vaishvik mobile sanchaar pranaali

GSM ke prateek ka prayog susangat haindaset aur upakaranon ki pehchaan ke liye kiya jaata hai
chitr:GSM World Coverage 2008.png
2008 mein GSM ki vishv mein vyaapti

GSM (mobile sanchaar ke liye global system : moolat: group special mobile se) vishv mein mobile fon ke liye sabse lokapriya maanak hai. iske pravartak GSM association ka anumaan hai ki duniya ke 80% mobile baajaar is maanak ka upayog karte hai.[1] GSM ka prayog 212 se adhik deshon aur pradeshon mein kareeb 3 arab se zyaada logon dvaara kiya jaata hai.[2][3] iski sarvavyaapakata ne mobile fon oparetaron ke beech antarraashtreeya roming ko kaafi saamaanya bana diya hai, jisse upabhokta apne mobile ko vishv ke kai hisson mein upayog karne mein saksham ho jaate hai. GSM apne poorvavartiyon se is aashay mein bhinn hai ki ismein sanket aur samvaad channel digital hain aur isliye ise doosari peedhi (2G) ka mobile fon pranaali maana jaata hai. isse yeh bhi taatparya niklata hai ki is pranaali mein data sanchaar ka nirmaan aasaan hai.

GSM maanak ki sarvavyaapakata upabhoktaaon (jo roming aur bina apna fon badle vaahak badalne ki suvidha se laabhaanvit hote hain) aur network oparetaron (jo GSM amal mein laane vaale vibhinn vikretaaon se upakaran chun sakte hain[4]) donon ke liye faayademand hai. GSM ne ek kam laagat vaale (network vaahak ke liye) vaais call ke vikalp ka laghu sandesh seva (SMS jise "tekst mesejing" bhi kehte hai) pravartan kiya hai, jo ab anya mobile maanakon par bhi samarthit hai. ek aur laabh yeh hai ki is maanak mein ek vishvavyaapi aapaatkaaleen telephone number, 112 shaamil hai.[5] isse antarraashtreeya yaatriyon ko kaafi suvidha ho jaati hai, jo sthaaneeya aapaatkaaleen number jaane bina bhi aapaatkaaleen sevaaon ka laabh utha sakte hain.

maanak ke nae sanskaran, mool GSM fon se paarshvagaami sangatata banaae hue hain. udaaharan ke liye, maanak ke release'97 mein general packet radio service (GPRS) ke maadhyam se packet data kshamataaon ko joda gaya. release'99 ne GSM ke vikaas hetu vardhit data dar (EDGE) ke upayog dvaara teevr gati se aankadon ke prasaaran ko upalabdh karaaya.

anukram

itihaas

1982 mein, Europeeya daak aur doorasanchaar prashaasanik sammelan (CEPT) mein ek groop special mobile (GSM) sthaapit kiya gaya, taaki mobile telephone pranaali ke liye ek aisa maanak viksit kar sakein, jiska upayog saare Europe mein sambhav ho.[6] 1987 mein, poore Europe mein ek sarvanishth selyular teleefon pranaali viksit karne ke liye 13 deshon ne ek samjhauta gyaapan par hastaakshar kiye.[7][8]. antat: torleev masang ke netrutv mein SINTEF dvaara nirmit pranaali ko chuna gaya.[9]

1989 mein, GSM ki jimmedaari Europeeya doorasanchaar maanak sansthaan (ETSI) ko saunpi gayi aur GSM vinirdeshon ki pratham praavastha ka prakaashan 1990 mein kiya gaya. 1991 mein pehle GSM network ki shurooaat, eriksan ke saath sanyukt takaneeki aadhaar-tantr ke rakh-rakhaav sahit rediyolinja ne Finland mein ki.[10][11]

takaneeki vivran

selyular radio network

GSM ek selyular network hai, jiska matlab hai mobile fon apne najdeeki sel ko khojate hue isse judte hai.

GSM network mein sel ke paanch alag-alag aakaar hai- sthool, sookshm, piko, femato aur ambrela sel. pratyek sel ka vistaar-kshetr kaaryaanvayan parivesh ke anusaar bhinn hota hai. sthool sel aise sel maane ja sakte hain, jahaan base station enteena ek khanbhe athva aisi imaarat par sthaapit kiya jaata hai, jiski ooainchaai ausat chhaton se oonchi ho.sookshm sel ve hain jinke enteena ki oonchaai, ausat chhat ki oonchaai se kam hoti hai; aam taur par inka upayog shahari kshetron mein kiya jaata hai. piko sel aise chhote sel hain jinka vistaar-vyaas kuchh darjan meter hi hota hai; inka upayog mukhya roop se bhavan ke andar kiya jaata hai. femato sel ve sel hain jinki parikalpana, aavaaseeya ya chhote vyaavasaayik parivesh mein upayog aur ek braudabaind Internet kanekshan ke maadhyam se seva-pradaata ke network se judne ke liye ki gayi hai. ambrela sel ka upayog, chhote sel ke chhaaya-kshetron ko dhakane aur un selon ke beech ki khaali jagah ko bharne ke liye hota hai.

sel ka kshaitij arddh vyaas enteena ki oonchaai, enteena labdhi aur sancharan parivesh ke aadhaar par saikadon meter se lekar kai kilometer tak alag-alag hota hai. vyaavahaarik taur par GSM vinirdesh dvaara samarthit sabse adhik doori hai 35 kilometer (22 meal) ek vistrut sel ki avadhaarana ke kai kaaryaanvayan hain,[12] jahaaain sel ka arddh vyaas enteena pranaali, bhoo-bhaag ke prakaar aur agrim samay ke aadhaar par duguna ya usase bhi zyaada ho sakta hai.

bhavan ke andar vyaapti bhi GSM dvaara samarthit hai aur ek antardvaar pikosel base station ke prayog se athva oorja bhanjak dvaara aapoorit aantarik enteena sahit antardvaar punaraavartak ke jriye ise haasil kiya ja sakta hai, taaki baahari entina se radio sanket bhavan ke andar alag se sanvitrit enteena pranaali tak pahunchaaya ja sakein. ye aam taur par tab vistrut kiye jaate hain, jab ghar ke andar atyadhik call kshamata ki zaroorat ho; udaaharanaarth badi dukaanon ya havaai addon par.tathaapi, yeh poorvaapeksha naheen hai, kyonki kisi najdeeki sel ke radio sanketon ka bhavan ke bheetar pravesh ke jriye aantarik vyaapti upalabdh karaai jaati hai.

GSM mein prayukt adhimishran gausiyn nyoonatam-antaran sanyojan (GMSK) hai, jo ek prakaar ka satat-charan freekvensi antaran sanyojan hai.GMSK mein vaahak par adhimishrit kiye jaane vaale sanket ko freekvensi adhimishrak par aapoorti se pehle gausiyn lo-paas filtar se madhur banaaya jaata hai, jo padosi vaahikaaon ke hastakshep (niktavarti vaahikaaon ka hastakshep) ki aashanka ko kaafi kam karte hain.

shravya upakaranon ke saath hastakshep

kuchh shravya upakaran radio freekvensi hastakshep (RFI) ke prati samvedansheel hote hain, jise in shravya upakaranon ke atirikt parirkshan ya baai-paas sandhaaritr ke prayog se kaafi kam kiya ja sakta hai. tathaapi, aisa karne mein hone waali bhaari laagat, kisi bhi dijaainar ke liye iske auchitya ko siddh karna mushkil kar deti hai.[13]

PA, taar rahit maaikrofon, ghareloo myoojik system, television, computer, betaar fon aur vyaktigat sangeet upakaranon se dit, dit-dit, dit dit-dit, ki dhvani nikaalne ke liye najdeeki GSM haindaset dvaara prerit kiya jaana ek aam ghatna hai. jab ye audio upakaran GSM haindaset ke nikat kshetr mein rahate hain, to radio sanket itne majboot hote hain ki thos pravarddhak shravya shrrunkhala mein ek sansoochak ka kaarya karte hai. klik ki dhvani hi shakti-visfot ki dyotak hai, jo TDMA signal ki sanvaahak hai. ye sanket car ke steeriyo ya portebal audio player jaise anya electronic upakaranon se hastakshep ke liye jaane jaate hain. yeh haindaset ke dijaain aur iska US nikaaya FCC dvaara banaae gaye kade niyam aur viniymon dvaara bhaag 15 mein ilektronik upakaranon ke saath hastakshep ke niyam aur viniymon ke anuroop hone par bhi nirbhar karta hai.

GSM freekvensi

GSM network kai vibhinn freekvensi vistaar seemaaon mein kaarya karta hai (2G ke liye GSM freekvensi vistaar-seema aur 3G ke liye UMTS freekvensi band mein vibhkt hai). adhikaansh 2G GSM network 900 MHz ya 1800 MHz band par kaarya karte hain. kuchh Amreeki desh (Canada aur sanyukt raajya America sahit) 850 MHz aur 1900 MHz ka prayog karte hain, kyonki 900 aur 1800 MHz freekvensi band pehle hi aabantit kiye gaye the. Europe mein jyaadaatar 3G GSM network 2100 MHz freekvensi band mein kaarya karte hain.

kuchh deshon mein durlabh 400 aur 450 MHz freekvensi band nirdisht kiye gaye hain, jahaan in freekvensiyon ka upayog pehli peedhi ki pranaaliyon ke liye ho raha tha.

GSM-900, mobile station se base station jaankaari bhejane ke liye (apalink) 890–915 MHz ka upayog karta hai aur anya disha (daaunalink) ke liye 935–960 MHz ka upayog karta hai, jo 200 kHz ke antaraal par 125 RF channel (channel sankhya 0 se 124 tak) upalabdh karaata hai. 45 MHz ka doopleks antaraal prayukt hota hai.

kuchh deshon mein GSM-900 band ko adhik freekvensi kshetr ko aavrut karne ke liye vistrut kiya gaya hai. yeh mool GSM-900 band mein 50 channel (channel sankhya 975 se 1023) jodte hue 'vistrut GSM', E-GSM, 880–915 MHz (apalink) tatha 925–960 MHz (daaunalink) ka upayog karta hai. samay vibhaajan bahusanketan ka prayog prati radio freekvensi channel, aath poorn-dar ya solah arddh-dar vaak channel ko anumat karne ke liye hota hai. TDMA frem mein aath radio samayaavadhi (aath visfot avadhiyon ke) samaahit hain. arddh dar vaale channel ek hi samayaavadhi mein vaikalpik frem ka upayog karte hain. sabhi 8 channelon ke liye channel data dar 270.833 kbit/s aur frem avadhi 4,615 ms hain.

is haindaset ki prasaaran shakti GSM850/900 mein adhiktam 2 vaat aur GSM1800/1900 mein 1 vaat hai.

dhvani kodek

GSM ne 5.6 tatha 13 kbit/s ke beech dhvani ko sankuchit karne ke liye kai prakaar ke dhvani kodek ka istemaal kiya hai. moolat: do kodek, yatha arddh dar (5.6 kbit/s) aur poorn dar (13 kbit/s) ka prayog hua hai, jinka naamakaran unhein aabantit data channel prakaar ke aadhaar par hua hai. inmein ek aisi pranaali ka prayog hua hai, jo rekheeya poorvakathaneeya koding (LPC) par aadhaarit hoti hai. bitret ke prati prabhaavi hone ke alaava in kodekon ne dhvani ke adhik mahatvapoorn hisson ko pehchaanana kaafi aasaan kar diya hai, jisse vaayu antaraafalak parat ke liye in sanketon ko rakshit karna aur praathamikta dena aasaan ho gaya hai.

GSM ko 1997[14] mein poorn dar channel ka upayog karne vaale vardhit poorn dar (EFR) kodek, ek 12.2 kbit/s kodek, mein viksit kiya gaya. ant mein, UMTS ke vikaas ke saath EFR ek asthir-dar kodek ke roop mein punarsanshodhit kiya gaya, jise AMR-Narrowband kehte hain aur jo poorn dar channelon par prayog karne par uchch gunavatta wala va hastakshep ke prati majaboot hai aur saath hi, jab yeh achhe radio dashaaoain mein arddh-dar channel par prayukt hota hai, to yeh kam majaboot magar apekshaakrut uchch gunavatta wala hota hai.

network sanrachana

GSM network ki sanrachana

GSM ke peechhe ka network jo graahak ko dikhta hai, vah vishaal aur jatil hai, taaki aavashyak sabhi sevaaen pradaan ki ja sakein. yeh vibhinn vargon mein vibhaajit hai aur inki vyaakhya alag lekhon mein ki gayi hai.

  • base station upatantr (base station aur unke niyantrak)
  • network aur antaran upatantr (network ka vah hissa jo sthir network jaisa hi hai). kabhi-kabhi yeh sirf kor network bhi kahalaata hai.
  • GPRS kor network (vaikalpik hissa, jo packet aadhaarit Internet kanekshan anumat karta hai).
  • is pranaali mein sabhi tattv vauyas call aur SMSjaisi GSM sevaaon ke nirmaan mein sangathit ho jaate hain.

sabaskraaibar aayadeintiti maudyool (SIM)

GSM ki pramukh visheshataaon mein se ek hai sabskraaibar aaidenatiti maudyool, jise aam taur par SIM card ke naam se jaana jaata hai. SIM ek alag kiya ja sakane wala smart card hai, jismein upayogakarta ki sadasyata-jaankaari aur fon book hota hai. yeh upayogakarta ke haindaset badalne ke baad bhi usaki jaankaari sanjone deta hai. vaikalpik roop se, upayogakarta oparetar badalne ke liye bina apna haindaset badle, keval SIM badal kar aisa kar sakta hai. kuchh oparetar ek fon mein ek hi SIM athva sirf unheen ke dvaara diye gaye SIM ki anumati dekar is kriya ko baadhit kar dete hain; is abhyaas ko SIM lauking kehte hain aur kuchh deshon mein yeh gair-kaanooni hai.

Australia, uttari America aur Europe mein kai oparetar un mobile ko lauk kar dete hain, jinhein ve bechate hain. aisa isliye kiya jaata hai ki mobile fon ki keematon par aam taur par sadasyata ke samay se riyaayat di jaati hai aur oparetar apne pratiyogiyon ke mobile par kisi prakaar ki riyaayat ko taalana chaahate hain. ek graahak aam taur par kuchh shulk dekar is baadha ko door karne ke liye pradaata se sampark kar sakta hai, ya fir vah niji sevaaon ke jriye block ko khol sakta hai, ya Internet par upalabdh tamaam software aur web-site ka upayog karke bhi vah apne haindaset ka block khol sakta hai. haalaanki adhikaansh web-site block hataane ke evaj mein kuchh shulk maangate hain, magar kuchh log ni:shulk aisa karte hain. yeh lauking haindaset par laagoo hota hai, jo uske antarraashtreeya mobile upakaran pehchaan(IMEI) sankhya se jaana jaata hai, na ki khaate par (jo ki SIM card dvaara jaana jaata hai)

bangalaadesh, Belgium, kosta rika, Indonesia, Malaysia, Hongkong aur Pakistan jaise kuchh deshon mein sabhi fon bina lauk kiye hi bikte hain. tathaapi, Belgium mein oparetaron dvaara fon ki keemat par kisi prakaar ki subsidy dena gair-kaanooni hai. yeh sthiti Finland mein bhi 1 April, 2006 tak thi, jiske baad subsidy vaale haindaset aur khaate bechana kaanooni ho gaya, yadyapi oparetaron ko kuchh nishchit samay ke baad (adhiktam 24 maheene) fon ko bina kisi shulk ke khol dena padta hai.

GSM suraksha

GSM ko madhyam star ki suraksha ke saath dijaain kiya gaya tha. is pranaali ka abhiklpan, upayogakarta ki pehchaan ek poorv-saajha kunji aur chunauti-pratikriya ke prayog se sunishchit karne ke liye hua tha. upayogakarta aur base station ke beech ke samvaad ko kootabaddh kiya ja sakta hai. UMTS ka vikaas ek vaikalpik USIM pravartit karta hai, jo ki zyaada suraksha dene ke liye ek lambi pehchaan kunji ka prayog karti hai, saath hi saath upayogakarta aur network ko paraspar pramaanit karti hai - jabki GSM keval upayogakarta ko network ke saamane pramaanit karta hai (iske vipreet naheen).suraksha model is vajah se gopaneeyata aur pramaaneekaran to prastaavit karta hai, magar seemit praadhikran kshamataaen aur bina asveekaran ke. suraksha ke liye GSM kai kootalekhi kalanavidhi ka upayog karta hai.A5/1 aur A5/2 streem beejalekh ka prayog hava ke oopar aavaaj ki gopaneeyata sunishchit karne ke liye hota hai. A5/1 ka vikaas pehle hua tha aur ye ek majaboot beejalekh hai jiska prayog Europe aur America mein hota hai; A5/2 thoda kamzor hai aur iska prayog anya deshon mein hota hai. donon beejalekh mein gambhir kamjoriyaan pai gayi hain: vaastavik samay mein A5/2 ko keval-beejalekh hamle se toda ja sakta hai aur February 2008 mein, Pico, Computing, Inc ne FPGA ka laabhonmukh kshamata aur yojana ko prakat kiya, jiske dvaara A5/1 ko renabo table hamle se toda ja sakta hai.[15] yeh pranaali kai kalanavidhi ko samarthan deti hai, jisse oparetars us beejalekh ko kisi majaboot sanskaran se badal sakte hain.

maanak jaankaari

GSM pranaali aur sevaaon ka varnan ETSI dvaara sanchaalit maanakon ke ek set mein kiya gaya hai, jahaan ek poori soochi banaai gayi hai.[16]

udaaharan vinirdesh

  • GSM 07.07 "AT GSM mobile Equipment (ME)" pramukh AT nirdeshon ka fon ke GSM upatantr ke saath shrrunkhalaabaddh antaraafalak ke maadhyam se samvaad karne ka varnan karta hai.[17] aur adhik jaankaari ke liye, Hayes Command Set dekhiye.
  • 3GPP TS 27.007 - AT prayokta upakaran ke liye command set.[18]
  • GSM 07.05 mein atirikt AT kamaands SMS aur CBS ke liye hai.[19][20]

'

yeh bhi dekhiye

  • OpenBTS
  • betaar electronic upakaran aur svaasthya
  • mobile network oparetar
  • international mobile sabaskraaibar aayadeintiti (IMSI)
  • mobile sabskraaibar ISDN sankhya (MSISDN)
  • haindaof
  • aagantuk sthaan rajistar (VLR)
  • Um intarafes
  • GSM freekvensi prabhaav-kshetr
  • GSM-R (GSM-railway)
  • GSM sevaaeain
    • GSM ka sthaaneeyakaran
    • malteemeediya sandesh seva (MMS)
    • wireless anuprayog protokaul (WAP)
    • sel prasaaran
    • network pehchaan aur samay kshetr (NITZ)
  • maanak
    • mobile fon maanakon ki tulana
    • GEO-mobile radio intarafes
    • buddhimaan network
    • paarle
  • RTP audio video profaail

sandarbh

  1. "GSM World statistics". GSM Association. 2007. http://www.gsmworld.com/newsroom/market-data/market_data_summary.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-10.
  2. "About GSM Association". GSM Association. http://www.gsmworld.com/about/index.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-08.
  3. "Two Billion GSM Customers Worldwide". 3G Americas. June 13, 2006. http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/06-13-2006/0004379206&EDATE=. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-08.
  4. "Texas Instruments Executive Meets with India Government Official to outline Benefits of Open Standards to drive mobile phone penetration". Texas Instruments. July 12, 2006. http://focus.ti.com/docs/pr/pressrelease.jhtml?prelId=sc06127. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-08.
  5. Australiaee sanchaar aur media praadhikran (ACMA)
  6. "Brief History of GSM & GSMA". GSM World. http://www.gsmworld.com/about-us/history.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-08.
  7. "Happy 20th birthday, GSM". ZDNet. 2007-09-07. http://news.zdnet.co.uk/leader/0,1000002982,39289154,00.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-07.
  8. GSM Association (2007-09-06). Global Mobile Communications is 20 years old. press release. http://www.gsmworld.com/news/press_2007/press07_48.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-07.
  9. "Inventor of the GSM system". Gemini. http://www.ntnu.no/gemini/2005-01e/gsm.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-31.
  10. "Nokia delivers first phase GPRS core network solution to Radiolinja, Finland". Nokia. January 24, 2000. http://press.nokia.com/PR/200001/775038_5.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-01-08.
  11. "History and Timeline of GSM". Emory University. http://www.emory.edu/BUSINESS/et/P98/gsm/history.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-01-09.
  12. [24] ^ motorola demonstrets laang range GSM kaipabileeti -300% mor coverage new eksteinded sel..
  13. "Managing Noise in Cell-Phone Handsets". Maxim Integrated Products. 2001-01-24. http://www.maxim-ic.com/appnotes.cfm/an_pk/668. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-22.
  14. "GSM 06.51 version 4.0.1" (ZIP). ETSI. December 1997. http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/archive/06_series/06.51/0651-401.zip. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-05.
  15. http://blog.washingtonpost.com/securityfix/2008/02/research_may_spell_end_of_mobi.html
  16. dis ETSI site
  17. TS 100 916 - V07.04.00 - digital selular teleekamyunikeshan system (charan 2 +); AT command set for GSM mobile ekvipmeint (ME)(GSM 07.07 varajan 7.4.0 rilees 1998)
  18. 3GPP spesifikeshan: 27,007
  19. [35] ^ GTS 07/05 - varajn 5.5.0 - digital selyular teleekamyunikeshans system (fej 2 +); yoos of data terminal ekvipmeint data sarkit taramineting; ekvipmeint (DTE - DCE) intarafes for short mesej service...
  20. short mesej service/SMS Tutorial
  • sigmand M. Redl, mathias ke.Weber, maalkom W oleefeint (March 1995): "ek parichay GSM ke liye", aartek house, ISBN 978-0-89006-785-7
  • sigmand M. Redl, mathias ke.Weber, maalkom W oleefeint (May 1998):"GSM aur niji sanchaar haindabuk", aartek house, ISBN 978-0-89006-957-8
  • freedahem hilebreind,ed. (2002): (2002): "GSM aur UMTS, global mobile sanchaar ki rachana", John vile end sons, aaiऍsabeeऍn 0470 84322 5
  • Michelle mauli, mairi-baranaadet pautet (June 1992): "GSM system mobile sanchaar ke liye",ISBN 0-945592-15-9.

baahya links