vedaang

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

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praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

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hindu maapan pranaali

vedaang hindu dharm granth hain. shiksha, kalp, vyaakaran, jyotish, chhand aur nirookt - ye chh: vedaang hai.

  1. shiksha - ismein ved mantron ke uchchaaran karne ki vidhi bataai gayi hai.
  2. kalp - vedon ke kis mantr ka prayog kis karm mein karna chaahiye, iska kathan kiya gaya hai. iski teen shaakhaayein hain- shrautasootr, gruhyasootr aur dharmasootr.
  3. vyaakaran - isse prakruti aur pratyaya aadi ke yog se shabdon ki siddhi aur udaatt, anudaatt tatha svarit svaron ki sthiti ka bodh hota hai.
  4. nirukt - vedon mein jin shabdon ka prayog jin-jin arthon mein kiya gaya hai, unke un-un arthon ka nishchayaatmak roop se ullekh nirookt mein kiya gaya hai.
  5. jyotish - isse vaidik yajnyaon aur anushthaanon ka samay gyaat hota hai. yahaaain jyotish se matlab `vedaang jyotish´ se hai.
  6. chhand - vedon mein prayukt gaayatri, ushnik aadi chhandon ki rachana ka gyaan chhandashaastr se hota hai.

chhand ko vedon ka paad, kalp ko haath, jyotish ko netr, nirukt ko kaan, shiksha ko naak aur vyaakaran ko mukh kaha gaya hai.

chhand: paadau tu vedasya hastau kalpoऽth pathyate
jyotishaamayanan chakshurniruktan shrotramuchyate.
shiksha ghraanan tu vedasya mukhan vyaakaranan smrutam
tasmaatsaaङakamadheetyaiv brahmaloke maheeyate.

anukram

parichay

vedaang chhah hain; ved ka arthajnyaaan hone ke liye inka upayog hota hai. vedaang ye hain -

shiksha

vedon ke svar, varn aadi ke shuddh uchchaaran karne ki shiksha jisse milti hai, vah 'shiksha' hai. vedon ke mantron ka pathan paathan tatha uchchaaran theek reeti se karne ki soochana is 'shiksha' se praapt hoti hai. is samay 'paanineeya shiksha' Bhaarat mein vishesh mananeeya maani jaati hai.

svar, vyanjan ye varn hain; hrasv, deergh tatha plut ye svar ke uchchaaran ke teen bhed hain. udaatt, anudaatt tatha svarit ye bhi svar ke uchchaaran ke bhed hain. varnon ke sthaan aath hain -

(1) chhaati, (2) kanth, (3) sir, (4) jihvaamool, (5) dant, (6) naasika, (7) oshth aur (8) taalu.

in aath sthaanon mein se yathaayogya reeti se, jahaaain se jaisa hona chaahiye vaisa, varnochchaar karne ki shiksha yeh paanineeya shiksha deti hai. at: ham isko 'varnochchaar shiksha' bhi kah sakte hain.

kalpasootr

vedokt karmo ka vistaarash ke saath sampoorn varnan karne ka kaarya kalpasootr granth karte hain. ye kalpasootr do prakaar ke hote hain. ek 'shrautasootr' hain aur doosare 'smaartasootr' hain. vedon mein jis yajnyaayaag aadi karmakaand ka upadesh aaya hai, unamein se kis yagya mein kin mantron ka prayog karna chaahiye, kismein kaun sa anushthaan kis reeti se karna chaahiye, ityaadi karmakaand ki sampoorn vidhi in kalpasootr granthon mein kahi hoti hai. isliye karmakaand ki paddhati jaanane ke liye in kalpasootr granthon ki vishesh aavashyakta hoti hai. yagya aagaadi ka gyaan shrautasootr se hota hai aur shodash sanskaaron ka gyaan smaartasootr se milta hai.

vaidik karmakaand mein yajnyaon ka bada bhaari vistaar milta hai. aur har ek yagya ki vidhi shrautasootr se hi dekhni hoti hai. isliye shrautasootr anek hue hain. isi prakaar smaartasookt bhi solah sanskaaron ka varnan karte hain, isliye ye bhi paryaapt vistrut hain. shrautasootron mein yajnyaayaag ke sab niyam mileinge aur smaartasootron mein arthaat‌ gruhyasootron mein upanayan, jaatakarm, vivaah, garbhaadhaan, aadi shodash sanskaaron ka vidhi vidhaan rahega.

vyaakaran vedon ke gyaan ke liye jin chh: vedaangon ka vivechan kiya gaya hai unamein vyaakaran bhi mahattvapoorn vedaang hai. shabdon va dhaatu roopon aadi ki shuddhata par vyaakaran mein vichaar kiya jaata hai. vyaakaran ka arth- vyaakaran shabd ka arth anek roopon mein praapt hota hai- k vyaakaran ka vyutpattigt arth hai- vyaakriynte shabda anen iti vyaakaranam kh aachaarya saayan ke shabdon mein vyaakaranamapi prakruti-pratyayaadi-upadeshen padasvaroopan tadarthan nishchayaaya prasajyate. g paanineeya shiksha mein vyaakaran ko ved-purush ka mukh kaha gaya hai- mukhan vyaakaranan smrutam.

vyaakaran ke prayojan

 aachaarya vararuchi ne vyaakaran ke paaainch prayojan bataae hain- (1) raksha (2) ooh (3) aagam (4) laghu (5) asandeh

(1) vyaakaran ka adhyayan vedon ki raksha karna hai. (2) ooh ka arth hai-kalpana. vaidik mantron mein na to ling hai aur na hi vibhktiyaaain. lingon aur vibhktiyon ka prayog vahi kar sakta hai jo vyaakaran ka jnyaaata ho. (3) aagam ka arth hai- shruti. shruti kehti hai ki braahman ka karttavya hai ki vah vedon ka adhyayan kare.

(4) laghu ka arth hai-sheegra upaaya. vedon mein anek aise shabd hain jinki jaankaari ek jeevan mein sambhav naheen hai.vyaakaran vah saadhan hai jisse samast shaastron ka gyaan ho jaata hai. (5) asandeh ka arth hai-sandeh na hona. sandehon ko door karne wala vyaakaran hota hai, kyonki vah shabdon ka samuchit gyaan karavaata hai.

nirukt

shabd ki utpatti tatha vyutpatti kaise hui, yeh nirukt bataata hai. isavishya par yahi mahatva ka granth hai. yaaskaachaarya ji ka yeh nirukt prasiddh hai. isko shabd-vyutpatti-shaastr bhi kah sakte hain. ved ka yathaarth arth samajhne ke liye is nirukt ki atyant aavashyakta hai.

chhand

gaayatri, anushtup‌, trishtup‌, vruhati aadi chhandon ka gyaan hone ke liye chhand:shaastr ki upayogita hai. pratyek chhand ke paad kitne hote hain aur hrasv deerghaadi akshar pratyek paad mein kaise hone chaahiye, yeh vishay iska hai.

jyotish

khagol mein soorya, chandra, mangal, budh, guru, shukr, shani aadi grah kis prakaar gati karte hain, soorya, chandra aadi ke grahan kab honge, anya taarakon ki gati kaisi hoti hai, yeh vishay jyotish shaastr ka hai. vedamantron mein yeh nakshatron ka jo varnan hai, use theek prakaar se samajhne ke liye jyotish shaastr ka gyaan bahut upayogi hai.

is prakaar vedaangon ka gyaan ved ka uttam bodh hone ke liye atyant aavashyak hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain