vargiki

Hierarchical clustering diagram.png

moolat: jeev-jantuon ke vargeekaran ko vargiki (taiksonaumi) ya 'vargeekaran vigyaan' kehte the. kintu aajkal ise vyaapak arth mein prayog kiya jaata hai. ise gyaan ke vividh kshetron mein prayog mein laaya jaata hai. at: vastuon va siddhaanton (aur lagbhag kisi bhi cheej) ka bhi vargeekaran kiya ja sakta hai. 'vargiki' shabd do artho mein prayukt hota hai -

  • (k) vastuon ka vargeekaran ke liye, tatha
  • (kh) vargeekaran ke aadhaarbhoot tattvon ke liye

jis tarah kaaryaalayon mein bhinn bhinn kaarya sambandhi likhit patra pruthak-pruthak faailon mein rakhe jaate hain, usi tarah adhyayan ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki vibhinn jaatiyon ke jantu aur paudhe vibhinn shreniyon mein rakhe jaaeain. is tarah jantuon aur paadap ke vargeekaran ko vargiki (Taxonomy), ya vargeekaran vigyaan kehte hain. angreji mein vargiki ke liye do shabdon ka upayog hota hai, ek hai taiksaunomi (Taxonomy-vargiki) aur doosra sistemaitiks (Systematics - kramabaddhata). taiksaunomi shabd greek shabd "taiksis", jiska arth hai kram se rakhana aur "nomos", jiska arth hai niyam, ke jod se hua hai. at: taiksaunomi ka arth hua kram se rakhane ka niyam. san 1813 mein kaindaul (Candolle) ne is shabd ka prayog paadap vargeekaran ke liye kiya tha. sistemaitiks shabd "sistaima" se bana hai. yeh laitin-greek shabd hai. iska prayog praarambhik prakrutivaadiyon ne vargeekaran pranaali ke liye kiya tha. kaarl leeniys (Linnaeus) ne 1735 E. mein ""sistema naichuri"" (Systema Naturee) naamak pustak sistemaitiks shabd ke aadhaar par likhi thi. aadhunik yug mein ye donon shabd paadap aur jantuvargeekaran ke liye prayukt hote hain.

anukram

jantu vargiki

vargiki ka mool nirmaan aakaaraki ya aakrutivijnyaaan (morphology), kriyaavijnyaaan (physiology), paristhitiki (ecology) aur aanuvanshiki ((genetics) par aadhaarit hai. anya vaigyaanik anushaasanon ki tarah yeh bhi anek prakaar ke gyaan, mat aur pranaaliyon ka sanshleshan hai, jiska prayog vargeekaran ke kshetr mein hota hai. jeevavijnyaaan sambandhi kisi prakaar ke vishleshan ka pratham sopaan hai suvyavasthit dhang se usaka vargeekaran; at: paadap, ya jantu ke adhyayan ka pehla kadam hai usaka naamakaran, vargeekaran aur tab varnan.

aajkal paadap ki chaar lakh jaatiyon se adhik jaatiyaaain gyaat hain. ye lineeas ke samay se saathaguni adhik hain. prati varsh lagbhag 4,750 nai jaatiyon ka varnan hota hai. samaanaarthak (synonyms) aur upajaatiyon (subspecies) ko milaakar keval fenarogaims (Phanerogams) aur kriptaugaims (cryptogams) naamak paadap samoohon mein 1763 se 1942 E. tak das lakh se bhi adhik naam diye ja chuke hain.

varnit jantuon ki jaatiyaaain ginti mein paadap jaatiyon se kaheen adhik hain. upajaatiyon ko milaakar 20 lakh se adhik jantujaatiyon ke naam gyaat hain aur prati varsh lagbhag 10,000 nai jaatiyon ka varnan hota hai.

vargeekaran ka itihaas

vargeekaran vigyaan ka itihaas utana hi puraana hai jitna maanav ka itihaas. samajh boojh hote hi manushya ne aas paas ke jantuon aur paudhon ko pehchaanana tatha unako naam dena praarambh kiya.

grees ke anek praacheen vidvaan, visheshat: hipaukreteej (Hippocrates, 46-377 E. poo.) ne aur dimaukrits (Democritus, 465-370 E. poo.), ne apne adhyayan mein jantuon ko sthaan diya hai. spasht roop se arastoo (Aristotle, 384-322 E. poo.) ne apne samay ke gyaan ka upayukt sankalan kiya hai. airistautal ke ullekh mein vargeekaran ka praarambh dikhaai padta hai. inka mat hai ki jantu apne rahan sahan ke dhang, svabhaav aur shaareerik aakaar ke aadhaar par pruthak kiye ja sakte hain. inhonne pakshi, machhali, hvel, keet aadi jantusamoohon ka ullekh kiya hai aur chhote samoohon ke liye koliyauptera (Coleoptera) aur diptera (Diptera) aadi shabdon ka bhi prayog kiya hai. is samay ke vanaspativid arastoo ki vichaaradhaara se aage the. unhonne sthaaneeya paudhon ka safal vargeekaran kar rakha tha. branafels (Brunfels, 1530 E.) aur bauhin (Bauhim, 1623 E.) paadap vargeekaran ko safal raaste par laanevaale vaigyaanik the, parantu jantuon ka vargeekaran karanevaale is samay ke visheshagya ab bhi arastoo ki vichaaradhaara ke antargat kaarya kar rahe the.

jantushaastr visheshagyon mein John re (John Ray, 1627-1705 E.) pratham vyakti the, jinhonne jaati (species) aur vansh (genus) mein antar spasht kiya aur praacheen vaigyaaniko mein ye pratham the, jinhonne uchchatar praakrutik vargeekaran kiya. inka prabhaav sveedan ke rahanevaale mahaan prakrutivaadi kaarl leeniys (1707-1778) par pada. lineeas ne is disha mein adviteeya kaarya kiya. isliye inhein vargeekaran vigyaan ka janmadaata maana jaata hai.

athaarahaveen shataabdi mein vikaasavaad ke vichaaron ka prabhaav vargeekaran vigyaan par pada. unneesaveen shataabdi ke madhya mein yeh prabhaav apne shikhar par pahunch gaya. isi samay dooravarti sthaanon ke jantuon mein vargeekaran visheshagyon ki gambhir ruchi ho gayi thi. ve door deshon ke jaanvaron ke vishay mein jaankaari karna chaahate the aur parichit jaanvaron se unka sambandh karna chaahate the. isliye is samay lambi jalayaatraaeain hui. door door ke jaanvaron ka adhyayan kiya gaya aur unke vansh tatha kutunb aadi ka adhyayan kiya gaya. ek aisi yaatra beegle naamak jahaaj par hui thi jismein Charles daarvin naamak prakrutivaadi bhi sammilit tha. is kaal mein vargeekaran vigyaan mein badi pragati ki gayi aur vargeekaran mein anek nai jaatiyaaain, vansh aur kutunb jode gaye.

beesaveen shataabdi mein kiya gaya vargeekaran vigyaan ki visheshata hai. haksali (Huxely, 1940 E.) ke vichaaraanusaar aadhunik vargeekaran vigyaan bhoogol, paaristhitiki (ecology), koshiki (cytology) aur aanuvanshiki (genetics) aadi ka sanshleshan hai. pehle samay mein vargeekaran vigyaan ka aadhaar tha "prakaar" (type), jisko aakrutik lakshanon ki sahaayata se upasthit karte the. aadhunik vargeekaran vigyaan mein jaatiyon ka varnan poornataya aakrutik lakshanon par aadhaarit naheen hai, jaivik hai, jiski vajah se bhaugolik, paaristhitik, jananeeya tatha kuchh anya lakshanon par bhi dhyaan diya jaata hai. praroop sankalpana (type concept) shreniyon ki sthirta ko vistrut roop deti hai, ek doosare ke beech antar ko badhaati hai aur parivrtanasheelata ko kam karti hai. iske vipreet hai janasankhya sankalpana (population concept), jiske anusaar speesheej parivrtanasheel janasankhya se bani hai aur sthir naheen hai.

utkram se vishesh samoohon athva shreniyon ki paribhaasha karna vargeekaran ka nishchit dhang hai. lineeas ne aisi paaainch shreniyaaain banaai theen :

klaasis (Classic) athva varg, gan (Ordo), jeenas (Grnus) athva vansh, speesheej (Species) athva jaati aur vairaaitaaj (Varietas) athva prajaati.

pratyek shreni mein ek athva ek se adhik neeche star ke samooh sammilit hote hain aur ve nimn shreni banaate hain. isi tarah pratyek kramik shreni ek athva ek se adhik ooainchi shreni se sambandhit hoti hai. ye shreniyaaain praakrutik prabhed kam karke ek vyaapak pranaali bana deti hain.

gyaan ke vikaas ke saath saath in shreniyon ki sankhya badhti gayi. jagat aur varg ke beech sangh aur gan (Order) tatha vansh ke beech mein kutunb naamak shreniyaaain jodi gayi. lineeas ke vichaaraanusaar prajaati (Varietas) ek vaikalpik shreni hai, jiske antargat bhaugolik athva vyaktigat vibhinnata aati hai. is tarah ab nimn saat shreniyaaain ho gayi hain :

jagat (Kingdom), sangh (Phylum), varg (Class), gan (Order), kutunb (Family) vansh (Genus) aur jaati (Species).

vargeekaran ki aur adhik parishuddh vyaakhya ke liye in shreniyon ko bhi vibhaajit kar anya shreniyaaain banaai gayi hain. adhiktar mool naam ke pehle adhi (Super) athva up (Sub) upasargon (Prefixes) ko jodkar in shreniyon ka naamakaran kiya gaya hai. udaaharanaarth, adhign (super order) aur upagan (suborder) aadi. ooainchi shreniyon ke liye kai naam prastaavit kiye gaye, parantu saamaanya prayog mein ve naheen aate. keval aadim jaati (tribe) ka kutunb aur vansh ke beech prayog kiya jaata hai. kuchh lekhakon ne, jaise sinpasan, (Sympson, 1945 E.) ne gan aur varg ke beech sahagan (Cohort) naam ka prayog kiya hai.

is tarah saadhaaran taur se kaam laai jaanevaali shreniyon ki sankhya is samay nimnalikhit hai :

jagat (Kingdom), sangh (Phylum), upasangh (Subphylum), adhivrg (Superclass), varg (Class) upavarg (Subclass), sahagan ya kohaurt (Cohort), adhign (Superorder), gan (Order), upagan (Suborder), adhikul (Superfamily), kul (Family), upakul (Subfamily), aadim jaati (Tribe), vansh (Genus), upavansh (Subgenus), jaati (Species) tatha upajaati (Subspecies).

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain