varshaavan

Australia ke kveensalaind mein dainatri varshaavan.
kveensalaind, Australia mein kerns ke paas dainatri varshaavan.
new south vels, Australia mein illaavaara brash ke bhaag.

varshaavan ve jungle hain, jinmein prachur maatra mein varsha hoti hai arthaat jahaan nyoonatam saamaanya vaarshik varsha 1750-2000 mi॰mee॰ (68-78 inch) ke beech hai. maanasooni kam dabaav ka kshetr jise vaikalpik roop se antar-ushnakatibandheeya sansruti kshetr ke naam se jaana jaata hai, ki pruthvi par varshaavanon ke nirmaan mein ullekhaneeya bhoomika hai.

vishv ke pashu-paudhon ki sabhi prajaatiyon ka kul 40 se 75% inheen varshaavanon ka mool pravaasi hai.[1] yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki paudhon, keeton aur sookshmajeevon ki kai lakh prajaatiyaan abhi tak khoji naheen gayi hain. ushnakatibandheeya varshaavanon ko pruthvi ke aabhooshan aur sansaar ki sabse badi aushadhashaala kaha gaya hai, kyonki ek chauthaai praakrutik aushadhiyon ki khoj yaheen hui hai.[2] vishv ke kul okseejan praapti ka 28% varshaavanon se hi milta hai, ise aksar kaarban daai oksaaid se prakaash sanshleshan ke dvaara prasanskaran kar jaivik adhigrahan ke maadhyam se kaarban ke roop mein bhandaaran karne vaale okseejan utpaadan[3] ke roop mein galat samajh liya jaata hai.

bhoomi star par soorya ka prakaash na pahunch paane ke kaaran varshaavanon ke kai kshetron mein bade vrukshon ke neeche chhote paudhe aur jhaadiyaan bahut kam ug paati hain. is se jungle mein chal paana sambhav ho jaata hai. yadi patton ke vitaanaavaran ko kaat diya jaae ya halaka kar diya jaae, to neeche ki jameen jaldi hi ghani ulajhi hui belon, jhaadiyon aur chhote-chhote pedon se bhar jaaegi, jise jungle kaha jaata hai. do prakaar ke varshaavan hote hain, ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan tatha samasheetoshn varshaavan.


anukram

ushnakatibandheeya

ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan ke general vitran

vishv ke anek varshaavan monsoon ke kam dabaav ke kshetr vaale sthaanon se sambaddh hain, jinhein antar-ushnakatibandheeya sansruti kshetr ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.[4] ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan ve varshaavan hain, jo ushn katibandhon mein sthit hain aur jamaika ke paas (kark rekha evam makar rekha ke beech) paae jaate hain aur dakshin poorv Asia (myaanmaar se fileepeens, Indonesia, paapuaa new gini aur poorvottar Australia), Sri Lanka, Cameroon se kaango (kaango varshaavan) tak up-sahaara Africa, dakshin America (jaise amejan varshaavan), madhya America (jaise bosaavaas, dakshini yukaaten praayadveep - L-peten-beleej-kailaikamul) aur kai prashaant dweep samooh (jaise havaai) mein maujood hain.



ushnakatibandheeya varshaavanon ko "pruthvi ke fefade" kaha gaya hai haalaanki yeh gyaat hai ki ab prakaash sanshleshan ke maadhyam se vaayumandal ko shuddh okseejan pradaan karne mein varshaavanon ka yogadaan kam hi hai.[5][6]

samasheetoshn

samasheetoshn varshaavan ke general vitran.

samasheetoshn varshaavan ve varshaavan hain jo samasheetoshn kshetron mein hain. ve uttari America (uttar pashchimi prashaant mein, british Columbia kost mein aur prince George ke poorv mein rauki maaunten treinch ka ant:sthaleeya varshaavan), Europe mein (british dweep samooh jaise Ireland ke tateeya kshetr, Scotland, dakshini naarve, edriyaatik tat ke saath-saath pashchimi baalkan ke kuchh bhaag aur Spain ke pashchimottar mein, tatha jaurjiya aur Turkey ke tateeya kshetron sahit, kaale saagar ke tateeya kshetron mein, poorvi Asia mein (dakshini cheen mein, taaivaan, Japan aur Korea ke bade bhaag mein aur sakhaalin dweep par tatha roos ke sudoor poorvi tat), dakshin America (dakshini chili) aur Australia tatha New Zealand mein bhi paae ja sakte hain.



paratein

ek ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan aam taur se chaar mukhya paraton mein vibhaajit hota hai, nirgat (imarjeint), vitaanaavaran (kainopi), nimnasth van-vitaan (andarastori) tatha vanasthal (faurest flor), pratyek mein us kshetr vishesh ke saath anukoolan kar paane vaale bhinn paudhe aur jeev paae jaate hain.

nirgat (imarjeint) parat

nirgat (imarjeint) parat mein ek chhoti sankhya mein atyant lambe vruksh, jinhein imarjeints kaha jaata hai, paae jaate hain, jo vitaanaavaran (kainopi) se oonche hote hain, 45-55 meter ki oonchaai tak, haalaanki kuchh prajaatiyaan to 70-80 meter tak pahunch jaati hain.[7][8] unhein kuchh kshetron mein garm taapamaan aur prachand havaaon ka saamana karne ke liye saksham banane ki aavashyakta hai. cheel, titliyaan, chamagaadad aur kuchh bandar is parat mein rahate hain.

van anusandhaan sansthaan Malaysia mein vitaan

vitaanaavaran (kainopi) parat

vitaanaavaran parat mein sarvaadhik lambe pedon ki bahutaayat hoti hai, aamtaur par 30-45 meter lambe. jaivavividhta ke sarvaadhik ghane kshetr vitaanaavaran (kainopi) van mein paae jaate hain, aasann pedon ke sheershon dvaara bane patton ke kamobesh nirantar aavaran se poorn kshetr aachhaadit rahata hai. kuchh anumaanon ke anusaar, sabhi paudhon ki prajaatiyon ka 50 pratishat yahaan hai, arthaat pruthvi par jitna jeevan hai usaka aadha in mein mil sakta hai. in vishaal pedon ke tanon aur shaakhaaon se lipte hue parajeevi paudhe paani aur khanij varsha aur sahaayak paudhon par ekatrit malabe se praapt karte hain. yahaan ke pashu nirgat parat mein paae jaane vaale pashuon jaise hi hain, lekin inmein vividhta adhik hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki sansaar ki sabhi keet prajaatiyon ka ek chauthaai vitaanaavaran varshaavan mein paae jaate hain. lambe samay se vaigyaanik vanaspati evam jeevon ke vaas ki drushti se vitaanaavaran vanon ki samruddhata ke prati shankit rahe hain kintu abhi haal hi mein iski khoj ke vyaavahaarik tareekon ka vikaas kiya gaya hai. bahut pehle 1917 mein, prakrutivaadi William beebe ne ghoshana ki thi ki "jeevan ka ek aur mahaadveep abhi khoja jaana shesh hai, pruthvi par naheen, lekin iske sau se do sau foot oopar jo hajaaron varg meal tak faila hua hai." is praakrutik aabaadi ki sahi maayane mein khoj 1980 ke dashak mein praarambh hui, jab vaigyaaniko ne aadi kamaanon (krausabo) ka upayog kar pedon par rassiyaan feink kar vitaanaavaran tak pahunchane ka tareeka viksit kar liya. vitaanaavaran paraton ka anveshan abhi praarambhik avastha mein hi hai, lekin anya tareekon mein sabse oonchi shaakhaaon ke oopar se udne ke liye havaai poton aur gubbaaron ka upayog shaamil hai, tatha vanasthal (faurest flor par krenon aur vaukave ka nirmaan karna bhi. havaai poton ya isi prakaar ke anya havaai pletafaarmon ka upayog kar ushnakatibandheeya vanon ke vitaanaavaranon tak pahunchane ke vigyaan ko dendronautiks kaha jaata hai.[9]

nimnasth van-vitaan (andarastori) parat

nimnasth van-vitaan (andarastori) parat vitaanaavaran aur vanasthal ke beech sthit hoti hai. nimnasth van-vitaan (andarastori) parat anek jeevon ka vaas sthal hai jinmein shaamil hain, anek prakaar ke pakshi, saanp aur chhipkaliyaan, inke saath hi parabhakshiyon mein jaiguaar, boaa kaunsatriktars aur teinduaa. is star par patte bahut bade hote hain. keet jeevan bhi prachur maatra mein hai. bahut se paudhe jo bade hokar vitaanaavaran star tak jaate hain, nimnasth van-vitaan (andarastori) mein maujood hain. varshaavan ke oopar chamakate soorya ka maatr 5% prakaash hi nimnasth van-vitaan (andarastori) tak pahunchata hai. is parat ko jhaadi parat bhi kaha ja sakta hai, yadyapi jhaadi parat ko ek alag parat bhi maana ja sakta hai.

vanasthal (faurest flor)

blue maaunteins, Australia mein varshaavan

vanasthal (faurest flor) sabse neechi parat hai jahan soorya ka maatr 2% prakaash hi pahunchata hai. keval kam prakaash mein anukoolit paudhe hi is kshetr mein ug sakte hain. nadi kinaaron, daladal aur vrukshaheen bhoomi, jahaan ghane paudhe paae jaate hain, se door vanasthal apekshaakrut vanaspatiheen hai, kyonki soorya ki bahut hi kam roshani yahaan tak pahunchati hai. yahaan par paudhon ke kshaya aur pashuon ke avashesh paae jaate hain jo apaghatan ko teevr karne vaale garm aur nameeyukt vaataavaran ke kaaran sheegra hi gaayab ho jaate hain. yahaan kai prakaar ke kavak paae jaate hain jo pashu evam vanaspati avasheshon ke apaghatan mein sahaayata karte hain.

vanaspati aur jeev-jantu

tanjaaniya mein usambara parvaton mein pashchim usambara ke seengavaala girgit (braideepodiyn fisheri (Bradypodion fischeri)).

vishv ki aadhe se adhik pashuon aur paudhon ki prajaatiyaan varshaavan mein pai jaati hain.[10] varshaavan mein stanapaayi, sareesrup, pakshi aur akasheruki sahit pashu-pakshiyon ki vyaapak shreniyon ko anukool vaataavaran milta hai. stanadhaariyon mein shaamil hain vaanar, billi tatha anya prajaatiyaan. sareesrup parivaaron mein shaamil hain saanp, kachhuaa, girgit aur anya parivaar jabki pakshiyon mein veingeede aur kukulide parivaaron ke pakshi shaamil hain. akasherookiyon ke darjanon parivaar varshaavan mein paae jaate hain. kavak bhi varshaavan mein bahut aam hai kyonki yeh vanaspatiyon aur jeev-jantuon ke apaghatan ke avasheshon se poshan praapt karti hai. vanon ki kataai, vaas yogya sthaan mein kami aur vaayumandal mein jaivaraasaayanik padaarthon ke utsarjan ki vajah se ye prajaatiyaan teji se gaayab ho rahi hain.[11]

mitti

ek ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan mein vanaspati ke vikaas ke baavajood mitti ki gunavatta praay: kaafi kharaab hai. teevr jeevaanvik apaghatan dharan sanchaya ko rokata hai. letaraaijeshan prakriya ke kaaran lohe aur elyoomeeniym oksaaid ka jamaav okseesol ko chamakadaar laal rang deta hai aur kabhi-kabhi khanan yogya jama, jaise bauksaait bhi nirmaan karta hai. adhikaansh pedon ki jadein satah ke paas hi hoti hain, kyonki jameen ke neeche adhik poshak tatv naheen hain, adhikaansh khanij apaghatit hoti pattiyon ki sheersh parat se (mukhyat:) tatha jeevon se praapt hote hain. chhote adh:staron par, visheshat: jvaalaamukhi mool ki ushnakatibandheeya mitti kaafi upajaaoo ho sakti hai. yadi ped saaf kar diye gaye, to varsha khuli mitti par hogi aur use baha le jaaegi, antat: jharane baneinge, fir nadiyaan aur baadh aana sambhav ho jaaega.

vaishvik jalavaayu par prabhaav

ek praakrutik varshaavan vishaal maatra mein kaarban daaioksaaid ka utsarjan aur avashoshan karta hai. ek vaishvik paimaane par, lambi avadhi ke apashisht lagbhag santulan mein rahe hain, taaki ek uthal-puthal rahit varshaavan ka vaayumandaleeya kaarban daaioksaaid star par shuddh prabhaav bahut hi kam hoga.[12] haalaanki unke anya jalavaayu prabhaav (udaaharan ke liye jal vaashp ke pun:chakran se baadalon ka nirmaan) ho sakte hain. aaj kisi bhi varshaavan ko abaadhit naheen maana ja sakta.[13] varshaavanon dvaara kaarban daaioksaaid[14] mukt karne ke peechhe, maanav prerit vanon ki kataai ki mahatvapoorn bhoomika hai, aisa hi praakrutik prakriyaaon jaise sookha jiska parinaam pedon ka khaatma hai.[15] kuchh jalavaayu model paraspar prabhaav daalte hue vanaspati ke saath chalte hain aur anumaan hai ki 2050 ke aas paas sookhe ke kaaran amejan varshaavan ko ek badi haani hogi, jisse van daaibaik ka shikaar hoga aur tadanantar aur adhik kaarban daaioksaaid mukt hogi.[16] ab se pachaas lakh varsh baad, amejn varshaavan kaafi samay poorv hi sookh gaya hoga khud ko savannaah mein parivrtit kar liya hoga (yadi vanon ki kataai ki samast maanaveeya gatividhiyaan raatonraat ruk jaaen tab bhi).[17] hamaare gyaat jaanvaron ke vanshaj amejan ke poorv varshaavan se bane sookhe savannaah ke saath anukoolan kar leinge aur nae garm taapamaan mein fale-fooleinge.[17]

maanav upayog

peroo mein amejn nadi varsha van

ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan lakdi ke saath hi maans aur khaal jaise pashu utpaad pradaan karte hain. varshaavan ka paryatan sthalon ke roop mein bhi aur pradatt paaristhitiki tantr sevaaon ke kaaran bhi mahattv hai. kai khaadya padaarth mool roop se ushnakatibandheeya jangalon se aate the aur abhi bhi jyaadaatar usi kshetr ke bhoo-bhaag mein ugaae jaate hain jahaan pehle praathamik van the.[18] iske alaava, vanaspati vyutpann aushadhiyon ka aam taur se bukhaar, fangal sankraman, jalana, gaistrointestaainal samasyaaon, dard, shvaans rog aur ghaav ke upachaar mein prayog kiya jaata hai.[19]

mool log

18 January 2007 ko, efayooenaeaai ne bhi soochana di hai ki unhonne pushti kar li hai ki 2005 ki 40 se badh kar ab Brazil mein 67 sampark naheen ki gayi janajaatiyaan hain. is vruddhi ke saath, Brazil sampark naheen ki gayi janajaatiyon ke maamale mein new gini dweep se aage nikal gaya hai jahaan abhi tak sarvaadhik sampark naheen ki gayi janajaatiyaan thi.[20] new gini ke iriyn jaaya praant ya pashchim paapuaa dweep mein anumaanit 44 sampark naheen kiye gaye aadivaasi samooh rah rahe hain.[21] vanon ki kataai ki vajah se janajaatiyaan khatre mein hain, vishesh roop se Brazil mein.

madhya afreeki varshaavan mein, vishuvat varshaavan mein rahane vaale shikaari faramar logon mein se ek, apne chhote kad (ausatan dedh meter ya 59 inch se kam) ki visheshata vaale mbooti pigmeej rahate hain. ve 1962, mein kaulin tarnabul ke ek adhyayan the fauresya peepal ka vishay the.[22] dakshin poorv Asia mein rahane vaale pigmeej alag hain jinhein negrito kaha jaata hai.

jangalon ki kataai

dakshini Mexico krushi ke liye jungle jala diye gaye.

poori 20veen shataabdi ke dauraan ushnakatibandheeya aur samasheetoshn varshaavanon mein pedon ki kataai tatha krushi hetu unki safaai hoti rahi hai aur duniya bhar mein varshaavanon ke kshetr sikudte rahe hain.[23] jeev vijnyaaaniyon ne anumaan lagaaya hai ki varshaavanon ke vinaash ke saath unke nivaas sthaan hataaye jaane ke kaaran badi sankhya mein prajaatiyon ko vilupt hone ke liye majaboor kiya ja raha hai (sanbhavat: 50,000 prati varsh se adhik; Harvard vishvavidyaalaya ke io Wilson kehte hain ki is gati se to 50 varsh ke andar pruthvi par samast prajaatiyon ki ek chauthaai ya adhik samaapt ho jaaengi).[24].

varshaavanon ke hraas ka ek anya kaarak shahari kshetron ka vistaar hai. jeevan shaili mein aamool parivartan ki maang ko poora karne ke liye ho rahe ribn vikaas ke kaaran, poorvi Australia ke tateeya kshetron mein viksit ho rahe tatavarti varshaavan, ab durlabh ho gaye hain.[25]


jangalon ko teevr gati se nasht kiya ja raha hai.[26][27][28] pashchim Africa ke varshaavan ka lagbhag 90 pratishat nasht kar diya gaya hai.[29] 2000 varsh poorv manushya ke aagaman se ab tak, medaagaaskar ne apne do tihaai mool varshaavan kho diye hain.[30] vartamaan gati se, Indonesia mein ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan 10 varsh mein kaat diye jaayeinge aur paapuaa new gini mein 13 se 16 varshon mein.[31]

kai deshon,[32] vishesh roop se Brazil ne apne vanon ki kataai ko raashtreeya aapaat sthiti ghoshit kiya hai.[33] sarkaari aankadon ke anusaar, amejan mein vanon ki kataai ki dar 2007 ke baarah maheenon ki tulana mein 2008 mein 69 pratishat adhik ho gayi. [34] dablyoodablyooef ki ek samaachaar report ke anusaar vanon ki kataai se amejan varshaavanon ka lagbhag 60 pratishat 2030 tak nasht ho jaayega.[35]

kalakmul, kaimpesh, Mexico mein.

30 January 2009 ko New York times ke ek lekh mein kaha gaya ki ek anumaan ke anusaar, har saal varshaavan ke kaate gaye pratyek ekad ke liye, katibndhon mein 50 ekad nae van ugaaye ja rahe hain...." nae vanon mein puraani krushi bhoomi par dviteeyak van shaamil hain aur isliye ye avakramit van kahalaate hain.[36]

sitmbar 2009 ki ek nai taaja report ke anusaar, varshaavanon ko bacha sakane ke upaayon ki khoj ke nae avsaron ki shuruaat ho rahi hai. Brazil mein, paryaavaran mantri kaarlos mink ne garv ke saath ghoshana ki hai ki amejn ke vanon ki kataai ki dar pichhle saal 46 pratishat tak gir gayi. iska matlab hai, 21 varsh poorv jab se desh ne vaarshik aankade rakhane shuroo kiye hain, yeh vanon ke kaate jaane ka nimnatam star hai. lekin Brazil ne na keval samagr roop mein vanon ki kataai ko kam kiya hai balki vanon ke hraas ki gati ko bhi dheema kiya hai. vaarshik giraavat ab do hajaar se adhik hai. jab ek desh adhik samruddh aur adhik audyogeekrut ho jaata hai, to us desh mein vanon ki kataai bhi kam ho jaati hai. isliye, kuchh deshon ke ek samooh mein apavaad hain jahaaain vanon ki kataai itni laabhadaayak hai ki yeh samruddhi ke vikaas mein ek mahatvapoorn hissa ban gayi hai. naya lakshya sirf vanon ki kataai ko rokana hi naheen balki lambi avadhi ke liye van prabandhan karna hai, jo ek bade paimaane par hota hai. varshaavan ki raksha ke liye adhik police adhikaari aur avaidh pravesh ko rokana.[37]

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/e' not found.

  • baadal van
  • paaristhitiki
  • antardesheeya varshaavan
  • yathaavat van paridrushya
  • jungle
  • varshaavan foundation fund

sandarbh

  1. "Rainforests.net - Variables and Math". http://www.rainforests.net/variables.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-04.
  2. pashu kendra mein varshaavan
  3. varshaavanon ke khooni nivaasi
  4. hobgood (2008). satah dabaav aur hava ki global paitarn. ohiyo state university. 08-03-2009 ko pun:praapt.
  5. broker, vaales S. (2006). "breeding iji: Et tu, O2." Columbia vishvavidyaalaya Columbia.edu
  6. moran, ef.E., "Brazil ke amejn mein vanon ki kataai aur bhoomi ka prayog," maanav paaristhitikeeya, khand 21, sankhya 1, 1993"
  7. Bourgeron, Patrick S.. "Spatial Aspects of Vegetation Structure". In Frank B. Golley. Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems. Structure and Function. Ecosystems of the World (14A san॰). Elsevier Scientific. pp. 29–47. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0444419861.
  8. "Sabah". Eastern Native Tree Society. http://www.nativetreesociety.org/worldtrees/sea_ei/malaysia/sabah2005.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-11-14.
  9. deindronautiks - parichay
  10. varshaavan ke tathya
  11. vanon ki kataai ke prabhaav-unmoolan
  12. Grida.no
  13. luis, S.L., filips, O.L., bekar, ti.aar., lauyad, J. eight al. 2004 "ushnakatibandheeya van sanrachana aur gatisheelata mein sammilit parivartan: 50 dakshin ameriki lambi avadhi ke bhookhandon dvaara saboot" fil. traans. aar. society London. 359
  14. malahi, vaai aur gres, J. 2000 "ushnakatibandheeya vanon aur vaataavaran mein kaarban daaioksaaid" tri 15
  15. "Drought may turn forests into carbon producers". The Age (Melbourne). 2004-03-06. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/03/06/1078464675256.html?from=storyrhs.
  16. Metoffice.gov.uk[mrut kadiyaaain]
  17. a aa the future is wild television prograim
  18. maayars, N. (1985). praathamik srot . dablyoo. dablyoo. nortan end company, New York, peepi 189-193.
  19. antim pepar: varshaavan ke aushadheeya moolya 15 May 2003, amaanda hedet May 2003
  20. adhik viyukt amejn janajaatiyon ke nishaan Brazil ne dekhe
  21. BBC (BBC): alag janajaatiyon ke saath pehla sampark?
  22. the traaibal peepals, thinkakvest (ThinkQuest)
  23. agale dashak tak poora varshaavan gaayab hone ko taiyaar hai, the indeepeindeint
  24. bhaari prajaati ki kami ko rokane ke liye vaarta koshish karta hai, New York times
  25. litoral varshaavan-yeh dhamaki kyon hai?
  26. Thomas maireint: out of the Woods, the indeepeindeint
  27. Brazil: amejn van vinaash ka dar teen guna hai, FOXNews.com, 29 September 2008
  28. paapuaa new gini ke varshaavan sonch se bhi pehle gaayab ho rahe hain
  29. varshaavan aur krushi
  30. vigyaan: maunitr, medaagaaskar ke sikudte hue varshaavan ko upagrah ne anushravan kiya, 19 May 1990, new saaintist
  31. Asia ke vanon ki kataai ka kaala chhed cheen hai, AsiaNews.it, 24 March 2008
  32. 2007 mein amejan mein vanon ki kataai teji se badhi, Usatoday.com, 24 January 2008
  33. Vidal, John (20 May 2005). "Rainforest loss shocks Brazil". guardian.co.uk (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2005/may/20/brazil.environment. abhigman tithi: 7 July 2010.
  34. Brazil: amejan vanon ki kataai aur bigad raha hai, Msnbc.com, 30 August 2008
  35. Benjamin, Alison (6 December 2007). "More than half of Amazon will be lost by 2030, report warns". guardian.co.uk (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/dec/06/conservation.endangeredhabitats. abhigman tithi: 7 July 2010.
  36. varsha vanon par new jangals ne ek bahas prastut kiya, the New York times, 30 January 2009
  37. DN.se

aage padhein

  • butler, aar.A. (2005) a place out of time: traupikl renafaurest end the perils de face . online prakaashit: Rainforests.mongabay.com
  • richrds, pi.dabloo. (1996). the traupikl ren faurest . 2nd Ed. Cambridge university press ISBN 0-521-42194-2
  • vhitmor ti.si. (1998) N introduction too traupikl ren faurest 2nd Ed. Oxford university press. ISBN 0-19-850147-1

baahari kadiyaaain