ved

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

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praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

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hindu maapan pranaali

ved praacheen Bhaarat ke saahitya hain jo hinduon ke praacheenatam aur aadhaarbhoot dharmagranth bhi hain. bhaarateeya sanskruti mein sanaatan dharm ke mool aur sab se praacheen granth hain jinhein ishvar ki vaani samjha jaata hai. ye vishv ke un praacheenatam dhaarmik granthon mein hain jinke mantr aaj bhi istemaal kiye jaate hain.

'ved' shabd sanskrut bhaasha ke 'vid' dhaatu se bana hai, is tarah ved ka shaabdik arth 'gyaan ke granth' hain, isi dhaatu se 'vidit' (jaana hua), 'vidya' (gyaan), 'vidvaan' (gyaani) jaise shabd aae hain. aaj 'chaturved' ke roop mein gyaat in granthon ka vivran is prakaar hai -

  • rigved - sabse praacheen ved - gyaan hetu lagbhag 10hajaar mantra . ismein devataaon ke gunon ka varnan aur prakaash ke liye mantr hain - sabhi kavita-chhand roop mein .
  • saamaved - upaasana mein gaane ke liye sangeetamaya mantr hain - 1975 mantra.
  • yajurved - ismein kaarya (kriya), yagya (samarpan) ki prakriya ke liye gadyaatmak mantr hain - 3750 mantra.
  • atharvaved - ismein gun, dharm, aarogya, yagya ke liye kavitaamayi mantr hain - 7260 mantra .

vedon ko apaurusheya (jise koi vyakti na kar sakta ho, yaani ishvar krut) maana jaata hai tatha brahma ko inka rachayita maana jaata hai. inhein shruti bhi kehte hain jiska arth hai 'suna hua'. anya hindu granthon ko smruti kehte hain yaani manushyon ki buddhi ya smruti par aadhaarit. ved ke sabse praacheen bhaag ko sanhita kehte hain. vaidik saahitya ke antargat upar likhe sabhi vedon ke kai aaranyak, upanishd tatha upaved aadi bhi aate jinka vivran neeche diya gaya hai. inki bhaasha sanskrut hai jo vaidik sanskrut kahalaati hai aur laukik sanskrut se kuchh alag hai. aitihaasik roop se praacheen Bhaarat aur hind-aarya jaati ke baare mein vedon ko ek achha sandarbh maana jaata hai. sanskrut bhaasha ke praacheen roop ko lekar bhi inka saahityik mahatva bana hua hai.

vedon ko samajhna praacheen kaal mein bhaarateeya aur baad mein vishv bhar mein ek vivaad ka vishay raha hai. isko padhaane ke liye chh: upaangon ki vyavastha thi . praacheen kaal ke jaimini, vyaas, paraashar, kaatyaayan, yaajnyaavalkya ityaadi rishiyon ko vedon ka achha jnyaaata maana jaata hai. madhyakaal mein rachit vyaakhyaaon mein saayan ka racha bhaashya bahut maanya hai. Europe ke vidvaanon ka vedon ke baare mein mat hind-aarya jaati ke itihaas ki jijnyaaasa se prerit rahi hai. athaarahaveen sadi uparaant yooropiynon ke vedon aur upanishdon mein roochi aane ke baad bhi inke arthon par vidvaanon mein asahamati bani rahi hai.

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ved ka hindi bhaashya

anukram

vedon ka kaal

vedon ka avataran kaal vartamaan srushti ke aarambh ke samay ka maana jaata hai. iske hisaab se ved ko avatarit hue 8 aprel 2016 (chaitr shukl 1) ko 1,96,08,53,117 varsh honge. ved avataran ke pashchaat shruti ke roop mein rahe aur kaafi baad mein vedon ko lipibddh kiya gaya.

vedon ka mahatva

praacheen kaal se Bhaarat mein vedon ke adhyayan aur vyaakhya ki parampara rahi hai. hindu dharm anusaar aarshayug mein brahma se lekar jaimini tak ke rishi-muniyon ne shabdpramaan ke roop mein inheen ko maane hain aur inke aadhaar par apne granthon ka nirmaan bhi kiye hain. paraashar, kaatyaayan, yaajnyaavalkya, vyaas, paanini aadi ko praacheen kaal ke vedavetta kehte hain. vedon ke vidit hone yaani chaar rishiyon ke dhyaan mein aane ke baad inki vyaakhya karne ki parampara rahi hai [1]. isi ke falasvaroop braahman, aaranyak, upanishd, itihaas aadi mahaagranth vedon ka vyaakhyaan svaroop rache gaye. praacheen kaal aur madhyayug mein shaastraarth isi vyaakhya aur arthaantar ke kaaran hue hain. mukhya vishay - Dave, agni, rudra, vishnu, marut, sarasvati ityaadi jaise shabdon ko lekar hue. vedavetta maharshi svaami dayaanand sarasvati ke vichaar mein gyaan, karm, upaasana aur vigyaan vedon ke vishay hain. jeev, ishvar, prakruti in teen anaadi nitya sattaaon ka nij svaroop ka gyaan keval ved se hi upalabdh hota hai.

kanaad ne "tadvachanaadaamnaayasya praanaanyam"[2] aur "buddhipoorva vaakyakrutirvede" kehkar ved ko darshan aur vigyaan ka bhi srot maana hai. hindu dharm anusaar sabse praacheen niymavidhaata maharshi manu ne kaha vedoऽkhilo dharmamoolam - khilrahit ved arthaat mool sanhita roop ved dharmashaastr ka aadhaar hai.

na keval dhaarmik kintu aitihaasik drushti se bhi vedon ka asaadhaaran mahattv hai. vaidik yug ke aaryon ki sanskruti aur sabhyata jaanane ka ek saadhan hai. maanav-jaati aur visheshat: aaryon ne apne shaishav mein dharm aur samaaj ka kis prakaar vikaas kiya iska gyaan vedon se milta hai. vishv ke vaaङamaya mein inko praacheenatam pustak maana jaata hai.[3] aarya-bhaashaaon ka moolasvaroop nirdhaarit karne mein vaidik bhaasha atyadhik sahaayak siddh hui hai.

yoonesko ne 7 November 2003 ko vedapaath ko maanavata ke maukhik evam amoort viraasat ki shreshth kruti ghoshit kiya .

vivechana

praacheen kaal mein, Bhaarat mein hi, iski vivechana ke antar ke kaaran kai mat ban gaye the. madhyayug mein bhi iske bhaashya (vyaakhya) ko lekar kai shaastraarth hue . kai log ismein varnit charitron Dave ko poojya aur moorti roopak aaraadhya samajhte hain jabki dayaanand sarasvati sahit anya kaiyon ka mat hai ki inmein varnit charitra (jaise agni, Indra aadi) ekamaatr ishvar ke hi roop aur naam hain. inke anusaar devata shabd ka arth hai - (upakaar) dene waali vastueain, vidvaan log aur sookt mantra (aur naam) na ki moorti-poojaneeya aaraadhya roop.

vaidik vaaङamamaya ka vargeekaran

vartamaan kaal mein ved chaar hain- lekin pehle ye ek hi the . baad mein ved ko padhna bahut kathin prateet hone laga, isliye usi ek ved ke teen ya chaar vibhaag kiye gaye . tab unako vedatrayi athva chaturved kehne lage . mantron ka prakaar aur aashay yaani arth ke aadhaar par vargeekaran kiya gaya . iska aadhaar is prakaar hai -

vedatrayi

vishv mein shabd-prayog ki teen shailiyaaain hoti hai: padya (kavita), gadya aur gaan . vedon ke mantron ke 'padya, gadya aur gaan' aise teen vibhaag hote hain -

  1. ved ka padya bhaag - rigved, atharvaved
  2. ved ka gadya bhaag - yajurved
  3. ved ka gaayan bhaag - saamaved

padya mein akshar-sankhya tatha paad evam viraam ka nishchit niyam hota hai. at: nishchit akshar-sankhya tatha paad evam viraam vaale ved-mantron ki sanjnyaa 'rik' hai. jin mantron mein chhand ke niymaanusaar akshar-sankhya tatha paad evam viraam rishidrusht naheen hai, ve gadyaatmak mantr 'yaju:' kahalaate hain aur jitne mantr gaanaatmak hain, ve mantr ''saam'' kahalaate hain. in teen prakaar ki shabd-prakaashan-shailiyon ke aadhaar par hi shaastr evam lok mein ved ke liye 'trayi' shabd ka bhi vyavahaar kiya jaata hai. yajurved gadyasangrah hai, at: is yajurved mein jo rigved ke chhandobaddh mantra hain, unako bhi yajurved padhne ke samay gadya jaisa hi padha jaata hai.

chaturved

dvaaparayug ki samaapti ke poorv vedon ke ukt chaar vibhaag alag-alag naheen the. us samay to rik, yaju: aur saam - in teen shabd-shailiyon ki sangrahaatmak ek vishisht adhyayaneeya shabd-raashi hi ved kahalaati thi. vartamaan kaal mein ved chaar maane jaate hain. parantu in chaaron ko milaakar ek hi 'ved granth' samjha jaata tha.

ek ev pura ved: pranav: sarvavaaङamaya - mahaabhaarat

anya naam

sunane se failane aur peedhi-dar-peedhi yaad rakhane ke kaaran shruti, svat: pramaan ke kaaran aamnaaya, ishvarakrut hone se apaurusheya ityaadi naam vedon ke hain . ved ke pathan-paathan ke kram mein gurumukh se shravan evam yaad karne ka ved ke sanrakshan evam safalta ki drushti se atyant mahattv hai. isi kaaran ved ko ''shruti'' bhi kehte hain. ved parishramapoorvak abhyaas dvaara sanrakshaneeya hai, is kaaran iska naam ''aamnaaya'' bhi hai.

saahityik drushti se

iske anusaar pratyek shaakha ki vaidik shabd-raashi ka vargeekaran- upar varnit pratyek ved ke chaar bhaag hote hain. pehle bhaag (sanhita) ke alaava harek mein teeka athva bhaashya ke teen star hote hain. kul milaakar ye hain :

upar ke khand mein diye chaaron vedon se arth 'sanhita' ka hai.

vargeekaran ka itihaas

dvaaparayug ki samaapti ke samay shreekrushnadvaipaayan vedavyaas ji ne yajnyaaanushthaan ke upayog ko drushtigt rakhakar us ek ved ke chaar vibhaag kar diye aur in chaaron vibhaagon ki shiksha chaar shishyon ko di. ye hi chaar vibhaag rigved, yajurved, saamaved aur atharvaved ke naam se prasiddh hai. pail, vaishampaayan, jaimini aur sumantu naamak -chaar shishyon ko kramash: rigved, yajurved, saamaved aur atharvaved ki shiksha di. in chaar shishyon ne shaakal aadi apne bhinn-bhinn shishyon ko padhaaya. in shishyon ke dvaara apne-apne adheen vedon ke prachaar va sanrakshan ke kaaran ve shaakhaaeain unheen ke naam se prasiddh hain.

shaakha

pratyek ved ki anek shaakhaaen yaani vyaakhyaan ka tareeka bataayi gayi hain. rishi patanyajali ke mahaabhaashya ke anusaar rigved ki 21, yajurved ki 101, saamaved ki 1001, arthavaved ki 91 is prakaar 1131 shaakhaaen hain parantu 12 shaakhaaen hi mool granthon mein upalabdh hain. ved ki pratyek shaakha ki vaidik shabdaraashi chaar bhaagon mein upalabdh hai: 1. sanhita 2. braahman 3. aaranyak 4. upanishd. inmein sanhita ko hi ved maana jaata hai. shesh vedon ke vyaakhya granth hain

alag shaakhaaon mein mool sanhita to vahi rahati hain lekin aaranyak aur braahman granthon mein antar aa jaata hai . mantra bhaag mein bhi kram parivartan ya baaranbarata jaise badlaav milte hain . puraane samay mein itni shaakhaaon ke baad bhi aajkal kul 9 shaakhaaon ke hi granth milte hain .

vedon ke vishay

vedon ke vishay unki vyaakhya par nirbhar karte hain . nissandeh agni, yagya, soorya, Indra (bijli ke arth mein) jaise vishay ismein baaranbaar aate hain . iske atirikt aatma, utpatti, padaarthon ke gun, dharm (uchit-anuchit), daampatya, dhyaan-yog, praan (shvaas ki shakti) jaise vishay ismein baaranbaar dikhte hain . granthon ke hisaab se inka vivran is prakaar hai -

rigved

rigved ko chaaron vedon mein sabse praacheen maana jaata hai. isko do prakaar se baaainta gaya hai. pratham prakaar mein ise 10 mandalon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. mandalon ko sookton mein, sookt mein kuchh richaaen hoti hain. kul richaaen 10520 hain. doosare prakaar se rigved mein 64 adhyaaya hain. aath-aath adhyaayon ko milaakar ek ashtak banaaya gaya hai. aise kul aath ashtak hain. fir pratyek adhyaaya ko vargon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. vargon ki sankhya bhinn-bhinn adhyaayon mein bhinn bhinn hi hai. kul varg sankhya 2024 hai. pratyek varg mein kuchh mantra hote hain. srushti ke anek rahasyon ka inmein udghaatan kiya gaya hai. pehle iski 21 shaakhaaen theen parantu vartamaan mein iski shaakal shaakha ka hi prachaar hai.

yajurved

ismein gadya aur padya donon hi hain. ismein yagya karm ki pradhaanata hai. praacheen kaal mein iski 101 shaakhaaen theen parantu vartamaan mein keval paanch shaakhaaen hain - kaathak, kapishthal, maitraayani, taittireeya, vaajasaneyi. is ved ke do bhed hain - Krishna yajurved aur shukl yajurved. Krishna yajurved ka sankalan maharshi ved vyaas ne kiya hai. iska doosra naam taittireeya sanhita bhi hai. ismein mantra aur braahman bhaag mishrit hain. shukl yajurved - ise soorya ne yaajnyaavalkya ko upadesh ke roop mein diya tha. ismein 15 shaakhaaen theen parantu vartamaan mein maadhyandin ko jise vaajasaneyi bhi kehte hain praapt hain. ismein 40 adhyaaya, 303 anuvaak evam 1975 mantra hain. antim chaaleesavaan adhyaaya ishaavaasyopanishd hai.

saamaved

yeh geya granth hai. ismein gaan vidya ka bhandaar hai, yeh bhaarateeya sangeet ka mool hai. richaaon ke gaayan ko hi saam kehte hain. iski 1001 shaakhaaen theen. parantu aajkal teen hi prachalit hain - kothumeeya, jaimineeya aur raanaayaneeya. isko poorvaarchik aur uttaraarchik mein baanta gaya hai. poorvaarchik mein chaar kaand hain - aagneya kaand, aindr kaand, pavamaan kaand aur aaranya kaand. chaaron kaandon mein kul 640 mantra hain. fir mahaanaamnyaarchik ke 10 mantra hain. is prakaar poorvaarchik mein kul 650 mantra hain. chh: prapaathak hain. uttaraarchik ko 21 adhyaayon mein baanta gaya. nau prapaathak hain. ismein kul 1225 mantra hain. is prakaar saamaved mein kul 1875 mantra hain. ismein adhiktar mantra rigved se liye gaye hain. ise upaasana ka pravartak bhi kaha ja sakta hai.

atharvaved

ismein ganit, vigyaan, aayurved, samaaj shaastr, krushi vigyaan, aadi anek vishay varnit hain. kuchh log ismein mantra-tantr bhi khojate hain. yeh ved jahaan brahm gyaan ka upadesh karta hai, vaheen moksh ka upaaya bhi bataata hai. ise brahm ved bhi kehte hain. ismein mukhya roop mein atharvan aur aangirs rishiyon ke mantra hone ke kaaran atharv aangirs bhi kehte hain. yeh 20 kaandon mein vibhkt hai. pratyek kaand mein kai-kai sootr hain aur sootron mein mantra hain. is ved mein kul 5977 mantra hain. iski aajkal do shaakhaaen shaunik evam pippalaad hi upalabdh hain. atharvaved ka vidvaan chaaron vedon ka jnyaaata hota hai. yagya mein rigved ka hota devon ka aahnaan karta hai, saamaved ka udgaata saamagaan karta hai, yajurved ka adhvaryu Dave:koteekarm ka vitaan karta hai tatha atharvaved ka brahm poore yagya karm par niyantran rakhata hai.

upaved

aayurved, dhanurved, gaandharvaved tatha sthaapatyaved- ye kramash: chaaron vedon ke upaved kaatyaayan ne batalaaye hain.

  1. sthaapatyaved - sthaapatyakala ke vishay, jise vaastu shaastr ya vaastukala bhi kaha jaata hai, iske antargat aata hai.
  2. dhanurved - yuddh kala ka vivran . iske granth vilupt praaya hain .
  3. gandharved - gaayan kala .
  4. aayurved - vaidik gyaan par aadhaarit svaasthya vigyaan .

ved ke ang, upaang

vedon ke sarvaangeen anusheelan ke liye shiksha, kalp, vyaakaran, nirukt, chhand aur jyotish ke granth hain jinhein 6 ang kehte hain. pratipdasootr, anupad, chhandobhaasha (praatishaakhya), dharmashaastr, nyaaya tatha vaisheshik- ye 6 darshaऩ upaang granth bhi upalabdh hai.

upaangon ke vishay is prakaar hain -

  1. shiksha - dhvaniyon ka uchchaaran .
  2. vyaakaran - sandhi, samaas, upama, vibhkti aadi ka vivran . vaakya nirmaan ko samajhne ke liye aavashyak .
  3. jyotish - aakaasheeya pindon (soorya, pruthvi, nakshatron) ki gati aur sthiti ka gyaan .
  4. kalp - yagya ke liye vidhi . kaarya aur samarpan ka mahatva .
  5. nirukt - shabdon ka mool bhaav . yeh vyaakaran se alag hai - is arth mein ki inse vastuon ka aisa naam kis liye aaya iska vivran hai . shabd-mool aur shabd-sandhi nirukt aur vyaakaran ke vishay hain .
  6. chhand - gaayan ya mantrochchaaran ke liye aaghaat aur laya ke liye nirdesh .

vaidik svar prakriya

vaidik svar likhne ki kala - devanaagari lipi mein

ved ki sanhitaaon mein mantraaksharon mein khadi tatha aadi rekhaayein lagaakar unke uchch, madhyam, ya mand sangeetamaya svar uchchaaran karne ke sanket kiye gaye hain. inko udaatt, anudaatt ऒr svaarit ke naam se abhihit kiya gaya hai. ye svar bahut praacheen samay se prachalit hain aur mahaamuni patanjali ne apne mahaabhaashya mein inke mukhya mukhya niyamon ka samaavesh kiya hai.

svaron ko adhik ya nyoon roop se bole jaane ke kaaran inke bhi do-do bhed ho jaate hain. jaise udaatt-udaattatar, anudaatt-anudaattatar, svarit-svaritodaatt. inke alaave ek aur svar maana gaya hai - shruti - ismein teenon svaron ka milan ho jaata hai. is prakaar kul svaron ki sankhya 7 ho jaati hai. in saat svaron mein bhi aapas mein milne se svaron mein bhed ho jaata hai jiske liye svar chihnon mein kuchh parivartan ho jaata hai. yadyapi in svaron ke ankan aur tankan mein kai vidhiyaaain prayog ki jaati hain aur prakaashak-bhaashyakaaron mein koi ek vidha saamaanya naheen hai, adhikaansh sthaanon par anudaatt ke liye akshar ke neeche ek aadi lakeer tatha svarit ke liye akshar ke oopar ek khadi rekha banaane ka niyam hai. udaatt ka apna koi chinh naheen hai. isse ankan mein samasya aane se kai lekhak-prakaashak svar chihnon ka prayog hi naheen karte.

vaidik chhand

vaidik mantron mein prayukt chhand kai prakaar ke hain jinmein mukhya hain -

  1. gaayatri - sabse prasiddh chhand.aath varnon (maatraaon) ke teen paad . geeta mein bhi iske sarvottam bataaya gaya hai (gyaarahavein adhyaaya mein). isi mein prasiddh gaayatri mantra dhala hai .
  2. trishtup - 11 varnon ke chaar paad - kul 44 varn .
  3. anushtup - 8 varnon ke chaar paad, kul 32 varn . vaalmeeki raamaayan tatha geeta jaise granthon mein bhai istemaal hua hai . isi ko shlok bhi kehte hain .
  4. jagati - 8 varnon ke 6 paad, kul 48 varn .

ved ki shaakhaaeain

iske anusaar vedokt yajnyaon ka anushthaan hi ved ke shabdon ka mukhya upayog maana gaya hai. srushti ke aarambh se hi yagya karne mein saadhaaranataya mantrochchaaran ki shaili, mantraakshar evam karm-vidhi mein vividhta rahi hai. is vividhta ke kaaran hi vedon ki shaakhaaon ka vistaar hua hai. yatha-rigved ki 21 shaakha, yajurved ki 101 shaakha, saamaved ki 1000 shaakha aur atharvaved ki 9 shaakha- is prakaar kul 1,131 shaakhaaeain hain. is sankhya ka ullekh maharshi patanyajali ne apne mahaabhaashya mein bhi kiya hai. uparyukt 1,131 shaakhaaon mein se vartamaan mein keval 12 shaakhaaeain hi mool granthon mein upalabdh hai:-

  1. rigved ki 21 shaakhaaon mein se keval 2 shaakhaaon ke hi granth praapt hain- shaakal-shaakha aur shaankhaayan shaakha.
  2. yajurved mein krushnayajurved ki 86 shaakhaaon mein se keval 4 shaakhaaon ke granth hi praapt hai- taittireeya-shaakha, maitraayaneeya shaakha, kath-shaakha aur kapishthal-shaakha
  3. shuklayajurved ki 15 shaakhaaon mein se keval 2 shaakhaaon ke granth hi praapt hai- maadhyandineeya-shaakha aur kaanv-shaakha.
  4. saamaved ki 1,000 shaakhaaon mein se keval 2 shaakhaaon ke hi granth praapt hai- kauthum-shaakha aur jaimineeya-shaakha.
  5. atharvaved ki 9 shaakhaaon mein se keval 2 shaakhaaon ke hi granth praapt hain- shaunak-shaakha aur paippalaad-shaakha.

uparyukt 12 shaakhaaon mein se keval 6 shaakhaaon ki adhyayan-shaili praapt hai-shaakal, taittareeya, maadhyandini, kaanv, kauthum tatha shaunak shaakha. yeh kehna bhi anupayukt naheen hoga ki anya shaakhaaon ke kuchh aur bhi granth upalabdh hain, kintu unase shaakha ka poora parichay naheen mil sakta evam bahut-si shaakhaaon ke to naam bhi upalabdh naheen hain.

ved-bhaashyakaar

praacheen kaal mein maana jaata hai ki agni, vaayu, aaditya aur aङagira rishiyon ko vedon ka gyaan mila jiske baad saat rishiyon (saptarshi) ko ye gyaan mila - iska ullekh geeta mein hua hai. aitihaasik roop se brahma, unke putr baadaraayan aur pautr vyaas aur anya yatha jaimini, patanyajali, manu, vaatsyaayan, Kapil, kanaad aadi muniyon ko vedon ka achha gyaan tha. vyaas rishi ne geeta mein kai baar vedon (shruti granthon) ka zikr kiya hai. adhyaaya 2 mein Krishna, arjun se ye kehte hain ki vedon ki alankaaramayi bhaasha ke badle unke vachan aasaan lageinge.[4] praacheen kaal mein hi nirookt, nighntu tatha manusmruti ko vedon ki vyaakhya maanate hain.

madhyakaal mein saayanaachaarya ko vedon ka prasiddh bhaashyakaar maanate hain - lekin saath hi yeh bhi maanate hain ki unhonne hi pratham baar vedon ke bhaashya ya anuvaad mein devi-devata, itihaas aur kathaaon ka ullekh kiya jisko aadhaar maanakaar maheedhar aur anya bhaashyakaaron ne aisi vyaakhya ki. maheedhar aur uvvat isi shreni ke bhaashyakaar the.

aadhunik kaal mein raaja raamamohan rai ka brahm samaaj aur dayaanand sarasvati ka aarya samaaj lagbhag ek hi samay mein (1860) vedon ke sabse bade prachaarak bane. inke atirikt shankar paandurang ne saayan bhaashya ke alaave atharvaved ka chaar jildon mein prakaashan kiya. lokamaanya tilk ne oraayan aur the aarkatik hom in vedaaj naamak do granth vaidik saahitya ki sameeksha ke roop mein likhe. baalakrushn Dixit ne san 1877 mein kalakatte se saamaved par apne gyaan ka prakaashan karaaya. shreepaad Damodar saatavalekar ne saataara mein chaaron vedon ki sanhita ka shramapoorvak prakaashan karaaya. tilk vidyaapeeth, Pune se paaainch jildon mein prakaashit rigved ke saayan bhaashya ke prakaashan ko bhi praamaanik maana jaata hai.

vaidik sanhitaaon ke anuvaad mein rameshachandr datt Bengal se, raamagovind trivedi evam jayadev vedaalankaar ke hindi mein evam shreedhar paathak ka maraathi mein kaarya bhi logon ko vedon ke baare mein jaankaari pradaan karta raha hai. iske baad gaayatri tapobhoomi ke shreeraam sharma aachaarya ne bhi vedon ke bhaashya prakaashit kiye hain - inke bhaashya saayanaadhaarit hain.

videshi prayaas

satrahaveen sadi mein mugl baadshah aurangajeb ke bhaai daara shikoh ne kuchh upanishdon ka faarasi mein anuvaad kiya (sirr A Akbar,سaaرaaّ اaaکaaبaaر mahaan rahasya) jo pehle fraansisi aur baad mein anya bhaashaaon mein anoodit huin. Europe mein iske baad vaidik aur sanskrut saahitya ki or dhyaan gaya. maiks moolar jaise Europeeya vidvaan ne bhi sanskrut aur vaidik saahitya par bahut adhyayan kiya hai. lekin Europe ke vidvaanon ka dhyaan hind aarya bhaasha parivaar ke siddhaant ko banaane aur usako siddh karne mein hi lagi hui hai. shabdon ki samaanata ko lekar bane is siddhaant mein aitihaasik tathya aur kaal nirdhaaran ko tod-marod karna hi padta hai. is kaaran se vedon ki rachana ka samay 1800-1000 isvi isa poorv maana jaata hai jo sanskrut saahitya aur hindu siddhaanton par khara naheen utarata. lekin aarya jaatiyon ke prayaan ke siddhaant ke tahat aur bhaashaagat drushti se yahi kaal in granthon ki rachana ka maan liya jaata hai.

anya maton ki drushti mein ved

jaisa ki upar likha hai, vedon ke kai shabdon ka samajhna utana saral naheen raha hai. iski vajah se inmein varnit shlonkon ko alag-alag arthon mein vyakti kiya gaya hai. sabse adhik vivaad-vaarta ishvar ke svaroop, yaani ekamaatr ya anek devon ke sadrushya ko lekar hua hai. Europe ke sanskrut vidvaanon ki vyaakhya bhi hind-aarya jaati ke siddhaant se prerit rahi hai. praacheen kaal mein hi inki satta ko chunauti dekar kai aise mat prakat hue jo aaj bhi dhaarmik mat kahalaate hain lekin kai roopon mein bhinn hain. inka mukhya antar neeche spasht kiya gaya hai.

  • jain - inko moorti pooja ke pravartak maana jaata hai. ye ahinsa ke maarg par jor dete hain par vedon ko shreshth naheen maanate.
  • bauddh - is mat mein mahaatma buddh ke pravartit dhyaan aur trushna ko du:khon ka kaaran bataaya hai. vedon mein likhe dhyaan ke mahatva ko ye to maanate hain par ishvar ki satta se naastik hain.
  • shaiv - vedon mein varnit rudra ke roop Shiv ko sarvopari samajhne vaale. sanaatan (yaani vaidik) dharm ke maanane vaale Shiv ko ekamaatr ishvar ka kalyaanakaari roop maanate hain, lekin shaiv log shankar Dave ke roop (jismein nandi bail, jata, baaghanbar ityaadi hain) ko vishv ka karta maanate hain.
  • vaishnav - vishnu aur unke avataaron ko ishvar maanane vaale. vaidik mat vishnu ko ek ishvar ka hi vo naam bataate hain jiske anusaar sarvatr faila hua ishvar vishnu kahalaata hai.
  • sikh - mukhyat: upanishdon evam muslim granthon par shraddha rakhane vaale. inka vishvaas ekamaatr ishvar mein to hai, lekin vedon ko ishvar ki vaani naheen samajhte hain.
  • aarya samaaj - ye niraakaar ishvar ke upaasak hain. ye ved ko ishvareeya gyaan maanate hain.

jin vishyon par vivaad raha hai unka varnan neeche diya hai.

yagya: yagya ke vartamaan roop ke mahatva ko lekar kai vidvaanon, maton aur bhaashkaaron mein virodhaabhaash hai. yagya mein aag ke prayog ko praacheen paarasi poojan vidhi ke itna samaan hona aur havan ki atyadhik mahatta ke prati vidvaanon mein roochi rahi hai.

devata: Dave shabd ka lekar hi kai vidvaanon mein asahamati rahi hai. kai maton mein (jaise - shaiv, vaishnav aur shaakt) ise mahaamanushya ke roop mein vishisht shakti praapt saakaar charitra masajhate hain aur unka moorti roop mein poojan karte hain to anya kai inhein ishvar (brahm, satya) ke hi naam bataate hain. paropakaar (bhala) karne waali vastueain (yatha nadi, soorya), vidvaan log aur maargadarshan karne vaale mantron ko Dave kaha gaya hai .

udaaharanaarth agni shabd ka arth aag na samajhakar sabse aage yaani pratham yaani parameshvar samajhte hain. devata shavd ka arth divya, yaani parameshvar (niraakaar, brahm) ki shakti se poorn maana jaata hai - jaise pruthvi aadi. isi mat mein mahaadev, devon ke adhipti hone ke kaaran ishvar ko kehte hain. isi tarah sarvatr vyaapak ishvar vishnu aur satya hone ke kaaran brahma kahalaata hai. is prakaar brahma, vishnu aur mahaadev kisi charitra ke naam naheen balki ishvar ke hi naam hain.[5] isi praakar ganesh (ganapati), prajaapati, devi, buddh, lakshmi ityaadi parameshvar ke hi naam hain. aise log moortipooja ke virooddh hain aur ishvar ko ekamaatr satya, sarvopari samajhte hain.

ashvamedh: asvamedh se hinsa aur bali ka vichaar aata hai. yeh kai hinduon ko bhi aashcharyajanak lagta hai kyonki kai sthaanon par shuddhataavaadi hinsa (aur maans bhakshan) se parahej karte rahe hain. kaiyon ka maanana hai ki medh shabd mein adhvaran ka bhi prayog hua hai jiska arth hai ahinsa. at: medh ka bhi arth kuchh aur raha hoga. isi prakaar ashv shabd ka arth ghoda na rahakar shakti raha hoga. shreeraam sharma aachaarya krut bhaashayon ke anusaar ashv shabd ka arth shakti, gau shabd ka arth poshan hai. isse ashvamedh ka arth ghode ka bali se itar hoti prateet hoti hai.

som: kuchh log ise sharaab (madya) maanate hain lekin kai anuvaadon ke anusaar ise koot-peesakar banaaya jaata tha. at: ye sharaab jaisa koi peya naheen lagta. par iske asli roop ka nirdhaaran naheen ho paaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. shatapath braahman ke anusaar - 'agnerva rigvedo jaayate vayoryajurved: sooryaatasaamaved:, yaani agni rishi se rik, vaayu rishi se yaju aur soorya rishi se saamaved ka gyaan mila .aङagirs rishi ko atharvaved ka gyaan mila . isse brahma jaise rishiyon ne chaaro ved seekha aur anya vidvaanon mein failaaya . parampara mein brahma ke chaturmukh hone ka bhi yahi kaaran hai
  2. vaisheshik darshan, pratham adhyaaya, pratham maahnak, truteeyashlok
  3. ringaved sanhita pratham bhaag mein khayaati praapt professor maiks mular likhte hain (praakkathan, prushth 10) ki ve is baat se aashvast hain ki ye duniya ki praacheenatam pustak hain.
  4. geeta 2.53 - shruti vipratipnna te yada sthaasyati nishchala. samaadhaavachala buddhistada yogamavaapyasi. - yaani (he arjun) yadi tumhaara man shruti mein ghuskar bhi shaant rahe, samaadhi mein buddhi avichl rahe tabhi tumhein sachcha divya yog mila hai.
  5. dayaannad sarasvati. satyaarth prakaash. pa॰ 24-25.

baahari kadiyaaain