varnamaala

tibbati varnamaala
yeh cheeni bhaasha ka ek chitralipi-aadhaarit shabd hai, jiska arth 'kitaab' ya 'lekh' hota hai - yeh akshar naheen hai aur iska sambandh kisi dhvani se naheen hai - Japan mein ise "kaakoo" padha jaata hai jabki cheen mein ise "shoo" padha jaata hai

kisi ek bhaasha ya anek bhaashaaon ko likhne ke liye prayukt maanak prateekon ke kramabaddh samooh ko varnamaala (=varnon ki maala ya samooh) kehte hain. udaaharan ke liye devanaagari ki varnamaala mein a aa i E u oo ri ri lru lru A ai O au an a: k kh g gh ङ. ch chh j jh nya. t th d dh n. t th the dh na. p f b bh m. ya r l va. sh sh s h ko 'devanaagari varnamaala' kehte hain aur a b c d ... z ko roman varnamaala (roman alfaabet) kehte hain.

varnamaala is maanyata par aadhaarit hai ki varn, bhaasha mein aane waali mool dhvaniyon (svanim ya foneem) ka pratinidhitv karte hain. ye dhvaniyaaain ya to un aksharon ke vartamaan uchchaaran par aadhaarit hoti hain ya fir aitihaasik uchchaaran par. kintu varnamaala ke alaava likhne ke anya tareeke bhi hain jaise shabd-chinh (logograafi), silaibari aadi. shabd-chihnan mein pratyek lipi chinh poore-ke-poore shabd, roopim (morpheme) ya simaantik ikaai ko niroopit karta hai. isi tarah silaibari mein pratyek lipi chinh kisi akshar (syllable (varn naheen)) ko niroopit karta hai.

anya vidhiyon mein bhaavachitron ka istemaal hota hai (jaisa ki cheeni bhaavachitron mein) ya fir chinh shabdaanshon ko darshaate hain. isi tarah, praacheen misri bhaasha ek chitralipi thi jismein kisi varnamaala ka prayog naheen hota tha kyonki usaki lipi ka har chinh ek shabd ya avadhaarana (kaunsaipt) darshaata tha.

anukram

prakaar

pratyek varnamaala mein do prakaar ke varn hote hain svar varn tatha vyanjan varn. vyanjanon ke saath svar lagaane ke bhinn tareekon ke aadhaar par varnamaalaaon ko teen vargon mein baanta jaata hain:[1]

  • roodhi varnamaala (simple or 'true' alphabet) - jaisi ki yoonaani varnamaala, jismein svar bhinn aksharon ke saath hi lagte hain, jaise ki 'pemir' shabd ko 'πaaεaaμaaιaaρ' likha jaata hai (jismein ε aur ι ke svar varn spasht roop se jodne hote hain).
  • aaboogida (abugida) - jaise ki devanaagari jismein maatra ke chihnon ke jriye vyanjanon ke saath svar jode jaate hain. masalan 'pemir' ko 'pa​aaemair' naheen likhte balki 'p' ke saath chinh lagaakar use 'pe' aur 'm' ke saath chinh lagaakar use 'mi' kar dete hain. in maatra chihnon ko angreji mein 'daayaakritik' (diacritic) kaha jaata hai.
  • abajad (abjad) - jaise ki foneeshiyaai varnamaala jismein vyanjanon ke saath svaron ke na to varn lagte hain aur na hi maatra chinh balki padhne vaale ko sandarbh dekhkar andaaja lagaana hota hai ki kaunase svar istemaal kare. vaise to arabi-faarasi lipi mein maatra chihnon ki vyavastha hai lekin kabhi-kabhi unhein naheen likha jaata, jis se ve lipiyaaain prayog mein kuchh had tak abajadon jaisi ban jaati hain. 'بaaنaaتaaی' ko 'binti' bhi padha ja sakta hai aur 'bunati' bhi kyonki shuroo ke 'ب' ('b') vyanjan ke saath koi svar chinh naheen laga hua hai.

anya bhaashaaoain mein

'varnamaala' ko angreji mein 'ailfaabait' (alphabet) kehte hain. arabi, faarasi, kurdi aur madhya poorv ki anya bhaashaaoain mein ise 'alif-bei' ya sirf 'alif-be' kehte hain (jo arabi-faarasi lipi ke pehle do aksharon ka naam hai).

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Writing systems: a linguistic approach, Henry Rogers, Wiley-Blackwell, 2005, ISBN 978-0-631-23464-7, ... an alphabet is a writing system in which all phonemes, both consonant and vowels, are represented ... an abjad is like an alphabet, but only consonants are written, not vowels ... in an abugida, the vowels are written as diacritics on the consonants ...