varaah mihir

varaahamihir (var:mihir) isa ki paaainchaveen-chhathi shataabdi ke bhaarateeya ganitjnya evam khagolajnya the. vaaraahamihir ne hi apne panchasiddhaantika mein sabse pehle bataaya ki ayanaansh ka maan 50.32 sekend ke baraabar hai.

kaapitthak (ujjain) mein unke dvaara viksit ganiteeya vigyaan ka gurukul saat sau varshon tak adviteeya raha. var:mihir bachapan se hi atyant medhaavi aur tejasvi the. apne pita aadityadaas se paramparaagat ganit evam jyotish seekhakar in kshetron mein vyaapak shodh kaarya kiya. samay maapak ghat yantr, indraprasth mein lauhastambh ke nirmaan aur Iran ke shahanshaah nausheravaaain ke aamantran par jundeeshaapur naamak sthaan par vedhashaala ki sthaapana - unke kaaryon ki ek jhalak dete hain. var:mihir ka mukhya uddeshya ganit evam vigyaan ko janahit se jodna tha. vastut: rigved kaal se hi Bhaarat ki yeh parampara rahi hai. var:mihir ne poornat: iska paripaalan kiya hai.

anukram

jeevani

varaahamihir ka janm san 499 mein ek braahman parivaar mein hua. yeh parivaar ujjain ke nikat kapitth(kaayatha) naamak gaanv ka nivaasi tha. unke pita aadityadaas soorya Bhagwan ke bhakt the. unheen ne mihir ko jyotish vidya sikhaai. kusumapur (Patna) jaane par yuva mihir mahaan khagolajnya aur ganitjnya aaryabhatt se mile. isse use itni prerana mili ki usane jyotish vidya aur khagol gyaan ko hi apne jeevan ka dhyeya bana liya. us samay ujjain vidya ka kendra tha. gupt shaasan ke antargat vahaan par kala, vigyaan aur sanskruti ke anek kendra panap rahe the. mihir is shahar mein rahane ke liye aa gaye kyonki anya sthaanon ke vidvaan bhi yahaan ekatr hote rahate the. samay aane par unke jyotish gyaan ka pata vikramaaditya chandragupt dviteeya ko laga. raaja ne unhein apne darbaar ke navaratnon mein shaamil kar liya. mihir ne sudoor deshon ki yaatra ki, yahaan tak ki vah yoonaan tak bhi gaye. san 587 mein varaahamihir ki mrutyu ho gayi.

krutiyaaain

550 E. ke lagbhag inhonne teen mahatvapoorn pustakein bruhajjaatak, bruhatsanhita aur panchasiddhaantika, likheen. in pustakon mein trikonamiti ke mahatvapoorn sootr diye hue hain, jo varaahamihir ke trikonamiti gyaan ke parichaayak hain.

panchasiddhaantika mein varaahamihir se poorv prachalit paaainch siddhaanton ka varnan hai. ye siddhaant hain : polishsiddhaant, romakasiddhaant, vasishthasiddhaant, sooryasiddhaant tatha pitaamahasiddhaant. varaahamihir ne in poorvaprachalit siddhaanton ki mahatvapoorn baatein likhkar apni or se 'beej' naamak sanskaar ka bhi nirdesh kiya hai, jisse in siddhaanton dvaara parignit grah drushya ho sakein. inhonne falit jyotish ke laghujaatak, bruhajjaatak tatha bruhatsanhita naamak teen granth bhi likhe hain. bruhatsanhita mein vaastuvidya, bhavan-nirmaan-kala, vaayumandal ki prakruti, vrukshaayurved aadi vishay sammilit hain.

apni pustak ke baare mein varaahamihir kehte hai:

jyotish vidya ek athaah saagar hai aur har koi ise aasaani se paar naheen kar sakta. meri pustak ek surakshit naav hai, jo ise padhega vah use paar le jaayegi.

yeh kori shekhi naheen thi. is pustak ko ab bhi grantharatn samjha jaata hai.

krutiyon ki soochi
  • panchasiddhaantika,
  • bruhajjaatakam,
  • laghujaatak,
  • bruhatsanhita
  • tiknikyaatra
  • bruhadyaatra ya mahaayaatra
  • yogayaatra ya svalpayaatra
  • vruhat vivaahapatal
  • laghu vivaahapatal
  • kutoohalamanjari
  • daivajnyaavallabh
  • lagnavaaraahi

vaigyaanik vichaar tatha yogadaan

baraahamihir vedon ke jnyaaata the magar vah alaukik mein aankhe band karke vishvaas naheen karte the. unki bhaavana aur manovrutti ek vaigyaanik ki thi. apne poorvavarti vaigyaanik aaryabhatt ki tarah unhonne bhi kaha ki pruthvi gol hai. vigyaan ke itihaas mein vah pratham vyakti the jinhonne kaha ki koi shakti aisi hai jo cheejon ko jameen ke saath chipkaaye rakhati hai. aaj isi shakti ko gurutvaakarshan kehte hai. lekin unhonne ek badi galati bhi ki. unhein vishvaas tha ki pruthvi gatimaan naheen hai.

agar yeh ghoom rahi hoti to pakshi pruthvi ki gati ki vipreet disha mein (pashchim ki or) kar apne ghosale mein usi samay vaapas pahunch jaate.

varaahamihir ne paryaavaran vigyaan (ikaaloji), jal vigyaan (haaidroloji), bhoovijnyaaan (jiaaloji) ke sambandh mein kuchh mahatvapoorn tippaniyaan ki. unka kehna tha ki paudhe aur deemak jameen ke neeche ke paani ko ingit karte hain. aaj vaigyaanik jagat dvaara us par dhyaan diya ja raha hai. unhonne likha bhi bahut tha. sanskrut vyaakaran mein dakshata aur chhand par adhikaar ke kaaran unhonne swayam ko ek anokhi shaili mein vyakt kiya tha. apne vishd gyaan aur saras prastuti ke kaaran unhonne khagol jaise shushk vishyon ko bhi rochak bana diya hai jisse unhein bahut khyaati mili. unki pustak panchasiddhaantika (paanch siddhaant), bruhatsanhita, bruhajjaatk (jyotish) ne unhein falit jyotish mein vahi sthaan dilaaya hai jo raajaneeti darshan mein kautilya ka, vyaakaran mein paanini ka aur vidhaan mein manu ka hai.

trikonamiti

nimnanikhit trikonamiteeya sootr vaaraahamihir ne pratipaadit kiye hain-.

vaaraahamihir ne aaryabhatt pratham dvaara pratipaadit jya saarani ko aur adhik parishuddhat banaaya.

ankaganit

varaahamihir ne shoonya evam rinaatmak sankhyaaon ke beejaganiteeya gunon ko paribhaashit kiya. [1]

sankhya siddhaant

varaahamihir 'sankhya-siddhaant' naamak ek ganit granth ke bhi rachayita hain jiske baare mein bahut kam gyaat hai. is granth ke baare mein poori jaankaari naheen hai kyonki iska ek chhota ansh hi praapt ho paaya hai. praapt granth ke baare mein puraavidon ka kathan hai ki ismein unnat ankaganit, trikonamiti ke saath-saath kuchh apekshaakrut saral sankalpanaaon ka bhi samaavesh hai.

kramachaya-sanchaya

varaahamihir ne vartamaan samay mein paaskal trikon (Pascal's triangle) ke naam se prasiddh sankhyaaon ki khoj ki. inka upayog ve dvipd gunaakon (binomial coefficients) ki ganana ke liye karte the. [2][3][4]

prakaashiki

varaahamihir ka prakaashiki mein bhi yogadaan hai. unhone kaha hai ki paraavartan kanon ke prati-prakeernan (back-scattering) se hota hai. unhone apavartan ki bhi vyaakhya ki hai.[5]

sandarbh

1. ^ "the Pañaca-siddhāaantikā ("Five Treatises"), a compendium of Greek, Egyptian, Roman and Indian astronomy. Varāahamihira's knowledge of Western astronomy was thorough. In 5 sections, his monumental work progresses through native Indian astronomy and culminates in 2 treatises on Western astronomy, showing calculations based on Greek and Alexandrian reckoning and even giving complete Ptolemaic mathematical charts and tables. Encyclopæadia Britannica (2007) s.v.Varahamihira ^

2. E. C. Sachau, Alberuni's India (1910), vol. I, p. 153

baahari kadiyaaain