veena

veena Bhaarat ke lokapriya vaadyayantr mein se ek hai jiska prayog praaya: shaastreeya sangeet mein kiya jaata hai.

veena sur dhvanion ke liye bhaarateeya sangeet mein prayukt sabse praacheen vaadyayantr hai. samay ke saath iske kai prakaar viksit hue hain (rudraveena, vichitraveena ityaadi). kintu iska praacheenatam roop ek-tantri veena hai| kuchh log kehte hain madhyakaal mein janaab ameer khusaro dahalavi ne sitaar ki rachana veena aur bainjo (jo islaami sabhyataaon mein lokapriya tha) ko milaakar kiya, kuchh ise gitaar ka bhi roop bataate hain. iske itihaas ke baare mein anek mat hain kintu apni pustak bhaarateeya sangeet vaadya mein prasiddh vichitr veena vaadak Dr laalamani mishr ne ise praacheen tritantri veena ka viksit roop siddh kiya. sitaar poorn bhaarateeya vaadya hai kyonki ismein bhaarateeya vaadyoain ki teenon visheshataaen hain. veena vastut: tantri vaadyon ka sainrachanaatmak naam hai. tantri ya taaron ke alaava ismein ghudch, tarab ke taar tatha saarikaaeain hoti hain.


saamaanya taur par ismein chaar taar hote hain aur taaron ki lanbaai mein kisi prakaar ka vibhaajan (fret) naheen hota (jabki sitaar mein vibhaajan kiya jaata hai). is kaaran veena praacheen sangeet ke liye jyaada upayukt hai. veena mein taaron ki kanpan ek golaakaar ghade se teevratar hoti hai tatha kai aavrutti ("frequency") ki dhvaniyon ke milne se "harmonic" dhvani ka janan hota hai. suravaadya hone ke liye aisi dhvaniyaaain aavashyak hain. vichitr veena se prabhaavit ho kai kalaakaar iske aakaar ko chhota karne ka prayaas kar chuke hain kintu usase dhvani ka gaambheerya bhi parivrtit ho jaata hai. gitaar ko kuchh parivrtanon ke saath bhaarateeya sangeet hetu upayukt bana vishvamohan bhatt use mohan veena ke naam se prachalit kar chuke hain yadyapi yeh chaukor sapaat brij ke abhaav mein veena ki avadhaarana poori naheen karta. yeh kami ranjan veena poori karti hai.

saanskrutik paripekshya mein veena

ek pauraanik katha ke anusaar veena ka srujan swayam Bhagwan Shiv ne paarvati devi ke roop ko samarpit karte hue kiya tha. kai baar naareetv ke saundarya ke prasang mein bhi veena ka ullekh hota hai. taajjub naheen ki veena kanyaaon ke naam ke liye bada lokapriya naam raha hai. vaidik saahitya mein veena ka ullekh baaranbaar sangeet ke sandarbh mein hota hai. madhyakaal tak bhi vibhinn kalaatmak krutiyon mein veena ko shaastreeya sangeet se joda jaata raha. uttar Bhaarat mein veena ka sthaan praay: sitaar ne liya kintu dakshin Bhaarat mein veena aaj tak lokapriya maana ja sakta hai.

hinduon mein gyaan va praay: sangeet ki devi sarasvati ko takareeban hamesha hi veena ke saath dikhaaya jaata hai. sarasvati devi ki prasiddh vandana mein unhein veenaavaradandamanditkara se sambodhit kiya jaata hai.