vanaspati vigyaan

paadap jagat ki mahaan vividhta ka ek chhota sa namoona
bataravarth ka pushp

jeev jantuon ya kisi bhi jeevit vastu ke adhyayan ko jeevavijnyaaan ya baayoloji (Biology) kehte hain. is vigyaan ki do mukhya shaakhaaeain hain :

(1) praanivijnyaaan (Zoology), jismein jantuon ka adhyayan hota hai aur

(2) vanaspativijnyaaan (Botany) ya paadapavijnyaaan (Plant Science), jismein paadapon ka adhyayan hota hai.

anukram

paadap evam praani

saamaanya arth mein jeevadhaariyon ko do pramukh vargon - praaniyon aur paadapon - mein vibhkt kiya gaya hai. donon mein anek samaanataaeain hain. donon ki shareerarachanaaeain koshikaaon aur ootakon se bani hain. donon ke jeevanakaarya mein badi samaanata hai. unke janan mein bhi saadrushya hai. unki shvasanakriya bhi praaya: ek si hai. paadap mein jeevan ke anya lakshan, jaise nae jeevadrav ke banaane, nai koshikaaon ko nirantar banaane aur puraani ko nasht hone dene ki kshamata, hote hain. paadapon mein anya jeevalakshan, jaise vardhan, janan ityaadi ki kshamata, bhi paae jaate hain.

paadap praani jeevadhaariyon se kai tarah se bhinn hote hain. jaise paadapon mein parnaharit (chlorophyll) naamak hara padaarth rahata hai, jo praani jeevadhaariyon mein naheen hota. paadapon ki koshikaaon ki deevaarein seluloj (cellulose) ki bani hoti hain, jaisa praani jeevadhaariyon mein naheen hota. adhikaansh paadapon mein gamanasheelata naheen hoti, jo praani jeevadhaariyon ka ek vishisht lakshan hai.

vanaspativijnyaaan ki upayogita

hamaara lagbhag saara bhojan paudhon se hi praapt hota hai, jaise dhaan

vanaspatiyaaain dharati par jeevan ke moolabhoot ansh hain. vanaspatiyaaain aakseejan paida karateen hain. maanav evam anya jantuon ka bhojan unase hi milta hai. vanaspatiyon se reshe (faaibar), indhan, aushadhiyaaain praapt hoteen hai. prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya dvaara paudhe kaarban daai aaksaaid sokhatein hain. pedon se hi imaarati lakadiyaaain evam anya sanrachanaaon ke nirmaan ke liye lakdi milti hai.

at: vanaspatiyon ke baare mein achhi tarah jaankaari hona bahut jaroori hai kyonki-

  • tabhi sansaar ko bhojan mil paaega,
  • jeevan ki moolabhoot samajh viksit karne ke liye bhi vanaspatiyon ka adhyayan aavashyak hai,
  • paryaavaran ke parivartan ko samajhne mein bhi vanaspatishaastr upayogi hai.

paadap vigyaan ki shaakhaaeain

(vistrut jaankaari ke liye paadap vigyaan ki shaakhaaeain dekhein.)

paadapavijnyaaan ke samuchit adhyayan ke liye ise anek shaakhaaon mein vibhkt kiya gaya hai, jinmein nimnalikhit pramukh hain :

1. paadap aakaariki (Plant Morphology) - iske antargat paadap mein aakaar, banaavat ityaadi ka adhyayan hota hai. aakaariki aantar ho sakti hai ya baahya.

2. koshikaanuvanshiki (Cytogenetics) - iske antargat koshika ke andar ki sabhi cheejon ka, koshika tatha keindrak (nucleus) ke vibhaajan ki vidhiyon ka tatha paudhe kis prakaar apne jaise gunonvaali nai peedhiyon ko janm dete hain ityaadi ka, adhyayan hota hai.

3. paadap paristhitiki (Plant Ecology) - iske antargat paadapon aur unke vaataavaran ke aapasi sambandh ka adhyayan hota hai. ismein paudhon ke saamaajik jeevan, bhaugolik vistaar tatha anya milti julati cheejon ka bhi adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

4. paadap shareer-kriya-vigyaan (Plant Physiology) - iske antargat jeevanakriyaaon (life processes) ka bruhat roop se adhyayan hota hai.

5. bhroonavijnyaaan (Embryology) - iske antargat laingik janan ki vidhi mein jab se yugmak bante hain aur garbhaadhaan ke pashchaat bhroon ka poora vistaar hota hai tab tak ki dashaaon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

6. vikaas (Evolution) - iske antargat pruthvi par naana prakaar ke praani ya paadap kis tarah aur kab pehle pahal paida hue honge aur kin anya jeevon se unki utpatti ka sambandh hai, iska adhyayan hota hai.

7. aarthik paadapavijnyaaan - iske antargat paudhon ki upayogita ke sambandh mein adhyayan hota hai.

8. paadapaashmavijnyaaan (Palaeobotany) - iske antargat ham un paudhon ka adhyayan karte hain jo is pruthvi par hajaaron, laakhon ya karodon varsh poorv ugate the par ab naheen ugate. unke avashesh hi ab chattaanon ya pruthvi staron mein dabe yatr tatr paae jaate hain.

9. vargeekaran ya kramabaddh paadapavijnyaaan (Taxonomy or Systematic botany) - iske antargat paudhon ke vargeekaran ka adhyayan karte hain. paadap sangh, varg, gan, kul ityaadi mein vibhaajit kiye jaate hain.

18veen ya 19veen shataabdi se hi angrej ya anya yooropiyn vanaspatijnya Bhaarat mein aane lage aur yahaaain ke paudhon ka varnan kiya aur unke namoone apne desh le gaye. daaktar J. di. hookar ne lagbhag 1860 E. mein Bhaarat ke bahut se paudhon ka varnan apne aath bhaagon mein likhi "flora ov british India" naamak pustak mein kiya hai.

paadap vargeekaran

(vistrut vivran ke liye paadap vargeekaran dekhein.)

daarvin (Darwin) ke vichaaron ke prakaash mein aane ke pashchaat yeh vargeekaran paudhon ki utpatti tatha aapasi sambandhon par aadhaarit hone laga. aise vargeekaran ko 'praakrutik paddhati' (Natural System) kehte hain aur jo vargeekaran is drushtikon ko naheen dhyaan mein rakhate use 'krutrim paddhati' (Artificial System) kehte hain.

  • kavak ya fanjaai (Fungi) aur
  • hipaitisi (Hepaticae),
  • ainthosiroti (Anthocerotae) aur
  • masasaai (Musci)
  • laaikopodiyeleej (Lycopodiales),
  • ikvisiteleej (Equisetales) aur
  • filikeleej (Filicales)
  • pushpodbhid ya fenerogaim (Phanerogam) mein do bade varg hain :*
  • anaavrutabeeji ya jimnosparm (Gymnosperm) aur
  • aavrutabeeji ya ainjiyosparm (Angiosperm)

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain