vedhashaala

ailps ki pahaadiyo par sthit sfinks vedhashaala

aisi ek ya ekaadhik belanaakaar sanrachanaaon ko aadhunik vedhashaala (Observatory) kehte hain jinke oopari sir par ghoomane wala ardhagol gunbad sthit hota hai. in sanrachanaaon mein aavashyakataanusaar apavartak ya paraavartak dooradarshak rahata hai. dooradarshak vastut: vedhashaala ki aaainkh hota hai. khagoleeya pindon ka gyaan praapt karne ke liye aaainkade ekatrit karke unka adhyayan aur vishleshan karne mein inka upayog hota hai. kai vedhashaalaaeain ritu ki poorv soochanaaeain bhi deti hain. kuchh vedhashaalaaon mein bhookanpavijnyaaan aur paarthiv chunbakatv ke sambandh mein bhi kaarya hota hai.

anukram

itihaas

anaadi kaal se hi manushya soorya aur chandrama ke udaya aur aakaash mein unki tatha taaron ki aabhaasi raatrigti aadi aakaasheeya ghatnaaon par aashcharya karta raha hai. in gatiyon se maanav ne dheere-dheere vibhinn rituon ka gyaan praapt kiya. chandrama ki kalaaon, soorya ki sthiti mein kramik vichlan, vishisht taaron ke udaya, soorya ki ooainchaai aur uske udit tatha ast hone ke sthaan mein parivartan ko bhi prekshit kiya gaya. in prekshanon ke aadhaar par panchaang taiyaar kiye gaye. nireekshanon ke aadhaar par grahanon ki aavadhikta gyaat ki gayi. udaaharan ke liye kaaladiyn (Chaldeans) logon ne 700 E.poo. hi chaandrachakr (saros cycle) ka adhyayan kiya tha.

ye nireekshan keval aaainkhon se hi naheen kiye jaate the. shanku (gnomon), ya aadim dhoop ghadi, ko ham aadim vedhashaala ka aadya upakaran kah sakte hain. misravaasiyon ka saahul, jise merakhet (Merkhet) kehte the, doosra aadya jyotish upakaran tha. praacheen jyotish upakaranon mein misri klaaipseedra (Egyptian clypsedra), ghateeyantr (hour clock), retaghadi aadi pramukh hain. nauktaranal (Nocturnals) aur aistroleb (Astrolabe, ek ya adhik chal bhaagonvaali vrutteeya chakati) vedhayantron ki sahaayata se khagoleeya pindon ki sthiti gyaat ki jaati thi. in upakaranon ka upayog E.poo. teesari shati mein hota tha.

anek praacheen puraataatvik smaarakon ka khogoleeya mahatva hai. lagbhag 5,000 varsh poorv nirmit misr ke piraamid nishchit taaron ke nirdesh mein anusthaapit hain. England mein stonaheinj mein 1800 E.poo. nirmit prastarastanbh soorya ki disha ke nirdesh mein anusthaapit hai. cheeni samraat hong-ti (Hoang-Ti) ne 4,500 varsh poorv khagoleeya pindon ki gati ke adhyayanaarth vedhashaala ka nirmaan karaaya tha. greek jyotibind, hipaarkas (Hipparchus), ne 150 E.poo. anshaankit vishaal vrutton ke prayog se aakaasheeya pindon ki sthiti ke adhyayan ke liye rodas (Rhodes) dweep par aarmili (Armillae), plinth (Plinth), daayoptar (Diopter) aadi anek saadhan nirmit kiye.

naveen shati mein Baghdad mein khaleefa-al-maamooain aur 13 veen shati mein Iran ke maraaga mein changej khaaain ke pautr halaagoo khaaain ne vishaal vedhashaalaaon ka nirmaan karaaya. samarakand ke aloog veg ne 1420 E. ke lagbhag vishaal deevaar, kvaadraant, waali vedhashaala banvaai. Germany mein kaisel (Kassel) mein 1561 E. mein ghoornamaan chhat aur samayaankan ghadi yukt vedhashaala pehli baar sthaapit hui. kuchh samay baad ki vedhashaalaaon mein Denmark ke naresh, fredarik dviteeya, ke sanrakshan mein sthaapit kopenahegen se lagbhag 14 meal door hveen (Hveen) dweep par taaiko-braahe (Tycho Brahe) ki vedhashaala ullekhaneeya hai iske nirmaan ka aarambh 1576 E. mein hua aur iska naam uraaneeborg (aakaash durg) rakha gaya. taaiko aur uske shishyon ne 21 varshon tak khagoleeya pindon ke nirdeshaank (unnataansh, digansh, vishuvadansh aur kraanti) sambandhi vyaapak prayog kiye. aakaash durg mein seint jarnabaurg (St. Jernesborg, taara durg), naamak doosari sanrachana jodi gayi. in vedhashaalaaon mein dooradarshi naheen the, kintu vishuvateeya aaropan (equatorial mounting) ka mahatva samjha ja raha tha. upakaran dhaatu aur lakdi ke hote the. 1609 E. mein gaileeliyo ne aadhunik jyotish ke maulik upakaran, dooradarshak, ka aavishkaar kiya. laaiden mein 1632 E. mein prakaasheeya upakaranon se yukt sarvapratham vedhashaala bani. 1667-1671 E. mein pairis mein naishanal objrvetari bani aur 1675 E. mein greenich mein royal aabjravetari sthaapit hui, jiska pratham raajajyotirvid flaimasteed (Flamsteed) tha. heveeliys (Hevilius) naamak jyotirvid ne 1614 E. mein ek niji vedhashaala banvaai. heveeliys ne bhinn tarangadairdhya ki kirnon ko ek samatal mein fokas karne ke liye 100 foot fokas doori ke leins se yukt shaktishaali dooradarshak banavaaya.

aadhunik vedhashaalaaon ke sambandh mein kuchh kehne ke poorv Jaipur ke mahaaraaj jayasinh dviteeya dvaara nirmit vedhashaalaaon ka ullekh aavashyak hai. ye vedhashaalaaeain Delhi, Jaipur, Varanasi aur Mathura mein hain. Delhi ki vedhashaala 1710 E. mein bani aur iske paathyaankon ki jaaainch ke liye baad mein doosare sthaanon par vedhashaalaaon ka nirmaan hua. in veshaalaaon mein unnataansh, digansh, vishuvadansh, kraanti, ghati-kon, aadi maapane ke jyotish upakaran patthar, choone aadi se bane hain. Delhi ki vedhashaala ke upakaran samarthayantr, raamayantr, jayaprakaashayantr aur mishrayantr hain. niyat yantrachakr se, jo mishrayantr ka ek bhaag hai, chaaaind ka samay nikaala ja sakta hai. aisi chaar aur vedhashaalaaeain Japan ke nautke (Notke), prashaant ke saritchen (Saritchen), Zurich aur greenich mein hain.

aadhunik vedhashaalaaon ke sansthaapan aur vikaas prakaasheeya kaaainch udyog ki pragati ke saath-saath chalte hain. 17veen shati ke dooradarshak varnavipthan aadi anek kaaranon se bhi santoshaprad naheen the. kraaun or flint kaaainch ke sanyojan se avarnak abhidrushyak (objective) banane par bade dvaarak aur kam focus doori ke leins banane lage. 1825 E. mein roos mein sthaapit daurapait (Dorpat) vedhashaala mein dooradarshak ka abhidrushyak fraunahofar dvaara ghisaahuaa tatha inch vyaas ka tha. 1839 E. mein sthaapit roos ki pulakova raajya vedhashaala, yathaarth ukaranon se susajjit, un dinon ki ek sarvashreshth vedhashaala, yathaarth ukaranon se susajjit, un dinon ki ek sarvashreshth vedhashaala thi, jiske apavartak dooradarshak ka abhidrushyak 15 inch se adhik vyaas ka tha. is vedhashaala ke pehle nideshak vilhels shtroove (Wilhelm Struve) the, jo isi naam ke anek jyotirvidon ke vansh ke pradhaan purush hain. yeh vedhashaala dviteeya vishvayuddh mein leningraad ke ghere mein nasht ho gayi aur roos ki vigyaan academy ki keindreeya vedhashaala ke roop mein 1954 E. mein nae sire se bankar taiyaar hui.

abhidrushyak ke dvaarak ko badhaane ki cheshta bahut dinon se chal rahi thi. 1897 E. mein ailavaan Clark (Alvan Clark) ne amareeka ki yarks vedhashaala ke liye sabse bada abhidrushyak leins 40 inch vyaas ka banaaya. is dooradarshak mein prakaash ekatr karne ki shakti maanav netron se 14,000 guni thi. isse bade apavartak dooradarshak ke kabhi banane ki sambhaavana naheen prateet hota hai. yathaarth ghisaai aur paalish ki samunnat takaneeki pravidhiyon ke hote hue bhi abhidrushyak ka varnavipthan ke kaaran ek nishchit seema tak rakha ja sakta hai. vyaas ki vruddhi se leins ki motaai badhti hai. isse leins ki prakaash ekatr karne ki shakti ki aanupaatik vruddhi par vipreet prabhaav padta hai. inheen dinon leins tantr ke sthaan par paraavarti darpan se dooradarshak banaane ki cheshta ho rahi thi. nyootan ne 1688 E. mein is prakaar ka pehla dooradarshak banaaya tha. William harshel ki prasiddh vedhashaala mein 40 foot lamba aur 48 inch dvaarak ka paraavartak tha. Ross (Rosse) ke arl viliya paarsans ne 1845 E. mein 72 inch vyaas aur 52 foot focus doori ke darpan se paraavartak banaaya. ye paraavartak darpan spekyulam dhaatu (Speculum metal) ke bane the. rajat lep ke maheen film yukt kaaainch ke paravalayik darpan ke prayog ka praarambh 20veen shati mein hua. baad mein aise lep ke sthaan par uchch nirvat mein sat ka ailumineekaran hone laga. is takaneek ke vikaas ke falasvaroop amareeka ke kailifaurniya raajya mein, mount Wilson vedhashaala mein 1917 E. mein lagaae gaye, 100 inch paraavartak ke nirmaan mein safalta mili. is dooradarshak ka naam hukar dooradarshak hai, jo prakaash ekatr karne mein manushya ki aaainkhon se 90,000 guna sashakt kailifaurniya ke mount pailomaar vedhashaala mein lagaae gaye 200 inch vyaasavaale hel paraavartak (Hale reflector) ka 20 varshon ke prayaas ke baad 1948 E. mein nirmaan hua. 62,50,000 dollar ki laagat se nirmit is dooradarshak ka saaj sahit bhaar 500 tan hai aur keval darpan ka bhaar tan hai. is dooradarshak mein prakaash ekatr karne ki shakti maanav netron se 3,60,000 guna adhik hai aur isse antariksh mein 10 arab prakaashavarsh ki doori tak dekha ja sakta hai. dooradarshak ke darpan ka pradhaan focus 54 foot tatha kendra mein sthit 40 inch vyaas ke chhidr ke kaaran kaiseegreneeya focus (Cassegrain focus) 263 foot aur koode focus (coude' focus) 492 foot hai.

in paraavartakon mein prakaash aksh par pratibinb teekshn banta hai, kintu kuchh door ke biduon par vah dhuaindhala hota hai, jisse upayojya kshetr kam ho jaata hai aur ghatkar kabhi-kabhi aadha ansh ka rah jaata hai. is gambhir baadha ka niraakaran shmit (Schmidt) dvaara 1930 E. mein hua, jab unhonne goleeya avatal darpan ke saath-saath ek jatil kism ke sanshodhanapatt ka vyavahaar kiya. aise upakaran se 10 ansh tak ke aakaasheeya kshetr ka fotograaf liya ja sakta hai. aisa shmit dooradarshak mount pailomaar mein hai, jiska darpan 72 inch vyaas ka aur sanshodhanapatt 48 inch dvaarak ka hai. 30 karod prakaash varsh ki doori tak ke taaron ko ankit karne mein sashakt is dooradarshi se saat varshon mein pailomaar se dikhaai padnevaale aakaash ke bhaag ka maanachitr banaaya ja chuka hai.

kuchh vishisht vedhashaalaaon mein prakaasheeya dooradarshak roopi jyotishnetron se khagoleeya pindon ki prakaashatarangon ke adhyayan ke sthaan par radio dooradarshak se unki radio tarangon ka ankan aur adhyayan kiya jaata hai. radio dooradarshak par dhool, dhundh, varsha, megh, din aur raat ka prabhaav naheen padta, kintu radio tarang preshit na karanevaale khagoleeya pindon ke sambandh mein inse koi jaankaari naheen praapt ho sakti. England mein Manchester ke nikat jaudrel tat par poornat: vahaneeya (steerable), vishaal radio dooradarshak hai, jiska radio tarang ekatr karne ka 250 foot vyaas ka kund paraavartak (bowlreflector) hai. yeh radio tarangon ko focus par sthit aintaina par ekatr karta hai. isse bada aur haal hi ka bana radio dooradarshak pashchimi varjeeniya (sanyukt raajya, amareeka) mein hai, jiska kund 600 foot vyaas ka hai. radio dooradarshak ka ek vishisht upayog krutrim upagrahon se sanket praapt karke, unke prakshepavakr ki leek pakadna hai. ghoornamaan gunbadavaali paramparaagat vedhashaalaaon ke vipreet, ye vishaal dooradarshak khule maidaan mein bithaae jaate hain tatha inka niyantran doorasth kaksh se hota hai.

vividh uddeshya

samast sansaar mein faili jyotish vedhashaalaaon ke uddeshya aur kaarya bahuvidh hai. sanyukt raajya amareeka, ki nausenik vedhashaala aur greenich vedhaashaala aadi, raashtreeya vedhashaalaaon mein soorya, chandr, grah, taara aadi ke nirdeshaankon ka yathaarth nirdhaaran, panchaang nirmaan, maanak samay sanketon ka paareshan, unnataansh nirdhaaran aadi kaarya hote hain. kuchh vedhashaalaaeain upagoohan (occultations), grahan, saur prajaavaalaaon (solar flares), lanbanamaapan aadi ke adhyayan ka kaarya sahakaari aadhaar par karti hain. vedhashaalaaon mein khagol yaantriki aadi vishyon par maulik anusandhaan kaarya bhi hota hai, jismein yagmak tantr, taaron ka varnakrameeya vargeekaran, khagoleeya pindon ka traijya veg, photo vaidyutik fotomiti, atirikt aakaashagangeeya neehaarikaaeain, taaron ki aantarik rachana aadi ka adhyayan samaavisht hai.

vedhashaalaaeain aise sthaanon par sthaapit ki jaati hain, jahaaain ka mausam bahut achha hota hai aur megh, dhuaaain, dhool se rahit dinon ki sankhya adhik se adhik hoti hai. sambhav hone par pahaad ki choti ya shail aadhaar par vedhashaala ka. nirmaan hota hai. vedhashaala se sambaddh fotograafi kaksh aur varnakrameeya prayogashaala ka hona aavashyak hai. kuchh vedhashaalaaeain jyotirvijnyaaan ki nai khojon ka samaachaar prasaarit karti hain. saur varnakram, kausmik vikirn aadi ke adhyayan ke liye antariksh vedhashaala sthaapit karne ke anek prayatn chal rahe hain.

bhaarateeya khagoleeya vedhashaala, haanale (Bhaarat)

bhaarateeya vedhashaalaaeain

Bhaarat ki vedhashaalaaon mein dakshin Bhaarat mein kodaaikainaal ki khagol-bhautikeeya vedhashaala vikhyaat hai. vigat lagbhag assi varshon se adhik ke soorya ke dainik abhilekh vahaaain praapya hain. vahaaain ki vedhashaala un vedhashaala shrrukhanlaaon mein se ek hai, jahaaain shuddh aavrutti par radio paareshan ke liye saur prakshubdhata ka adhyayan hota hai. uttaraakhand raajya ki naineetaal sthit vedhashaala mein charakraanti taaron ka adhyayan hota hai. Hyderabad ki nijaamiya vedhashaala mein taaron ke traijya veg sambandhi maapan kiye jaate hain. Bhaarat sarvekshan se sambandhit teen anya vedhashaalaaon mein akshaansh aur bhogaansh ka nirdhaaran hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain