velentaain diwas

1909 ka ek greeting card

velentaain diwas (angreji: Valentine's Day) 14 February ko har saal manaaya jaata hai. Bhaarat mein 1992 ke aaspaas vailentaain de ka prachalan praarambh hua. vishv baajaar ki pratisparddha, aarthik udaareekaran aur paashchaatya prabhaav ke kaaran bhaarateeya samaaj ke yuva varg ne bhi ise aatmasaat kar liya. aur to aur saarvajanik sthaanon par prem-pradarshan ki paarasparik pratisparddha shuroo ho gayi.

Bhaarat mein jahaaain veeron ke balidaan-diwas manaaye jaate the vahaaain vailentaain diwas manaaye jaane lage.

aitihaasik tathya

velentaain de, rom ke ek pujaari ke naam par manaaya jaata hai, jo 269 isavi mein shaheed ho gaya tha aur jise 14 fravari 269 ko fleminiya mein dafnaaya gaya tha.[1] uske avashesh rom ke seint freksd church aur dabalin (aayaralaind) ke street kaamilait church mein rakhe hue hain.[2]

ek anya vishp tarni ko bhi prem ka velentaain batalaaya jaata hai jo 197 E. mein samraat oroliyn ke utpeedn se shaheed ho gaye the. kaha jaata hai ki unka shav bhi fleminiya mein gada hai, lekin rom ke velentaain ki samaadhi se alag sthaan par use dafnaaya gaya tha.[3]

Catholic vishvakosh bhi ek teesare sant velentaain ka naam batalaata hai jiske naam ka ullekh abhi haal mein hi prakaashit shaheedanaama mein 14 fravari ko hua hai. vah Africa mein apne ek saathi ke saath shaheed ho gaya tha. lekin isse adhik aur kuchh uske baare mein gyaat naheen hai.[4]

roman Catholic kailendar se 14 fravari ki list mein 1969 mein sanshodhan karke sant ka naam nikaal diya gaya. iske liye kaaran yeh bataaya gaya ki uske naam ke alaava aur kuchh bhi naheen pata hai. sivaaya iske ki vah fleminiya par 14 fravari ko dafnaaya gaya tha. keval kuchh paramparaavaadi Catholic isaai us jagah par sant ke avashesh hone ka daava kar rahe the.[5]

Bhaarat mein vailentaain de

Bhaarat mein, praacheen parampara ki drushti se kaamadev ko kaam ka devata maana gaya hai. khajuraaho ki moortiyon mein kaam-kriya ke bhitti chitr bhi darshaaye gaye hain. kaamasootr naam ka granth bhi sanskrut mein upalabdh hai jise aachaarya vaatsyaayan ne likha tha. ismein kaam-kala ka adbhut varnan milta hai.[6] madhya yug ke aaspaas kaamadev ki pooja samaapt ho gayi. raamacharitmaanas mein rati ke pati kaamadev ko Shiv dvaara bhasm kiye jaane ka prasang bhi milta hai. 1990 ke dashak tak svatantr Bhaarat mein kaam ki pooja ko koi mahatva naheen diya jaata tha.[6]

1992 ke aaspaas jab rangeen TV chainelon ka prachaar aur prasaar hua aur vishesh roop se emateevi jaise poornat: vyaavasaayik TV chainel baajaar mein aaye tabhi se vailentaain de kaards ka prachalan praarambh hua.[6] vishv baajaar ki pratisparddha aur aarthik udaareekaran ne is aag mein ghi ka kaam kiya. is prakaar jis parampara ko bhaarateeya samaaj madhya yug ke baad tyaag chuka tha use yuva varg ne paashchaatya prabhaav ke kaaran aatmasaat kar liya. saarvajanik sthaanon par prem-pradarshan ki ek pratisparddha si praarambh ho gayi.[6]

Aasaaram Bapu ne vailentaain de ko maatru-pitru-poojan-diwas ke roop mein manaaye jaane ke liye yuvakon ko protsaahit kiya jisse prabhaavit hokar chhatteesagadh jaise raajya ke pablik schoolon mein is roj saarvajanik avakaash tak ki ghoshana kar di gayi.[7] Shiv sena aur sangh parivaar ke kai sangathanon ne ise bhaarateeya sanskruti par pashchimi apasanskruti ka kuprabhaav batalaate hue kai mahaanagaron mein iske virodh mein vaataavaran bhi banaaya.[8]

is sabke baavajood Bhaarat mein iski lokapriyta ke peechhe aur kaun-kaun se kaaran ho sakte hain yeh bhaarateeya buddhijeeviyon ki chinta ka vishay bana hua hai.[9]

bhaarateeya buddhijeevi vailentaain de ki lokapriyta ke liye paashchaatya saamraajyavaadi shaktiyon ko jimmedaar thaharaate hain. unka maanana hai ki iske peechhe un shaktiyon ki mansha yeh hai ki kaise ve vailentaain de ke sahaare baajaar mein apna maal khapa sakein. haalaanki aur bhi kai maadhyam isko hava dene mein jute hue hain.[10]

sandarbh

  1. Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, Revised ed., Allied Publishers, 2005 ISBN 9780550142108
  2. Ansgar, 1986, Chaucer and the Cult of Saint valentine, pp. 46-58
  3. "Holy Days". Church of England (Anglican Communion). 2012. http://www.churchofengland.org/prayer-worship/worship/texts/the-calendar/holydays.aspx. abhigman tithi: 27 October 2012. "February 14 Valentine, Martyr at Rome, c.269"
  4. Pfatteicher, Philip H. (1 August 2008). New Book of Festivals and Commemorations: A Proposed Common Calendar of Saints. Fortress Press. pa॰ 86. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780800621285. http://books.google.com/books?id=W82FOCZ4hmwC&pg=PA86. abhigman tithi: 27 October 2012. "IO February 14 The Lutheran Service Book, with its penchant for the old Roman calendar, commemorates Valentine on this date."
  5. Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Fashioning of a Modern Holiday: St. Valentine's Day, 1840–1870" Winterthur Portfolio 28.4 (Winter 1993), pp. 209–245.
  6. a aa i E "India's fascination with Valentine's Day. The BBC's Vijay Rana explains how Valentine's Day has replaced more traditional celebrations of love in India". BBC. 14 fravari 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1820440.stm sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "rana" defined multiple times with different content
  7. Now, Asaram Bapu slams 'moral degradation' of India's youth, ExpressIndia, 16 January 2013
  8. Anil Mathew Varughese (2003). "Globalization versus cultural authenticity? Valentine's Day and Hindu values". In Richard Sandbrook. Civilizing globalization: a survival guide. SUNY series in radical social and political theory (illustrated san॰). SUNY Press. pa॰ 53. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-7914-5667-5. http://books.google.es/books?id=XSZD-bpo3S8C
  9. Hindu and Muslim anger at Valentine's. BBC. 2003-02-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2749667.stm
  10. Sharma, Satya (1996). "The cultural costs of a globalized economy for India". Dialectical Anthropology 21 (3–4): 299–316. doi:10.1007/BF00245771.