekaum (CARICOM).

kuchh log vest indeej cricket team ko sangh ki ek viraasat ke roop mein dekhte hain, haalaanki vaastav mein iska gathan sangh ke nirmaan se 30 saal pehle hua tha.

aadhikaarik taur par sangh se pehle nirmit, ek anya sthaayi kshetreeya nirmaan hai vestaindeej vishvavidyaalaya. sangh ke dauraan, is vishvavidyaalaya ne mukhya parisar mein jamaika se pare kshetreeya vistaar karne ki neeti apnaai thi. do anya parisaron ko sthaapit kiya gaya tha: ek Trinidad end Tobago mein, jise 1960 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha aur doosra baarabaados mein, jise 1963 mein sangh ke bhang ho jaane ke sheegra baad sthaapit kiya gaya tha.

ticket

sangh ke astitv ke dauraan, pratyek sadasya ne pehle ki tarah apne swayam ke daak ticket ko jaari rakha; lekin 22 April 1958 ko pratyek sadasya (kemain dweep samooh ko chhodkar) ke liye teen smaarak tikton ke ek set ko jaari kiya gaya. in sabhi tikton mein ek aam dijaain thi jismein kairibiyn ka naksha aur raani Elizabeth ka chitran tha aur uske sheersh par "the vest indeej/ federation 1958 " likha hota tha aur neeche sadasya ka naam likha hota tha. ye sabhi ticket donon mint aur prayukt sthiti mein lagbhag aam the.

sangh ke poorv prayaas

vest indeej sangh, ek british kairibiyn sangh ka pehla prayaas naheen tha (aur na hi yeh antim tha). mahaasanghon aur unionon par pichhle prayaas ka itihaas, 1958 ke sangh ki vifalta ki aanshik roop se vyaakhya karta hai.

praarambhik sangheeya prayaas kabhi bhi itne aage naheen gaye ki jismein sampoorn british vest indeej (BWI) shaamil hua ho, lekin unka kaarya-kshetr adhikaanshat: kshetreeya tha. aitihaasik kshetreeya samoohon mein british leevaard aailainds, british vindavaard aailainds aur aas-paas ke upaniveshon ke saath jamaika shaamil tha. british vest indeej ke itihaas ko dekhein.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • caribbean ka itihaas
  • Canada-caribbean sambandh
  • kaireekaum
  • vest indeej mein cricket

paad-tippani

sandarbh

  • karamaaikal, dau॰ trevar A. 2001. passport too the hurt: riflekshans on Canada kairibiyn rileshans . Ian reindal prakaashak, kingsatan 6, jamaika. ISBN 976-637-028-1 the books forward paisej, sinopsis
  • [|Stewart, Alice R.] (1950) "Canadian—aWest Indian Union, 1884–1885" Canadian Historical Review Number 4, (University of Toronto Press) 31,: Pgs. 369–389 doi:10.3138/CHR-031-04-02 ISSN (Print) 1710-1093 (Online) 0008-3755 (Print) 1710-1093 (Online) http://utpjournals.metapress.com/content/c52481673131810h/fulltext.pdf
  • frejar, kairi. 1994. embeeveleint anti-koloniyelijm: the United states end the jenesis of vest Indian inadipenadeins, 1940-1964 . greenavood press
  • ghani, Dr haamid 1996. kamal : A lifetime of politiks reeleejiyn end kalchar malteemeediya utpaadan kendra, vestaindeej vishvavidyaalaya.
  • gonjaalvis raalf E. 1994 histari end future: A kairibiyn parsapektiv kvik print, kingsataaun, seint Vincent.
  • hoyes, ef.A. 1963. the raaij of vest Indian demokresi: the life end chaaims op sar edams graantale edvoket press.
  • mahaaveer, Dr vinstan 1978 in end out of politiks inaprint kairibiyn.
  • mordakai, John, sar. 1968. federation of the vest indeej, ivaanaston naurthavestarn vishvavidyaalaya press
  • vikhm, pi.dablyoo. 1997 "fektars in inteegresan end disinteegresan of the kairibiyn" isu in the gavarnameint N politiks of the vest vindeej ke hisse ke roop mein prakaashit hui, jeji laaguera dvaara sanpaadit, malteemeediya utpaadan kendra vestaindeej vishvavidyaalaya.
  • Williams, erik. 1964. british historiyans end the vest indeej. peeenaem prakaashan company, port of Spain.

baahya link