varangal

varangal
shahar
nirdeshaank: (nirdeshaank dhooaindhein)
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya telangaana
mahaapaur
saansad

varangal shahar, uttari telangaana raajya, dakshin–poorv Bhaarat mein sthit hai. yeh chennai–kaajipett–dilli raajamaarg par sthit hai. varangal 12veen sadi mein utkarsh par rahe aandhr pradesh ke kaakateeyon ki praacheen rajdhani tha. vartamaan shahar ke dakshin–poorv mein sthit varangal kila kabhi do deevaaron se ghira hua tha. jinmein bheetari deevaar ke patthar ke dwaar (sanchaar) aur baahari deevaar ke avashesh maujood hain. 1162 mein nirmit 1000 stambhon wala mandir shahar ke bheetar hi sthit hai.

anukram

utpatti

varangal ya varankal–telagu shabd orukal ya orugalsu ka apabhransh hai, jiska arth hai 'ek shila'. isse taatparya us vishaal akeli chattaan se hai jis par kakaateeya nareshon ke samay ka banavaaya hua durg avasthit hai. kuchh abhilekhon se gyaat hota hai ki sanskrut mein is sthaan ke ye naam tatha paryaaya bhi prachalit the–ekopal, ekashila, ekopalapuri ya ekopalapuram. raghunaath bhaaskar ke kosh mein ekashilaanagar, ekashaaligr, ekashilaapaatan–ye naam bhi milte hain. taalami dvaara ullikhit korunakula varangal hi jaan padta hai.

itihaas

11veen shati E. se 13veen shati E. tak varangal ki ginti dakshin ke pramukh nagaron mein thi. is kaal mein kakaateeya vansh ke raajaaon ki rajdhani yahaaain rahi. inhonne varangal durg, hanamakonda mein sahasr stambhon wala mandir aur paalamapet ka raamappa–mandir banavaae the. varangal ka kila 1199 E. mein banana praarambh hua tha. kakaateeya raaja ganapati ne iski neenv daali aur 1261 E. mein rudrama devi ne ise poora karavaaya tha. kile ke beech mein sthit ek vishaal mandir ke khandahar mile hain, jiske chaaron or chaar toran dwaar the. saaainchi ke stoop ke toranon ke samaan hi in par bhi utkrusht moortikaari ka pradarshan kiya gaya hai. kile ki do bhittiyaaain hain. andar ki bhitti patthar ki aur baahar ki mitti ki bani hai. baahari deevaar 72 foot chaudi aur 56 foot gahari khaai se ghiri hai. hanamakonda se 6 meal dakshin ki or ek teesari deevaar ke chinh bhi milte hain. ek itihaas lekhak ke anusaar parakote ki paridhi tees meal ki thi. jiska udaaharan Bhaarat mein anyatr naheen hai. kile ke andar aganit moortiyaaain, alankrut prastar-khand, abhilekh aadi praapt hue hain. jo shitaavakhaaain ke darbaar bhavan mein sangruheet hain. iske atirikt anek chhote bade mandir bhi yahaaain sthit hain. alankrut toranon ke bheetar narasinh svaami, padyaakshi aur govind raajulusvaami ke praacheen mandir hain. inmein se antim ek ooainchi pahaadi ke shikhar par avasthit hai. yahaaain se door-door tak ka manoram drushya dikhlaai deta hai. 12veen 13veen shati ka ek vishaal mandir bhi yahaaain se kuchh door par hai, jiske aaaingan ki deevaar duhari tatha asaadhaaran roop se sthool hai. yeh visheshata kakaateeya shaili ke anuroop hi hai. iski baahari deevaar mein teen praveshadvaar hain, jo varangal ke kile ke mukhya mandir ke toranon ki bhaaainti hi hain. yahaaain se do kakaateeya abhilekh praapt hue hain–pahala saatafut lambi vedi par aur doosra ek tadaag ke baaaindh par ankit hai. varangal par praarambh mein dakshin ke prasiddh aandhr vansheeya nareshon ka adhikaar tha. tatpashchaat madhyakaal mein chaalukyon aur kakaateeyon ka shaasan raha. kakaateeya vansh ka sarvapratham prataapashaali raaja ganapati tha jo 1199 E. mein gaddi par baitha. ganapati ka raajya gondavaana se kaaainchi tak aur Bengal ki khaadi se beedar aur Hyderabad tak faila hua tha. isi ne pehli baar varangal mein apni rajdhani banaai aur yahaaain ke prasiddh durg ki neenv daali. ganapati ke pashchaat usaki putri rudrama devi ne 1260 se 1296 E. tak raajya kiya. isi ke shaasan kaal mein Italy ka prasiddh paryatak maarkopolo motupalli ke bandargaah par utar kar aandhr pradesh mein aaya tha. maarkopolo ne varangal ka varnan karte hue likha hai ki yahaaain par sansaar ka sabse baareek sooti kapda (malamal) taiyaar hota hai. jo makadi ke jaale ke samaan dikhaai deta hai. sansaar mein koi aisa raaja ya raani naheen hai jo is aashcharyajanak kapde ke vastr pahan kar swayam ko gauravaanvit na maane.

shaasan kaal

rudramaadevi ne 36 varsh tak badi yogyata se raajya kiya. use rudradev mahaaraaj kehkar sambodhit kiya jaata tha. prataaparudr (shaasan kaal 1296-1326 E.) rudrama dohitr tha. isne paandayanaresh ko haraakar kaaainchi ko jeeta. isne chh: baar musalmaanon ke aakramanon ko vifal kiya, kintu 1326 E. mein ulugakhaaain ne jo peechhe muhammad bin tuglak naam se Delhi ka sultaan hua, kakaateeya ke raajya ki samaapti kar di. usane prataaparudr ko bandi banaakar Delhi le jaana chaaha tha kintu maarg mein hi narmada nadi ke tat par is svaabhimaani aur veer purush ne apne praan tyaag kar diye. kakaateeyon ke shaasanakaal mein varangal mein hindu sanskruti tatha sanskrut ki or telugu bhaashaaon ki abhootapoorv unnati hui. shaiv dharm ke antargat paashupat sampradaaya ka yeh utkarshakaal tha. is samay varangal ka door-door ke deshon se vyaapaar hota tha.

varangal ke sanskakrut kaviyon mein sarvashaastr vishaarad ka lekhak veerabhallaatadeshik aur nalakeertikaamudi ke rachayita agastya ke naam ullekhaneeya hein. kaha jaata hai ki alankaarashaastr ke prasiddh granth prataaparudrabhooshan ka lekhak vidyanaath yahi agastya tha. ganapati ka hastisenaapati jayap, nrutyaratnaavali ka rachayita tha. sanskrut kavi shaakalyamall bhi isi ka samakaaleen tha. telagu ke kaviyon mein ranganaath raamaayanum ka lekhak palakuriki somanaath mukhya hain. isi samay bhaaskar raamaayanum bhi likhi gayi. varangal naresh prataaparudr swayam bhi telagu ka achha kavi tha. isne neetisaar naamak granth likha tha. Delhi ke tuglak vansh ki shakti ksheen hone par 1335-1336 ke pashchaat mein kapaya naayak ne svatantr raajya sthaapit kar liya. iski rajdhani varangal mein thi. 1442 E. mein varangal par bahamani raajya ka aadhiptya ho gaya aur tatpashchaat golakunda ke kutubashaahi nareshon ka. is samay shitaab khaaain varangal ka soobedaar niyukt hua. usane sheedhr hi svatantr raajya sthaapit kar liya. kintu kuchh samay ke uparaant varangal ko golakunda ke saath hi aurangajeb ke vistrut mugl saamraajya ka ang banana pada. mugl saamraajya ke antim samay mein varangal ki nai riyaasat Hyderabad mein sammilit kar li gayi.

udyog aur vyaapaar

varangal ab ek vaanijyik evam audyogik kendra hai. iske pramukh utpaadan kaaleen, kambal evam resham hain.

shikshan sansthaan

shahar mein chikitsa, abhiyaantriki, kala aur vigyaan ke mahaavidyaalaya hain.

janasankhya

2001 ki ganana ke anusaar varangal shahar ki janasankhya 5,28,570 hai. aur varangal jile ki kul janasankhya 32,31,174 hai.

sandarbh