varun (grah)

varun Astronomical symbol for Neptune.
Neptune from Voyager 2
vauyajar 2 se li gayi nepchyoon ki chhavi mein vishaal shyaah dhabba baane taraf aur chhota shyaah dhabba neeche daane taraf hai. safed baadal methane barf se bane hain; samagr neela rang laal prakaash ke methane avashoshan ke kaaran hai.
khoj
khoj karta
  • Urbain Le Verrier
  • John Couch Adams
  • Johann Galle
khoj ki tithi 23 September 1846[1]
upanaam
visheshan Neptunian
yug J2000
upasaur 4,553,946,490 km
30.44125206 AU
apasaur 4,452,940,833 km
29.76607095 AU
ardh mukhya aksh 4,503,443,661 km
30.10366151 AU
vikendrata 0.011214269
parikraman kaal 60,190.03[3] days
164.79 years
89,666 Neptune solar days[4]
sanyuti kaal 367.49 days[5]
ausat parikraman gati 5.43 km/s[5]
maadhya konaantar 267.767281°
jhukaav 1.767975° to Ecliptic
6.43° to Sun's equator
0.72° to Invariable plane[6]
aaroh paat ka anulamb 131.794310°
Argument of perihelion 265.646853°
upagrah 13
bhautik visheshataaeain
vishuvateeya trijya 24,764 ± 15 km[7][b]Refers to the level of 1 baar (100 kilopaaskal) atmospheric pressure</ref>
3.883 Earths
dhruveeya trijya 24,341 ± 30 km[7][b]
3.829 Earths
sapaatata 0.0171 ± 0.0013
tal-kshetrafal 7.6183×a109 km2[3][b]
14.98 Earths
aayatan 6.254×a1013 km3[5][b]
57.74 Earths
dravyamaan 1.0243×a1026 kg[5]
17.147 Earths
5.15×a10-5 Suns
maadhya ghanatv 1.638 g/cm3[5][b]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 11.15 m/s2[5][b]
1.14 g
palaayan veg 23.5 km/s[5][b]
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
0.6713 day[5]
16 h 6 min 36 s
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg 2.68 km/s
9,660 km/h
aksheeya naman 28.32°[5]
uttari dhruv daayaan adhirohan 19h 57m 20s[7]
299.3°
uttari dhruvavanaman 42.950°[7]
albedo 0.290 (bond)
0.41 (geom.)[5]
satah ka taapamaan
1 bar level
0.1 baar (10 kilopaaskal)
nyoon maadhya adhi
72 K[5]
55 K[5]
spasht parimaan 8.02 to 7.78[5][8]
koneeya vyaas 2.2–2.4″[5][8]
vaayu-mandal[5]
skel haait 19.7 ± 0.6 km
sanghatan
80±a3.2% hydrogen (H2)
19±a3.2% helium (He)
1.5±a0.5% methane (CH4)
~0.019% hydrogen deuteride (HD)
~0.00015% ethane (C2H6)

Ices:

  • ammonia (NH3)
  • water (H2O)
  • ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)
  • methane ice (?) (CH4•a5.75H2O)

varun, naiptayoon ya naipchayoon hamaare saur mandal mein soorya se aathavaaain grah hai. vyaas ke aadhaar par yeh saur mandal ka chautha bada aur dravyamaan ke aadhaar par teesara bada grah hai. varun ka dravyamaan pruthvi se 17 guna adhik hai aur apne padausi grah Arun (yurenas) se thoda adhik hai. khagoleeya ikaai ke hisaab se varun ki kaksha sooraj se 30.1 kha॰ai॰ ki ausat doori par hai, yaani varun pruthvi ke mukaabale mein sooraj se lagbhag tees guna adhik door hai. varun ko sooraj ki ek poori parikrama karne mein 164.79 varsh lagte hain, yaani ek varun varsh 164.79 pruthvi varshon ke baraabar hai.

hamaare saur mandal mein chaar grahon ko gas daanav kaha jaata hai, kyonki inmein mitti-patthar ki bajaay adhiktar gas hai aur inka aakaar bahut hi vishaal hai. varun iname se ek hai - baaki teen bruhaspati, shani aur Arun (yurenas) hain. inmein se Arun ki banaavat varun se bahut milti-julati hai. Arun aur varun ke vaataavaran mein bruhaspati aur shani ke tulana mein barf adhik hai - paani ki barf ke atirikt inmein jami hui amoniya aur methane gaison ki barf bhi hai. isliye kabhi-kabhi khagolashaastri in donon ko "barfeele gas daanav" naam ki shreni mein daal dete hain.

anukram

khoj aur naamakaran

varun par baadal

varun pehla grah tha jiski astitv ki bhavishyavaani use bina kabhi dekhe hi ganit ke adhyayan se ki gayi thi aur jise fir us aadhaar par khoja gaya. yeh tab hua jab Arun ki parikrama mein kuchh ajeeb gadbadi paayi gayi jinka arth keval yahi ho sakta tha ke ek agyaat padausi grah usapar apna gurutvaakarshak prabhaav daal raha hai. khagol mein khojabeen karne ke baad yeh agyaat grah 23 sitmbar 1846 ko pehli dafa doorabeen se dekha gaya aur iska naam "naiptayoon" rakh diya gaya.[1] "naiptayoon" praacheen roman dharm mein samudra ke devata the, jo sthaan praacheen Bhaarat mein "varun" devata ka raha hai, isliye is grah ko hindi mein varun kaha jaata hai. roman dharm mein naiptayoon ke haath mein trishool hota tha isliye varun ka khagolashaastriya chinh ♆ hai.

rang-roop aur mausam

jahaaain Arun grah sirf ek gole ka roop dikhta hai jispar koi nishaan ya dhabbe naheen hain, vahaaain varun par baadal, toofaan aur mausam ka badlaav saaf nazar aata hai. maana jaata hai ke varun par toofaani hava saur mandal ke kisi bhi grah se zyaada tej chalti hai aur 2,100 kimi prati ghanta tak ki gatiyaaain dekhi ja chuki hain. jab 1989 mein vauyejar dviteeya yaan varun ke paas se gujra to varun par ek "bada gaadha dhabba" nazar aa raha tha, jiski tulana bruhaspati ke "bade laal dhabbe" se ki gayi hai. kyonki varun sooraj se itna door hai, isliye usaka oopari vaayumandal bahut hi thanda hai aur vahaaain ka taapamaan -128 °aseinteegred (55 kailvin) tak gir sakta hai. iske bade akaar ki vajah se is grah ke kendra mein iske gurutvaakarshan ke bhayankar dabaav se taapamaan 5,000 °aseinteegred tak pahuainch jaata hai. varun ke ird-gird kuchh chhitre-se upagrahi chhalle bhi hain jinhein vauyejar dviteeya ne dekha tha. varun ka halka neela rang apne oopari vaataavaran mein maujood methane gas se aata hai.

parikrama evam ghoornan

nepchyoon (laal chaap) soorya ka ek chakkar har 164.79 pruthvi varshon mein poora karta hai. halke neele rang ki vastu yoorenas ka pratinidhitv karti hai.

nepchyoon evam soorya ke beech ki ausat doori 4.50 arab kimi (lagbhag 30.1 eyoo) hai, evam yeh ausatan har 164.79 ± 0.1 varshon mein soorya ki parikrama poori karta hai.

11 July 2011 ko nepchyoon ne 1846 mein iski khoj ke baad se apni pehli dravyakeindreeyaEn parikrama poori ki, haalaanki yeh hamaare aasmaan mein apni sateek khoj sthiti mein naheen dikha tha, kyonki pruthvi apni 365.25 divseeya parikrama mein ek bhinn sthaan mein thi. Because of the motion of the Sun in relation to the barycentre of the Solar System, on 11 July Neptune was also not at its exact discovery position in relation to the Sun; if the more common heliocentric coordinate system is used, the discovery longitude was reached on 12 July 2011.[3][9][10]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa Hamilton, Calvin J. (4 August 2001). "Neptune". Views of the Solar System. http://www.solarviews.com/eng/neptune.htm. abhigman tithi: 13 August 2007. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Hamilton" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Yeomans, Donald K.. "HORIZONS Web-Interface for Neptune Barycenter (Major Body=8)". JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi?find_body=1&body_group=mb&sstr=8. abhigman tithi: 8 August 2007. At the site, go to the "web interface" then select "Ephemeris Type: Elements", "Target Body: Neptune Barycenter" and "Center: Sun".
  3. a aa i Munsell, K.; Smith, H.; Harvey, S. (13 November 2007). "Neptune: Facts & Figures". NASA. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Neptune&Display=Facts. abhigman tithi: 14 August 2007.
  4. Seligman, Courtney. "Rotation Period and Day Length". http://cseligman.com/text/sky/rotationvsday.htm. abhigman tithi: 13 August 2009.
  5. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh Williams, David R. (1 September 2004). "Neptune Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/neptunefact.html. abhigman tithi: 14 August 2007.
  6. "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 3 April 2009. http://home.surewest.net/kheider/astro/MeanPlane.gif. abhigman tithi: 10 April 2009. (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  7. a aa i E sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Seidelmann_Archinal_A.27hearn_et_al._2007 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  8. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; ephemeris naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  9. Nancy Atkinson (26 August 2010). "Clearing the Confusion on Neptune's Orbit". Universe Today. http://www.universetoday.com/72088/clearing-the-confusion-on-neptune%E2%80%99s-orbit/. abhigman tithi: 2011-07-10. (Bill Folkner at JPL)
  10. Anonymous (16 November 2007). "Horizons Output for Neptune 2010–2011". http://home.surewest.net/kheider/astro/nept2011.txt. abhigman tithi: 25 fravari 2008. —aNumbers generated using the Solar System Dynamics Group, Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System.
the va b
saur mandal
सूर्य बुध शुक्र चन्द्रमा पृथ्वी Phobos and Deimos मंगल सीरिस) क्षुद्रग्रह बृहस्पति बृहस्पति के उपग्रह शनि शनि के उपग्रह अरुण अरुण के उपग्रह वरुण के उपग्रह नेप्चून Charon, Nix, and Hydra प्लूटो ग्रह काइपर घेरा Dysnomia एरिस बिखरा चक्र और्ट बादलSolar System XXVII.png
soorya · budh · shukr · pruthvi · mangal · seerees · bruhaspati · shani · Arun · varun · yam · haumeya · maakemaake · eris
grah · bauna grah · upagrah - chandrama · mangal ke upagrah · kshudragrah · bruhaspati ke upagrah · shani ke upagrah · Arun ke upagrah · varun ke upagrah · yam ke upagrah · eris ke upagrah
chhoti vastueain: ulka · kshudragrah (kshudragrah gheraa‎) · kinnar · varun-paar vastueain (kaaipar gheraa‎/bikhra chakr) · dhoomaketu (aurt baadal)


sandarbh truti: "lower-alpha" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="lower-alpha"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.