vedhan (pruthvi)

dharati vedhak yantr

kisi bhi vastu ya jagah par yantro dvaara chhed karne ki kriya ko vedhan (Boring) kehte hain. kaarkhaanon ki yantrashaala (machine shop) mein yantr ke kalapurjon ke nirmaan ke liye loha, peetal aadi mein chhed karne ki kabhi kabhi aavashyakta padti hai. iske liye vedhan apnaaya jaata hai. vedhan ka upayog bhoovijnyaaaniyon dvaara adhik hota hai. ve log is kriya ka prayog bhoo vaigyaanik evam anya vaigyaanik khojon ke liye karte hain. kisi nai jagah mein jameen ke neeche khanij padaarth ke bhandaar ka pata vedhan dvaara chal sakta hai. civil injeeniyron ko bhi vedhan ka prog karna padta hai. kisi vishaal makaan ko banaane ke pehle yeh jaanana aavashyak ho jaata hai ki jis jameen par makaan banaana hai usaki satah ke neeche kitni doori par patthar ka star hai. yahi naheen, oopari jameen ki satah aur neeche patthar ke star ke beech ki mitti ka vishleshan karna bhi aavashyak ho jaata hai. at: yeh dekha jaata hai ki vedhan yaantrik engineer, civil engineer, khaniinjeeniyr ev bhoovijnyaaaniyon ke liye upayogi hi naheen, aavashyak bhi hai.

koyala, loha aadi ki khaanon mein bhi, jinse khanij padaarth nikaala ja raha ho, vedhan upayogi hai, kyonki yeh jaanana aavashya hota hai ki jis jagah se khanij nikal rahe hain, uske aage bhi khanij ka bhandaar hai, ya naheen. khaanon mein kabhi-kabhi sankataprad sthaan bhi saamane aa jaata hai, jisse un khaanon mein kaarya karanevaale shramikon ki mrutyu tak ho sakti hai. is tarah ke sthaanon ka pata vedhan dvaara pehle hi kar liya jaata hai, taaki du:khad ghatanaaeain na ghatein.

petrolium aadi khanij telon ke bhandaar ka pata vedhan dvaara kiya jaata hai evam isi kriya ki sahaayata se khanij tel Khan se baahar nikaala ja sakta hai. iske baad parishkaran ityaadi ke liye vah doosari jagah bhed diya jaata hai. kabhi kabhi jameen ki satah ke neeche seindha namak milta hai. isko nikaalne ke liye vedhan dvaara chhed bana liya jaata hai. un chhedon ke dvaara oopar se paani daala jaata hai. uske baad lavanajal (brine) ko panp dvaara oopar nikaala jaata hai.

anukram

vedhan ke saadhan

chattaanon mein vedhan karne ke liye bahut se saadhan apanaae jaate hain, jinmein ye mukhya hain :

heera dril (Diamond Drill)

sabhi tareekon mein yeh sarvotkrusht hai. iski sahaayata se kisi bhi kon par chhed kiya ja sakta hai. praaya: tirchhe chhedon ke liye iska upayog kiya jaata hai, kyonki anya tareekon se sirf seedha chhed hi ho sakta hai. iske dvaara valayaakaar (annular) chhed banta hai, jiske krod (core) se chhed ki gayi jameen ke neeche ki saari banaavatein maaloom ho jaati hain. isse pratyek star (stratum) ki motaai, satah se usaki doori evam aur anya baatein jaani ja sakti hain. is upakaran mein peinch dvaara judi hui bahut si khokhali chhadon ki ek pankti si hoti hai. iske nichle hisse mein valayaakaar mulaayam ispaat ka ek barama (bit) laga rahata hai, jismein aakaar ke anusaar aath ya adhik, 1 se 3 kairat (carat) ke, heere saavadhaani se lagaae jaate hain. ye heere kuchh baahar nikle rate hain. kaarya karte samay beech beech mein barame ki jaaainch kar li jaati hai, taaki jaise hi heera kuchh ghis jaae, use poorvavat kar diya jaae. jameen ki satah par ek chhote engine ki sahaayata se chhadon ko jor se ghumaaya jaata hai. jyon-jyon chhed gahra hota jaata hai, tyon-tyon chhadein neeche chalti jaati hain. engine ki gati satah ke neechevaali chattaan aur barame ke vyaas par nirbhar karti hai. vedhan ke samay ek panp ki sahaayata se jal in khokhali chhadon mein daala jaata hai, jo chhed ki deevaaron aur chhadon ke beech ki satah dvaara vaapas laut aata hai. isse kati hui vastueain satah par laai jaati hain.

chhad dvaara baindha hua paat dril (Drop Drill)

yeh ukaran bahut dinon se vedhan ke liye prayukt kiya ja raha hai. pehle yeh bahut gahre vedhan ke kaam mein laaya jaata tha, kintu aajkal yeh 300 foot se adhik ki gaharaai ke liye shaayad hi vyavahrut hota hai. kam gahre chhed ke liye is upakaran ko haath se hi chalaaya jaata hai. shramik log barame ko ghumaane ke liye uske chaaron or chalte hain aur dril ka kabhi oopar uthaate hain, to kabhi neeche ki or le jaate hain. isi prakar vedhan sampann hota hai.

rassi dvaara baindha hua paat upakaran (Drop tool)

chhad dvaara baindhe hue upakaran aur ismein sirf yahi antar hai ki ismein chhad ke badle rassi baindhi rahati hai. is tareeke se samay ki bachat hoti hai, kyonki ismein chhad ko oopar neeche naheen karna padta hai aur ismein chhed karte samay rassi ki sahaayata se upakaran ko bahut teevr gati se oopar neeche kiya jaata hai.

mulaayam mitti mein vedhan nimnalikhit saadhanon dvaara kiya jaata hai :

chaalak nal (Drive Pipes)

iska vyavahaar chattaanon ke oopar lagi hui mulaayam mitti ki gaharaai evam gun jaaainchane ke liye hota hai. saadhaaranat: yeh donon sire par khula hua pitve lohe ka nal hai. chhote aakaar ke vedhan ke liye nal hathaude ki sahaayata se mitti mein gaada jaata hai. bade evam gahre chhed ke liye ek halake sthoona chaalak (pile driver) ki aavashyakta padti hai. nal ka nichla hissa valayaakaar hota hai aur oopar ka hissa kuchh chipta hota hai, taaki usapar hathaude ki chot pad sake.

bhoomi barama (Earth Auger)

yeh upakaran ek chhad ke ek sire r lagaaya rahata hai. chhed ki gaharaai ke saath hi saath chhad ki lanbaai bhi badhaani padti hai. chhad ke doosare sire par kuchh kshaitij uttolak (levers) lage hote hain, jinki sahaayata se barame ko ghumaaya jaata hai. chhote aakaar ke chhed ke liye ise haath se hi ghuma liya jaata hai, kintu bade aakaar ke chhid ke liye kuchh yaantrik saadhan vyavahaar mein laae jaate hain. is upakaran ke dvaara vedhan lagaataar naheen ho paata hai, kyonki baramein ko kuchh ghumaane ke baad oopar kiya jaata hai aur usamein ataki hui mitti saaf kar di jaati hai.

aaj ke yug mein vedhan atyant mahatvapoorn evam upayogi prakriya hai.

baahari kadiyaaain