vaishveekaran

puksi (Puxi) Shanghai ke bagal mein, cheen.
aarthik vaishveekaran ne duniya bhar ki vibhinn sanskrutiyon ke ekeekaran par prabhaav daala hai. yahaaain United kingadamamein ek ispaat sanyantr dikhaaya gaya hai jiski maalik bhaarataki ek company tata samoohahai.

vaishveekaran ka shaabdik arth sthaaneeya ya kshetreeya vastuon ya ghatnaaon ke vishv star par roopaantaran ki prakriya hai. ise ek aisi prakriya ka varnan karne ke liye bhi prayukt kiya ja sakta hai jiske dvaara poore vishv ke log milkar ek samaaj banaate hain tatha ek saath kaarya karte hain. yeh prakriya aarthik, takaneeki, saamaajik aur raajaneetik taakaton ka ek sanyojan hai.[1]vaishveekaran ka upayog aksar aarthik vaishveekaran ke sandarbh mein kiya jaata hai, arthaat, vyaapaar, videshi pratyaksh nivesh, poonji pravaah, pravaas aur praudyogiki ke prasaar ke maadhyam se raashtreeya arthavyavastha ka antararaashtreeya arthavyavasthaaon mein ekeekaran.[2]

[[Tom ji. paamar|Tom ji kaato sansthaan (Cato Institute) ke paamar]] (Tom G. Palmer) " vaishveekaran "ko nimn roop mein paribhaashit karte hain" seemaaon ke paar vinimay par raajya pratibandhon ka hraas ya vilopan aur iske parinaamasvaroop utpann hua utpaadan aur vinimay ka teevr ekeekrut aur jatil vishv stareeya tantr."[3] yeh arthashaastreeyon ke dvaara di gayi saamaanya paribhaasha hai, aksar shram vibhaajan (division of labor) ke vishv stareeya vistaar ke roop mein adhik saadhaaran roop se paribhaashit ki jaati hai.

Thomas L fraaidamain (Thomas L. Friedman) " duniya ke 'sapaat' hone ke prabhaav ki jaanch karta hai" aur tark deta hai ki vaishveekrut vyaapaar (globalized trade), aautasorsing (outsourcing), aapoorti ke shrrunkhalan (supply-chaining) aur raajaneetik balon ne duniya ko, behtar aur badatar, donon roopon mein sthaayi roop se badal diya hai. ve yeh tark bhi dete hain ki vaishveekaran ki gati badh rahi hai aur vyaapaar sangathan tatha kaaryapranaali par iska prabhaav badhta hi jaaega.[4]

noam chomaski ka tark hai ki saidvaantik roop mein vaishveekaran shabd ka upayog, aarthik vaishveekaran (economic globalization) ke nav udaar roop ka varnan karne mein kiya jaata hai.[5]

harman E. daily (Herman E. Daly) ka tark hai ki kabhi kabhi antarraashtreeyakaran aur vaishveekaran shabdon ka upayog ek doosare ke sthaan par kiya jaata hai lekin aupachaarik roop se inmein maamooli antar hai. shabd " antarraashtreeyakaran " shabd ka upayog antararaashtreeya vyaapaar, sambandh aur sandhiyon aadi ke mahatva ko pradarshit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. antarraashtreeya ka arth hai raashtron ke beech.

" vaishveekaran " ka arth hai aarthik prayojanon ke liye raashtreeya seemaaon ka vilopan; antararaashtreeya vyaapaar (tulanaatmak laabh (comparative advantage) dvaara shaasit), antar kshetreeya vyaapaar (poorn laabh (absolute advantage) dvaara shaasit) ban jaata hai.[6]

anukram

itihaas

shabd "'vaishveekaran'" ka upayog arthashaastriyon ke dvaara 1980 se kiya jaata raha hai, haalaaainki 1960 ke dashak mein iska upayog saamaajik vigyaan mein kiya jaata tha, lekin 1980 ke dashak ke uttaraarddh aur 1990 tak iski avadhaarana lokapriya naheen hui. vaishveekaran ki sabse puraani saiddhaantik avadhaaranaaon ko udyami se mantri bane ek ameriki-Charles tej Russel (Charles Taze Russell) dvaara likha gaya jinhonne 1897 mein shabd ' kaurporet diggajon ' ki rachana ki.[7]

vaishveekaran ko ek sadiyon lambi prakriya ke roop mein dekha jaata hai, jo maanav janasankhya (human population) aur sabhyata (civilization) ke vikaas par najar rakhati hai, jo pichhle 50 varshon mein naatakeeya dhang se tvarit hui hai. vaishveekaran ke praarambhik roop roman saamraajya, paarthiyn (Parthian) saamraajya aur haan raajavansh (Han Dynasty), ke samay mein paae jaate the, jab cheen mein shuroo hua resham maarg paarthiyn saamraajya ki seema tak pahuainch gaya aur aage rom ki taraf badh gaya.islaami svarn yug (Islamic Golden Age) bhi ek udaaharan hai, jab muslim anveshakon (Muslim traders) aur vyaapaariyon (explorers) ne puraani duniya (global economy) mein praarambhik vishv arthavyavastha (Old World) ki sthaapana ki jiske parinaam svarup fasalon (globalization of crops) vyaapaar, gyaan aur praudyogiki ka vaishveekaran hua; aur baad mein mangol saamraajya (Mongol Empire) ke dauraan, jab resham maarg par apekshaakrut adhik ekeekaran tha. vyaapak sandarbh mein vaishveekaran ki shuruaat 16 veen shataabdi ke ant se pehle hui, yeh Spain aur vishesh roop se Portugal mein hui.16 veen shataabdi (16th century), mein Portugal ka vaishvik vistaar vishesh roop se ek bade paimaane par mahaadveepon, arthavyavastha aur sanskrutiyon se juda hai. Portugal ka Africa ke adhikaansh taton aur bhaarateeya kshetron ke saath vistaar aur vyaapaar vaishveekaran ka pehla pramukh vyaapaarik roop tha.vishv vyaapaar (global trade), ki ek lahar upaniveshavaad (colonization) aur saanskrutikgraahruyata (enculturation) duniya ke sabhi konon tak pahuainch gayi. vaishvik vistaar 16 veen aur 17 veen shataabdiyon mein vaishvik vistaar Europeeya vyaapaar ke prasaar ke maadhyam se jaari raha jab purtagaali (Portuguese) aur spainish saamraajya (Spanish Empire) America (Americas), tak fail gaya aur antat: France aur Britain tak pahuaincha. vaishveekaran ne duniya bhar mein sanskrutiyon (cultures), khaaskar svadeshi sanskrutiyon par ek jabaradast prabhaav daala.

17 veen sadi (17th century) mein vaishveekaran ek kaarobaar ban gaya jab dach East India company (Dutch East India Company) ki sthaapana hui, jo aksar pehla bahuraashtreeya nigam kahalaati hai. antararaashtreeya vyaapaar mein uchch jokhim ke kaaran, dach East India company duniya ki pehli company ban gayi, jisne stock ke jaari sheyaron ke maadhyam se companiyon ke jokhim aur sanyukt svaamitv ko share kiya; yeh vaishveekaran ke liye ek mahatvapoorn sanchaalak raha.

british saamraajya (itihaas mein sabse bada saamraajya) ko iske poorn aakaar aur shakti ke kaaran vaishveekaran ka darja mila tha. is avadhi ke dauraan Britain ke aadarshon aur sanskruti ko anya deshon par thopa gaya.

19 veen sadi (19th century) ko kabhi kabhi " vaishveekaran ka pratham yug " bhi kaha jaata hai. (baharahaal, kuchh lekhakon ke anusaar, vaishveekaran ko jis roop mein ham jaante hain, usaki vaastavik shurooaat 16veen shataabdi mein purtagaali vistaaravaad ke saath hui.) yeh vah kaal tha, jiska vargeekaran Europeeya shaahi shaktiyon, unke upaniveshon aur, baad mein, sanyukt raajya America ke beech teji se badhte antararaashtreeya vyaapaar aur nivesh ke aadhaar par kiya gaya. yahi vah kaal tha, jab up -sahaara Africa ke kshetr aur prashaant dweep vishv pranaali mein shaamil ho gaye." vaishveekaran ka pratham yug " ke tootane ki shurooaat 20 veen shataabdi mein pratham vishv yuddh ke saath hui, aur baad mein 1920 ke dashak ke ant aur 1930 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein svarn maanak sankat (gold standard crisis) ke dauraan yeh dhvast ho gaya.

aadhunik vaishveekaran

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad se vaishveekaran mukhya roop se arthashaastreeyon, vyaapaarik hiton aur raajaneetijnyaon ke niyojan ka parinaam hai jinhonne sanrakshanavaad (protectionism) aur antarraashtreeya aarthik ekeekaran mein giraavat ke moolya ko pahachaana.unke kaam ka netrutv bretan vud sammelan (Bretton Woods conference) aur is dauraan sthaapit hui kai anraraashtreeya sansthaaon ne kiya, jinka uddeshya vaishveekaran ki naveeneekrut prakriya ka nireekshan, isko badhaava dena aur iske vipreet prabhaavon ka prabandhan karna tha.

in sansthaaon mein punarnirmaan aur vikaas ke liye antarraashtreeya bank (vishv bank) aur antararaashtreeya mudra kosh (International Monetary Fund).shaamil hain. vaishveekaran mein takaneek ke aadhunikeekaran ke kaaran yeh suvidha hui, jisne vyaapaar aur vyaapaar vaarta daur ki laagat ko kam kar diya, mool roop se shulk tatha vyaapaar par saamaanya samjhaute (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) (GATT) ke tatvaavadhaan ke antargat aisa hua hai jiske chalte kai samjhauton mein mukt vyaapaar (free trade) par se pratibndh hata diya gaya.

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad se, antararaashtreeya vyaapaar avarodhon mein antararaashtreeya samjhauton -- GATT ke maadhyam se lagaataar kami I hai.GATT ke parinaamasvaroop kai vishesh pahal ki gain aur ismein vishv vyaapaar sangathan (dablyooteeo), jiske liye GATT aadhaar hai, shaamil hai.

  • mukt vyaapaar ka sanvardhan:
  • mukt vyaapaar par pratibandh :
    • kai raajyon mein bauddhik sanpadaake haarmoneekaran kaanoon adhik pratibandhon ke saath laagoo hain.
    • bauddhik sanpada pratibandhon ki paraaraashtreeya maanyata (uda. cheen se praapt peteint America mein maanya hoga)

urugve vaarta (Uruguay Round) (1984 se 1995) mein ek sandhi hui, jiske anusaar WTO vyaapaarik vivaadon mein madhyasthata karega aur vyaapaar ke liye ek ekeekrut manch upalabdh karaaega.anya dwipaksheeya aur bahupaksheeya vyaapaar samjhaute jismein maastrich sandhi (Maastricht Treaty) aur uttari America mukt vyaapaar samjhaute (North American Free Trade Agreement) (N ai ef ti ai) shaamil hain, ka lakshya bhi vyaapaar ke avarodhon aur moolyon ko kam karna hai.

vishv niryaat mein vruddhi hui hai jo 1970 mein vishv sakal utpaad (gross world product) ke 8 .5 % se badhkar 2001 mein 16.1 % ho gaya.[8]

vaishveekaran shabd ka upayog (saiddhaantik maayane mein), in vikaason ke sandarbh mein vishleshan ke liye noem shomaski samet kaiyon ke dvaara kiya gaya.[9]

aalochakon ne dekha hai ki samakaaleen upayog mein is shabd ke kai arth hain, udaaharan ke liye Noam Chomsky kehte hain ki :[10]

vaishveekaran ke kai pahaloo hain jo duniya ko kai bhinn prakaar se prabhaavit karte hain jaise:

  • audyogik (urf traans raashtreeyakaran) - vishv vyaapi utpaadan baajaaron ka udbhav aur upabhoktaaon tatha companiyon ke liye videshi utpaadon ki ek shrrunkhala tak vyaapak pahuainch.traans raashtreeya nigmon ke andar aur unke beech saamagri aur maal ka aavaagaman aur shram aapoorti karne vaale gareeb deshon aur logon ke vyaya par, sampann raashtron aur logon ki maal tak pahuainch.
  • vitteeya vishv vyaapi vitteeya baajaar ki utpatti aur raashtreeya, kaurporet aur up raashtreeya udhaarakartaaon ke liye baahya vitt poshan karne ke liye behtar pahuainch.aavashyak roop se naheen, parantu samakaaleen vai‍aashvi‍akata adheen ya gair-niyaamak videshi aadaan-pradaan ka udrubhav hai aur satta baajaar niveshakon ke mudraasfeeti aur va‍aastuon, maal ki krutrim mudra sfeeti ki taraf badh raha hai aur kuchh maamalon mein Asiaee aarthik uchhaal ke saath sabhi raashtron ka iski chapet mein aana mukt vyaapaar ("free" trade) ke dvaara hua hai.
  • aarthik-maal aur poonji ke vinimay ki svatantrata ke aadhaar par ek vaishvik saajha baajaar ki vaastavikta.
  • raajaneetik - raajanaitik vaishveekaran vishv sarkaar ka ek gathan hai jo raashtron ke beech sabandh ka niyman karta hai tatha saamaajik aur aarthik vaishveekaran se utpann hone vaale adhikaaron ki guaranty deta hai.[11]raajaneetik roop se, sanyukt raajya America ne vishv shaktiyon ke beech ek shakti ke pad ka aanand uthaaya hai; aisa iski prabal aur sampann arthavyavastha ke kaaran hai.

vaishveekaran ke prabhaav ke saath aur sanyukt raajya America ki apni arthavyavastha, ki madad se saath cheen ke janavaadi ganaraajya ne pichhle dashak mein jabaradast vikaas ka anubhav kiya hai. yadi cheen pravruttiyon dvaara nirdhaarit isi dar se vikaas karta raha, to bahut sambhav hai ki agale bees varshon mein vah vishv netaaon ke beech sa‍aatta ki ek pramukh dhuri ban jaaega.cheen ke paas pramukh vishv shakti ke pad ke liye amareeka ka virodh karne hetu paryaapt dhan, udyog aur takaneek hogi.[12] Europeeya sangh, roosi sangh aur Bhaarat pehle se hi sthaapit vishv shaktiyon mein hain jinke paas sanbhavataya bhavishya mein duniya ki raajaneeti ko prabhaavit karne ki kshamata hai.

  • soochanaatmak - bhaugolik drushti se doorasth sthaanon ke beech soochana pravaah mein vruddhi.taarkik roop se faaibar optik sanchaar, upagrahon ke aagaman aur intaranetaaur telephone ki upalabdhata mein vruddhi ke saath yeh ek takaneeki parivartan hai, jo sanbhavat: vaishveekaran ke aadarshavaad se asanbaddh ya ‍aisamein sahaayak hai.
  • saanskrutik -paar-saanskrutik sanparkon ki vruddhi; chetna (consciousness) ki nai shreniyon ka avataran aur pehchaan jaise vaishvikta-ismein shaamil hai saanskrutik prasaar, videshi utpaadon aur vichaaron ka upabhog ( consume) karne aur aanand uthaane ki ichha, nai praudyogiki aur paddhatiyon ko apanaana aur "vishv sanskruti" mein bhaag lena; bhaashaaon ki haani (aur isi kram mein vichaaron ki haani), saath hi dekhein sanskruti ka roopaantaran (Transformation of culture).
  • paaristhitiki-vaishvik paryaavaran ka aagaman chunauti deta hai jise antarraashtreeya sahayog, ke bina hal naheen kiya ja sakta hai, jaise jalavaayu parivartan (climate change) seema-paar jal aur vaayu pradooshan, samudra mein seema se jyaada machhali pakadna. aur aakraamak prajaatiyon ke prasaar.vikaasasheel deshon mein, kai kaarkhaanon ka nirmaan kiya gaya hai, jahaaain ve svatantr roop se pradushan kar sakte hain. vaishvikta aur mukt vyaapaar pradooshan badhaane ke liye anyonya kriya karte hain aur ek gair poonjeevaadi vishv mein hamesha se viksit ho rahi poonjeevaadi arthavyavastha ke naam par ise tvarit karte hain. haani fir se gareeb raashtron ke hisse mein aati hai jabki laabh sampann raashtron ke hisse mein.
  • saamaajik -kam pratibandhon ke saath sabhi raashtron ke logon ke dvaara pravaah mein vruddhi hui hai. kaha jaata hai ki in deshon ke log itne sampann hain ki ve antararaashtreeya yaatra ka kharch vahan kar sakte hain, jise duniya ki adhikaansh janasainkhya vahan naheen kar sakti hai. abhijaatya aur sampann varg ke dvaara maanyata praapt ek bhramit 'laabh', jo indhan aur parivhan ki laagat mein vruddhi ke saath badhta hai.
  • parivhan-har saal Europe ki sadkon par kam se kar kaarein (aisa hi ameriki sadkon par ameriki kaaron ke liye kaha ja sakta hai) aur praudyogiki ke samaaveshan ke maadhyam se doori va yaatra ke samay mein kami.yeh ek takaneeki unnati hai jo shram pradhaan baajaaron ke bajaay soochana mein kaam kar rahe logon ke dvaara maanyata praapt hai, adhik ke bajaay kam logon ki pahuainch mein hai aur yadi yeh vaastav mein vaishveekaran ka prabhaav hai to yeh samagr maanavata ke liye laabh ke samaan roop se aabantan ke bajaay sroton ke asamaan aabantan ko pratibinbit karta hai.
  • antarraashtreeya saanskrutik vinimay
iska sabse pramukh rooppashchimeekaran (Westernization) hai, lekin sanskrutiyon ka sinisijeshan (Sinicization) kai sadiyon se adhikaansh poorv Asia mein apna sthaan bana chuka hai. tark hai ki poonjeevaadi vaishveekrut arth vyavastha ke roop mein sanskrutiyon ka samaroopeekaran aur vaishvikta ka aadhiptya prabhaav "ekamaatr" tareeka hai jisse desh antarraashtreeya mudra kosh aur vishv bank ke maadhyam se bhaag le sakte hain yeh sanskrutiyon mein prashansaneeya antar ke bajaay vinaash ka kaaran hoga.
    • antararaashtreeya yaatra (travel) aur paryatanakuchh logon ke liye hi mahaan hai, jo antararaashtreeya yaatra aur paryatan ka kharch vahan kar sakte hain.
    • Britain, Canada aur sanyukt raajya America, jaise deshon ne apravaas (immigration) sahit adhikgair-kaanooni apravaas (illegal immigration), jinhonne 2008 mein gair-kaanooni aapravaasiyon ko hataaya tatha gair-kaanooni roop se desh mein pravesh kar gaye logon ko aasaani se hataane ke liye kaanoonon mein sanshodhan kiya. inke atirikt anya ne is baat ko sunishchit kiya ki apravaas neetiyaaain anukool arthavyavastha ko prabhaavit karein, praathamik roop se us pooainji par dhyaan diya gaya jo apravaasi apne saath desh mein la sakte hain.
    • sthaaneeya upabhokta utpaadon (jaise bhojan) ka anya deshon (aksar unki sanskruti mein sveekrut) mein prasaar ismein aanuvaanshik roop se parishkrut jeev shaamil hain. vaishvik vruddhi arthavyavastha ka ek naya aur laakshanik gun hai ek license yukt beej ka janm jo keval ek hi mausam ke liye saksham hoga aur agale mausam mein ise pun: naheen ugaaya ja sakega-jo ek nigam ke liye gruheet baajaar (captive market) ko sunishchit karega.sampoorn raashtron ki khaadya aapoorti ek company ke dvaara niyantrit hoti hai jo sanbhavat: vishv bank ya aaiemaef rin sharton ke maadhyam se.aise GMOs ke kriyaanvayan mein safal hai.
    • vishv vyaapak feds aur paup sanskruti jaise paukemaun (Pokéamon), sudokoo, nooma nooma (Numa Numa), origemi (Origami), aadarsh shrrunkhala (Idol series), you tube, orakut, face book (Facebook) aur maaya space (MySpace).ye un logon ki pahuainch mein hain jo ti vi ya Internet ka upayog karte hain, ye dharati ki janasainkhya ka ek mahatvapoorn bhaag chhod dete hain.
    • vishv vyaapak khel ki ghatnaaon jaise FIFA vishv cup (FIFA World Cup) aur olympic khelon.
    • saarvabhaumik moolya (universal value) moolyon ke samooh ka nirmaan ya vikaas --sanskruti ka samarupeekaran .
  • takaneeki
  • kaanooni / naitik
    • antararaashtreeya aaparaadhik nyaayaalaya (international criminal court) aur antararaashtreeya nyaaya aandolanon ka nirmaan.
    • vaishvik aparaadh se ladne ke liye prayaas aur sahayog hetu jaagrukta ko badhaana tatha aparaadh aayaat (Crime importation).
    • yaun jaagrukta - vaishveekaran ke keval aarthik pahaluon par dhyaan kendrit karna aksar aasaan hota hai. is shabd ke peechhe majaboot saamaajik arth chhipa hai. vaishveekaran ka matlab vibhinn deshon ke beech saanskrutik baatcheet bhi ho sakta hai. vaishveekaran ke saamaajik prabhaav bhi ho sakte hain jaise laingik asamaanata mein parivartan aur is mudde ko lekar poori duniya mein ling vibhed (aksar adhik kroor) ke prakaaron par jaagrukta failaane ka prayaas kiya ja raha hai. udaaharan ke liye, afreeki deshon mein ladkiyon aur mahilaaon ko lambe samay se mahila khatana ka shikaar banaaya ja raha hai - aisi haanikaarak prakriya ab poore vishv ke saamane aa chuki hai, ab is pratha mein kuchh kami aa rahi hai.
    • daulat mein badhotari bahut kam logon ke paas ho rahi hai. media aur anya bahuraashtreeya vilaayak samaaj aur utpaadan ke ek bade bhaag ko niyantrit karte hue kuchh nigmon ka netrutv karte hain. madhyam varg mein kami aur gareebi mein vruddhi vaishveekrut aur aviniymit deshon mein dekhi ja sakti hai. vaishveekaran duniya ke itihaas mein sabse bade samprabhu rin aparaadh, 2002 mein sampoorn Argentina ke divaaliyepan ke liye jimmedaar tha. fir bhi vaishveekaran ne in bade nigmon mein vyaapaar aur vitt ko laabh pahuainchaaya aur bahuraashtreeya bank 40 billion dollar se adhik nakad ko Argentina se baahar bhejane mein saksham hue, kyonki is aviniymit aur vaishveekrut desh mein unhein aisa karne se rokane ke liye koi viniyman naheen tha.

vaishveekaran ke virodhi tark dete hain ki bank naagrikon ko unke apne khaaton mein band kar detein hain, 60 pratishat ya isse adhik berojgaari ki dar aur ek poore desh ka bank divaaliya ho jaana vaishveekaran ke khilaaf tark hain I

vaishveekaran samarthak (vaishvikta)

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vaishveekaran ke vakaalatadaar jaise jefari saish (Jeffrey Sachs) cheen jaise deshon mein gareebi ki dar mein uparokt ausat giraavat ko ingit karte hain jahaaain vaishveekaran ne apne paaainv majabooti se jama liye hain. iski tulana mein vaishveekaran se kam prabhaavit kshetr jaise up-sahaara Africa, mein gareebi ki dar sthir bani rahati hai.[13]

aam taur par maana jaata hai ki mukt vyaapaar (free trade), pooainjeevaad aur lokatantr ke vichaar vyaapak roop se vaishveekaran ko badhaava dete hain.mukt vyaapaar (free trade) ke samarthakon ka daava hai ki yeh aarthik samruddhi aur avsaron ko vishesh roop se vikaasasheel raashtron mein badhaata hai, naagrik svatantrataaon ko badhaata hai, isse sansaadhanon ke adhik kushal aavantan mein madad milti hai. tulanaatmak laabh (comparative advantage) ke aarthik siddhaanton ki salaah ke anusaar mukt vyaapaar sansaadhanon ke adhik kushal aavantan ko badhaava deta hai, saath hi sabhi desh vyaapaar laabh mein shaamil hote hain.

saamaanya roop mein, yeh vikaasasheel deshon ke nivaasiyon ke liye kam keematon, adhik rojagaar, uchch utpaadan aur uchch jeevan star ko badhaava deta hai.[13][14]


udaaravaadi (Libertarians) aur ahastakshep pooainjeevaad (laissez-faire capitalism) ke samarthakon ka kehna hai ki viksit deshon mein lokatantr aur pooainjeevaad ke roop mein raajaneetik aur aarthik svatantrata (economic freedom) ka uchch ansh apne aap mein samaapt ho jaata hai tatha saath hi sampatti ke uchch star ka utpaadan karta hai. ve vaishveekaran ko udaarata aur pooainjeevaad ke laabhakaari prasaar ke roop mein dekhte hain.[13]

lokataantrik vaishveekaran (democratic globalization) ke samarthak kabhi kabhi vaishvikta samarthak bhi kahalaate hainunaka maanana hai ki vaishveekaran ki pehli praavastha baajaar-unmukh thi, vishv naagrik (world citizen) naagrikon ki ichhaaon ka pratinidhitv karne vaale nirmaanaatmak vishvastareeya raajaneetik sansthaanon ko inka anusaran karna chaahiye. anya vaishviktaavaadiyon ki bhinnata yeh hai ki ve is vichaaradhaara ko aadhunik roop mein paribhaashit naheen karte hain, lekin ve ek lokataantrik prakriya ke maadhyam se ise in naagrikon ke svatantr chunaav ke liye chhod deinge.

senator (Senator) dagalas roshe (Douglas Roche), O.si. (O.C.), jaise kuchh log vaishveekaran ko svatantr vakaalat sansthaanon ke roop mein dekhte hain, jaise seedhe-nirvaachit (directly-elected) sanyukt raashtra sansadeeya vidhaanasabha (United Nations Parliamentary Assembly) jo anirvaachit antararaashtreeya nikaayon ka nireekshan karte hain.

vaishveekaran ke samarthakon ka tark hai ki vaishveekaran virodhi aandolan apne sanrakshanavaadi drushtikon ka samarthan karne ke liye upaakhyaanaatmak (anecdotal evidence) ka upayog karte hain, jabki vishv bhar ke aaainkade prabalata se vaishveekaran ka samarthan karte hain.

  • vishv bank ke aankadon ke hisaab se, 1981 se 2001 tak, 1 dollar ya usase bhi kam par pratidin jeene vaale logon ki sankhya 1.5 arab se 1.1 arab ho gayi hai. isi samay, duniya mein janasainkhya vruddhi hui, iseeliye vikaas sheel raashtron mein aise logon ka pratishat 40 se kam hokar 20 ho gaya.[15]arthavyavastha mein bahut adhik sudhaar ne vyaapaar aur nivesh mein baadhaaon ko kam kiya; fir bhi, kuchh aalochak tark dete hain ki iske bajaay gareebi ke maapan ke liye adhik vistrut adhyayan kiye jaane chaahiye.[16]
  • vaishveekaran se prabhaavit kshetron mein prati din 2 dollar se kam par jeene vaalon ka pratishat bahut adhik kam hua hai, jabki anya kshetron mein gareebi ki dar bahut adhik sthir bani hui hai. cheen sahit, poorvi Asia mein, pratishat mein 50.1feesadi ki kami I hai jabki up-sahaara Africa mein 2.2% feesadi ki vruddhi hui hai.[14]
kshetr janaankikeeya 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 pratishat parivartan 1981-2002
poorv Asia aur prashaant prati din $1se kam 57.7% 38.9% 28.0% 29.6% 24.9% 16.6% 15.7% 11.1% -80.76%
prati din 2 dollar se kam 84.8% 76.6% 67.7% 69.9% 64.8% 53.3% 50.3% 40.7% -52.00%
laitin America prati din 1 dollar se kam 9.7% 11.8% 10.9% 11.3% 11.3% 10.7% 10.5% 8.9% -8.25%
prati din 2 dollar se kam 29.6% 30.4% 27.8% 28.4% 29.5% 24.1% 25.1% 23.4% -29.94%
up sahaara Africa prati din 1 dollar se kam 41.6% 46.3% 46.8% 44.6% 44.0% 45.6% 45.7% 44.0% +5.77%
prati din 2 dollar se kam 73.3% 76.1% 76.1% 75.0% 74.6% 75.1% 76.1% 74.9% +2.18%

'srot: vishv bank, gareebi anumaan, 2002[14]

  • aay mein asamaanata (Income inequality) poorn roop se duniya ke liye hraasamaan hai.[17] paribhaashaaon ke muddon aur upalabdh aankadon ke kaaran, charam gareebi mein giraavat ki gati ko lekar asahamati hai. jaisa ki neeche varnit hai, is par anya vivaad bhi hain. arthashaastri jeviyr sela-E-Martin (Xavier Sala-i-Martin) 2007 ke vishleshan mein tark dete hain ki yeh glat hai, poorn roop se duniya mein aay mein asamaanata ka hraas ho gaya hai.[18]aay mein asamaanata ko lekar puraani pravruti ke baare mein kya sahi hai, is baat ki paravaah na karte hue, yeh tark diya gaya hai ki poorn gareebi mein sudhaar karna, saapeksh asamaanata se adhik mahatvapoorn hai.[19]
  • vikaasasheel vishv mein jeevan pratyaasha (Life expectancy) dviteeya vishv yudgh ke baad se lagbhag doguni ho gayi hai aur yeh apne tatha viksit vishv ke beech antar ko bharne ki shuruaat kar rahi hai aur viksit vishv jahaaain sudhaar bahut kam maatra mein hua hai. yahaaain tak ki sabse kam viksit kshetr up-sahaara Africa mein, jeevan pratyaasha dviteeya vishv yuddh se 30 saal pehle badhi, eds mahaamaari aur anya beemaariyon se lagbhag 50 saal pehle tak charam tak pahuainchi aur vartamaan samay ke 47 saalon mein in beemaariyon mein isne kaafi kami ki hai.shishu mrutyu dar (Infant mortality) duniya ke har vikaasasheel kshetr mein kam hui hai.[20]
  • lokatantr mein naatakeeya roop se vruddhi hui hai, 1900 mein aisa koi raashtra naheen tha jiske paas saarvabhaumik mataadhikaar (universal suffrage) ho, lekin 2000 mein aise raashtron ki sankhya kul ki 62.5% thi.[21]
  • naareevaad mein baangalaadesh jaise raashtron mein pragati hui hai, mahilaaon ko rojagaar aur aarthik suraksha pradaan ki gayi hai.[13]
  • jin deshon mein prati-vyakti khaadya aapoorti 2200 kailori (calorie) (9.200 kilojoules (kilojoules)) prati dinse kam hai, vahaaain ki janasankhya ka anupaat 1960 ke madhya mein 56%se kam hokar 1990 mein 10% se neeche chala gaya hai.[22]
  • shram shakti mein bachchon ka pratishat 1960 mein 24% se girkar 2000 mein 10% par aa gaya hai.[23]
  • vidyut shakti, kaaron, radio aur telephone, ke prati-vyakti upabhog mein vruddhi hui hai, saath hi janasainkhya ke ek bade anupaat ko saaf paani ki aapoorti hone lagi hai.[24]
  • pustak vishv ki sudharati hui avastha (The Improving State of the World) is baat ka pramaan deti hai ki in aur anya ke prayaason se maanav ki behatari ke maapakon mein sudhaar aaya hai aur vaishveekaran iske spashteekaran ka ek hissa hai.

yeh is tark ke liye bhi pratikriya deti hai ki paryaavaraneeya prabhaav pragati ko seemit kar deinge.

haalaanki vaishveekaran ke aalochak pashchimeekaran (Westernization) ki shikaayat karte hain, 2005 ki ek yoonesko report[25] darshaati hai ki saanskrutik vinimay paarasparik ban raha hai. 2002 mein cheen, Britain aur America ke baad, saanskrutik vastuon ka teesara sabse bada niryaatak tha. 1994 aur 2002 ke beech, uttari America aur Europeeya sangh donon ka saanskrutik niryaat gir gaya, jabki Asia ka saanskrutik niryaat badh kar uttari America se bhi adhik ho gaya.

vaishveekaran virodhi (vishv sarkaar-ek mahaaraashtreeya praadhikran)

vaishveekaran virodhi shabd ka prayog un logon tatha samoohon ke raajaneetik drushtikon ka varnan karne ke liye kiya jaata hai, jo vaishveekaran ke aadarsh udaaravaadi (neoliberal) svarup ka virodh karte hain.

"vaishveekaran virodh" mein aisi kriyaaeain ya prakriyaaen shaamil hain jo kisi raajya ke dvaara iski samprabhuta ke pradarshan ke liye aur lokataantrik faisale ke liye ki jaati hain. vaishveekaran virodh logon, vastuon aur vichaaradhaara ke antararaashtreeya hastaantaran par, rok lagaane ke liye utpann ho sakta hai, jo vishesh roop se aaiemaef (IMF) ya vishv vyaapaar sangathan jaise sangathanon dvaara sunishchit kiye jaate hain aur jo sthaaneeya sarkaaron aur aabaadi par mukt baajaar kattaravaad (free market fundamentalism) ke kattarpanthi viniyman kaaryakram mein laagoo hote hain. iske atirikt, Canada ki patrakaar naomi klen (Naomi Klein) apni pustak No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (jiska sheershak hai koi sthaan naheen, koi chunaav naheen, koi naukariyaaain naheen) mein tark deti hain ki vaishveekaran virodh ya to ek saamaajik aandolan (social movement) ko ya ek saamoohik shabd (umbrella term) ko niroopit kar sakta hai, ismein kai alag saamaajik aandolan[26]jaise raashtravaadi aur samaajavaadi shaamil hain. kisi bhi anya maamale mein pratibhaagi, badi bahuraashtreeya avinyamit raajanitik shakti ke virodh mein khada hota hai, kyon ki vyaapar samojhauton ke maadhyam se nigam ki prakriyaaen kuchh udaaharanon mein naagrikon ke lokataantrik adhikaaron, vaataavaran (environment) vishesh roop se vaayu gunavatta soochakaank (air quality index) aur van varsha (rain forests) ko kshati pahunchaati hain. saath hi raashtreeya sarkaaron ki samprabhuta majadooron ke adhikaaron (labor rights) ko nirdhaarit karti hai jismein behtar vetan, behtar kaarya sthitiyaan ya kaanoon shaamil hain jo vikaasasheel deshon (developing countries) ki saanskrutik abhyaaso aur paramparaaon ka atikraman kar sakte hain.


bahut se log jin par "vaishveekaran virodhi"hone ki pehchaan ankit hai ve is shabd ko bahut hi aspasht aur anuchit bataate hain.[27][28] podonik ke anusaar "adhikaansh samooh jo in virodhon mein bhaag lete hain ve antararaashtreeya network ka samarthan praapt karte hain aur ve saamaanyataya vaishveekaran ke form jaari karte hain jo lokatantr ko badhaava dete hain. pratinidhitv, maanav adhikaar aur samataavaad. "

Joseph stiglitj aur Andrew chaarlatan likhte hain[29]: is drushtikon se yukt sadasya apna varnan nimn shabdon ke dvaara karte hain -vishv nyaaya aandolan (Global Justice Movement), nigam-virodhi vaishveekaran aandolan, aandolanon ka aandolan (Italy mein ek lokapriya shabd), "vaishveekaran mein parivartan (Alter-globalization)" aandolan (France mein lokapriya), "ganak-vaishveekaran" aandolan aur aise kai shabd.

vartamaan mein aarthik vaishveekaran ke aalochak iske do pahaluon ko dekhte hain, ek jaiv mandal mein nazar aa rahi apoorit kshati aur doosra kathit maanav laagat, jaise gareebi, asamaanata, naslon ki milaavat, anyaaya mein vruddhi, paaramparik sanskruti ka ksharan. aalochakon ke anusaar ye sab vaishveekaran se sambandhit aarthik viroopan ke parinaam hain. ve seedhe metriks ko chunauti dete hain, jaise sakal ghareloo utpaad, jiska upayog vishv bank jaisi sansthaaon ke dvaara prakhyaapit pragati ko maapane ke liye kiya jaata hai aur anya kaarakon par drushti rakhane ke liye bhi iska upayog kiya jaata hai jaise nai arthashaastr neenv (New Economics Foundation)[30] ke dvaara nirmit khush grah soochakaank (Happy Planet Index).[31]ve "antarsanbandhit ghaatak parinaamon --saamaajik vightan, lokatantr ka vightan, vaataavaran mein adhik teevr aur vyaapak giraavat, naye rogon ke prasaar, gareebi aur alagaav ki bhaavana mein badhotari "[32]ko ingit karte hain. inke baare mein ye daava karte hain ki vaishveekaran ke ye parinaam anaapekshit lekin satya hain.

vaishveekaran aur vaishveekaran virodhi shabdon ka prayog kai prakaar se kiya jaata hai.noam chomaski kehta hai ki[33][34]


aalochakon ka tark hai ki :

    • gareeb deshon ko kabhi kabhi nuksaan uthaana padta hai: haalaaainki yeh satya hai ki vaishveekaran antararaashtreeya star par deshon ke beech mukt vyaapaar ko badhaava deta hai, iske rinaatmak parinaam bhi hain kyonki kuchh desh apne raashtreeya baajaaron ko bachaane ki koshish karte hain. gareeb deshon ka mukhya niryaat aamtaur par krushi sambandhi saamaan hai. in deshon ke liye majboot deshon ke saath pratispardha karna mushkil hai kyonki ve apne kisaanon ko aarthik sahaayata pradaan karte hain. kyonki gareeb deshon mein kisaan pratispardha naheen kar sakte hain, ve baajaar ki tulana mein apni fasalon ko kam keemat par bechne ke liye majaboor hote hain.[35]
    • videshi gareeb shramikon ka shoshan: majaboot audyogik shaktiyon dvaara gareeb deshon ki suraksha mein giraavat ke parinaam svarup in deshon mein saste shram ke roop mein logon ka shoshan hota hai. suraksha mein kami ke kaaran, prabal audyogik raashtron ki companiyaan shramikon ko asurakshit sthitiyon mein lambe samay tak kaam karne ke liye lubhaane hetu paryaapt vetan ki peshakash karti hain. haalaaainki arthashaastri is baat par savaal uthaate hain ki pratiyogi niyokta baajaar mein shramikon ko anumati dena "shoshan" maana ja sakta hai.

saste shram ki prachurata deshon ko shakti to de rahi hai lekin raashtron ke beech asamaanata ko door naheen kar pa rahi hai. yadi ye raashtra audyogik raashtron mein viksit ho jaayein to saste shram ki sena vikaas ke saath dheere dheere gaayab ho jaayegi.yeh sach hai ki shramik apna kaam chhodne ke liye svatantr hain, lekin kai gareeb deshon mein, iska matlab uske ya uske poore parivaar ke liye bhukhamari hoga agar pichhla rojagaar bhi unke liye ab upalabdh na ho.[36]

    • seva kaarya mein badlaav: apatateeya shramikon ki kam laagat nigmon ke liye utpaadan ko videshon mein sthaanaantarit karna aasaan banaati hai. akushal shramikon ko aise seva kshetr mein lagaana jahaaain majadoori aur laabh kam hai, lekin kaarobaar uchch hai. isne kushal aur akushal shramikon ke beech aarthik antar ko badhaane mein yogadaan diya hai. in naukariyon ki haani ne madhya varg ki dheemi giraavat mein yogadaan diya hai jo sanyukt raajya America mein aarthik asamaanata ko badhaane wala mukhya kaarak hai. ve parivaar jo kabhi madhyam varg ka hissa the, unhein naukariyon mein hui bhaari katautiyon tatha anya desh se aautasorsing ne apekshaakrut nimn sthiti mein la diya hai. iska yeh bhi taatparya hai ki nimn varg ke logon ko gareebi mein adhik kathin samay ka saamana karna padta hai kyon ki unke paas madhyam varg ki tarah aage badhne ke liye raaston ka abhaav hai.[37]
    • kamjor shram sanghon: hamesha badhati hui companyon ki sankhya aur saste shram ki adhikta ne sanyukt raajya mein shram sanghon ko kamjor banaaya hai. sangh apni prabhaavasheelata ko kho dete hain jab unki sadasyata mein kami aane lagti hai. iske parinaam svarup sanghon ke paas nigmon ki tulana mein kam shakti hoti hai, nigam kam majadoori ke liye shramikon ko badal sakte hain aur unke paas sangheeya naukariyon ki peshakash na karne ka vikalp hota hai.[38]

December 2007 mein, vishv bank arthashaastri brainko milenovik ne vishv mein gareebi aur asamaanata par pehle se adhik anubhavajanya anusandhaan kiya, kyonki unke anusaar kraya shakti mein sudhaar is baat ko ingit karta hai ki vikaas sheel desh soch se jyaada buri haalat mein hain. milenovik ki tippani hai ki "deshon ke abhisran ya apasaran par vidvaanon ke sainkadon kaagajaat ' pichhle dashak mein, jinmein aay par hamaari jaankaari ke aadhaar prakaashit hue, ab galat aankade hai. nae aankadon ke saath, arthashaastri ganana ko sanshodhit kareinge aur sanbhavat: nae nishkarsh tak pahunchegein" iske alaava dhyaan dene yogya baat yeh hai ki vaishvik asamaanata aur gareebi ke anumaanon ke liye bahut adhik tippaniyaaain hain. nai sankhyaaeain vaishvik asamaanata ko itna adhik dikha raheen hain jitna ki ghor niraashaavaadi lekhakon ne bhi naheen socha tha. pichhle maheene tak, vaishvik asamaanata, ya vishv ke sabhi vyaktiyon ke beech vaastavik aay mein antar, lagbhag 65 gini binduon ka tha--jahaaain 100 poorn asamaanata ko tatha 0 poorn samaanata ko darshaata hai, yadi har kisi ki aay samaan ho--asamaanata ka star dakshin Africa ki tulana mein kuchh adhik hai. lekin nai sankhyaaeain vishv asamaanata ko 70 gini ank darshaati hai--asamaanata ka aisa star jise pehle kabhi bhi kaheen bhi darj naheen kiya gaya."[39]

vaishveekaran ke aalochak aamtaur par is baat par jor dete hain ki vaishveekaran ek aisi prakriya hai jo ki kaurporet jagat ke hiton ke anusaar madhyasth hai aur praaroopik roop se vaikalpik vaishvik sansthaaon aur neetiyon ki sambhaavana ko badhaati hai. ve neetiyaaain jo poori duniya mein gareeb aur shramik varg ke liye naitik daave karti hain, saath hi adhik nyaayochit tareeke se paryaavaran se sambandhit hai.[40]

yeh aandolan bahut bada hai ismein church samooh, raashtreeya mukti samooh, kisaan (peasant), sangh jeevi, buddhijeevi, kalaakaar, surakshaavaadi, araajakataavaadi (anarchists), shaamil hain jo punarsthaaneekaran aur anya logon ke samarthan mein hain. kuchh sudhaaravaadi (reformist) hain, (pooainjeevaad ke adhik maanaveeya roop ke liye tark dete hain) jabki anya kraantikaari (revolutionary) hain (ve poonjeevaad se adhik maanaveeya pranaali par vishvaas karte hain aur usi ke liye tark dete hain) aur anya pratikriyaavaadi (reactionary) hain, jinka yeh maanana hai ki vaishveekaran raashtreeya udyog aur rojagaar ko nasht kar deta hai.

haal hi ke aarthik vaishveekaran ke aalochakon ke anusaar in prakriyaaon ke parinaam svarup deshon ke beech aur unke bheetar aay ki asamaanata badh rahi hai. 2001 me likhe gaye ek lekh se pata chala hai ki 2001 mein samaapt ho rahe pichhle 20 varshon ke dauraan 8 metriks mein se 7 mein aay mein asamaanata badhi hai. iske saath hi,duniya ke nichle tabake mein 1980 ke dashak ke baad se aay vitran mein sambhavat: bilkul kami ho gayi hai.iske alaava, nirpeksh gareebi par vishv bank ke aankadon ko chunauti di gayi hai. lekh mein vishv bank ke is daave par sanshaya vyakt kiya gaya hai ki ve log jo pratidin ek dollar se kam par jeevit rah rahe hain, unki sankhya 1987 se 1998, mein pakshapaati paddhati ki vajah se 1.2 billion par sthir ho gayi hai[41]

ek chart jisne asamaanata ko bahut hi drushya aur saral roop diya, tathaakathit 'shainpen gilaas' prabhaav hai.[42] ismein 1992 mein sanyukt raashtra vikaas kaaryakram ki report shaamil thi, jisne vaishvik aay ke vitran ko bahut hi asamaan dikhaaya, ismein duniya ki aabaadi ke sabse ameer 20% duniya ki aay ke 82,7% ko niyantrit karte hain.[43]

vishv ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ka vitran, 1989
panchamak janasankhya aay
sabse ameer 20 % 82.7%
doosra 20 % 11.7%
teesara 20 % 2.3%
chautha 20 % 1.4%
sabse gareeb 20 % 1.2%

srot : sanyukt raashtra vikaas kaaryakram 1992maanav vikaas report [44]

uchit vyaapaar (fair trade) ke siddhaant kartaaon ke aarthik tark mein daava kiya gaya hai ki apratibandhit mukt vyaapaar (free trade) un logon ke liye laabhakaari hai jo gareebon ki keemat par vitteeya uttolan (financial leverage) (yaani ameeron) se yukt hain.[45]

amerikeekaran uchch raajaneetik shakti ke ek kaal aur ameriki dukaanon, baajaaron aur vastuon ke doosare deshon mein le jaae jaane mein mahatvapoorn vrudvi se sambandhit hai. to vaishveekaran, ek aur adhik vividhtaapoorn ghatna hai, jo ek bahupaksheeya raajaneetik duniya se sambandhit hai aur vastuon va baajaaron ko anya deshon mein badhaava deti hai.

vaishveekaran ke kuchh virodhi is prakriya ko nigmeeya (corporatist) hiton ki vruddhi ke roop mein dekhte hain.[46]unka yeh bhi daava hai ki badhti hui svaayattata aur kaurporet sansthaaon (corporate entities) ki shakti deshon ki raajanitik neetiyon ko aakaar deti hai.[47][48]

antarraashtreeya saamaajik manch

mukhya lekh dekhein:Europeeya saamaajik manch (European Social Forum), Asiaee saamaajik manch (Asian Social Forum), vishv saamaajik manch (World Social Forum) (WSF).

2001 mein pehli dablyooesaef Brazil mein porto elegre (Porto Alegre) ke prashaasan ki shuruaat thi. world social forum ka naara tha "ek aur duniya mumkin hai".dablyooesaef chaartar siddhaanton ko manchon hetu ek dhaancha pradaan karne ke liye apnaaya gaya tha.

dablyooesaef ek aavadhik baithak ban gaya: 2002 aur 2003 mein ise fir se porto elegre mein aayojit kiya gaya tha aur Iraq par ameriki aakraman ke khilaaf duniya bhar mein virodh ke liye ek milaap bindu ban gaya. 2004 mein ise Mumbai (poorv mein Mumbai, ke roop mein jaana jaata tha, Bhaarat) mein le jaaya gaya, taaki yeh Asia aur Africa ki aabaadiyon ke liye adhik sulabh banaaya ja sake.pichhli niyukti mein 75000 pratinidhiyon ne bhaag liya .

is dauraan, kshetreeya manchon ne dablyooesaef ke udaaharan ka anusaran karte hue iske chaartar ke siddhaanton ko apnaaya. pehla Europeeya saamaajik manch (European Social Forum) (iesaef) November 2002 mein floreins mein aayojit kiya gaya tha. naara tha "yuddh ke viruddh, naslavaad ke khilaaf aur nav udaaravaad ke khilaaf " . ismein 60000 pratinidhiyon ne bhaag liya aur yeh yuddh ke khilaaf ek vishaal pradarshan ke saath khtm hua. (aayojakon ke anusaar pradarshan mein 1,000,000 log the.) do anya ESFs peris aur London mein kramash: 2003 mein aur 2004 mein hue.

saamaajik manchon ki bhoomika ke baare mein haal hi mein aandolan ke peechhe kuchh charcha ki gayi hai. kuchh ise ek "lokapriya vishvavidyaalaya" ke roop mein dekhte hain. unke anusaar yeh logon ko vaishveekaran ki samasyaaon ke liye jaagrut karne ka ek avsar hai. anya log pasand kareinge ki pratinidhi apne prayaason ko aandolan ke samanvayan aur sangathan par keindrit karein aur nae abhiyaanon ka niyojan karein. yadyapi aksar yeh tark diya jaata hai ki prabhaavi deshon (vishv ke adhikaansh) mein dablyooesaef ek 'gair sarkaari sangathan maamale' se kuchh jyaada hai, inhe uttari N ji O va daataaon ke dvaara chalaaya jaata hai jo gareebon ke lokapriya aandolanon ke liye shatrutaapoorn hain.[49]

yeh bhi dekhiye

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. shaila L.krochar. vaishveekaran aur sambandh: ek badalti hui duniya ki pehchaan ki raajaneeti.romain aur litilfeeld .(2004) . p.10
  2. vaishveekaran mahaan hai !Tom ji. ke dvaara paamar, varishth sahakarmi, kaato sansthaan
  3. fraaidamain, Thomas L."sangharsh ko rokane ka Dale siddhaant."imarajin : ek paathak.Ed. baarsale beriyos Boston : bedaford, set maartins, 2008 .49
  4. ji net, kaurporet vaishveekaran, Korea aur antararaashtreeya maamale, noam chomaski ka san voo li ke dvaara saakshaatkaar, maasik joong aang, 22 fravari 2006
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  9. noem shomaski Washington post paathakon ke saath chet karte hain, Washington post, 24 March 2006
  10. staaipo, fraansesko . vishv sanghavaadi ghoshana patra raajaneetik vaishveekaran ke liye maargadarshika , ISBN 978-0-9794679-2-9, http://www.worldfederalistmanifesto.com
  11. harst E.Charles saamaajik asamaanata : roop, kaaran aur parinaam, 6 tha sanskaran .P.91
  12. a aa i E
  13. a aa i
  14. "1980 ke dashak ke praarambh se vishv ke sabse gareeb logon ne kaise pragati ki hai?"shaaohuaa chen aur Martin reveliyn dvaara. [4]
  15. Michelle shosudovski, " global jhoothi baatein "
  16. David bruks, " gareebi ke baare mein achhi khabar "
  17. http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/chapters/htm/index2007_chap1.cfm
  18. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/25/business/25scene.html?ex=1327381200&en=47c55edd9529cae7&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss/
  19. gaai pefaramain,'vaishveekaran ka aathavaan nuksaan'
  20. freedom house
  21. baile, aar (2005). *1950 aur 1999 ke beech, duniya mein vishv saaksharata 52% se badh kar 81% ho gayi. mahilaaon ne bahut adhik antar banaaya hai: puroosh saaksharata se tulana karke dekha jaae to mahila saaksharata jo 1970 mein 59% thi vah 2000 80% ho gayi <sandarbh>.[http://reason.com/news/show/34961.html baile, aar.(2005) . gareeb log ameer naheen ho rahe hain lekin ve adhik lambe samay tak ji rahe hain.
  22. Oxford netrutv academy.
  23. Charles keni, ham aay ke baare mein chintit kyon hain? lagbhag sabhi mahatvapoorn mudde, vishv vikaas, khand 33, ank 1, January, 2005, Pages 1-19 mein diye gaye hain.
  24. 2005 yoonesko report
  25. koi prateek chinh naheen: koi sthaan naheen, koi chunaav naheen, koi naukariyaaain naheen Canada ki patrakaar naomi klen dvaara
  26. mauris, dagalas "vaishveekaran aur media lokatantr: indeemeediya (ek vaikalpik media srot) ke maamale", network samaaj ka aakaar, emaaaiti press (MIT Press) 2003.saujanya link (poorv prakaashit sanskaran) [5]
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  28. stiglitj, Yusuf aur chaarlatan nishpaksh vyaapaar sabhi ke liye: vyaapaar kaise vikaas ko badhaava de sakta hai. 2005 pi. 54 N.23
  29. nai arthashaastr neenv
  30. khush grah soochakaank
  31. naaom shomaski jeenet May 07, 2002 / kroeshiyn feral tribyoon April 27, 2002 [7]
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  33. harst E.chaarlsasaamaajik asamaanata:prakaar, kaaran aur parinaam, chhatha sanskaran.P.41
  34. Michelle shosudovskeemishel shosudovski ke dvaara/ gareebi aur nai vishv vyavastha kram ka vaishveekaran. sanskaran 2 Ed.chhaapana shaanti be, oenati.: global out luk, c2003 .
  35. madhya varg mein giraavat: ek anya vishleshan, paitrik J. ke dvaara patrika lekh.maikamohan, John H.teeshetar ; majadooron ke maasik sameeksha, pustak.109, 1986
  36. harst E.Charles saamaajik asamaanata: prakaar, kaaran aur parinaam, chhatha sanskaran.P.41
  37. "vikaas sheel desh soch se jyaada buri haalat mein hain- antararaashtreeya shaanti ke liye kaaranegi anshadaan". Carnegieendowment.org. http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=19907&prog=zch,zgp&proj=zsa,zted. abhigman tithi: 2012-12-23.
  38. vaishvik saamaajik goshthi
  39. wed, Robert hantar .'vishv aay vitran mein badhati hui asamaanata', vitt evam vikaas, vaulyoom 38, NO 4 December 2001
  40. jebiyr gorostiga, "vishv ek 'shainpen ka gilaas' ban gaya hai jise vaishveekaran kuchh ek sanpattivaanon se bhar dega' raashtreeya Catholic reporter, 27 January 1995.
  41. sanyukt raashtra vikaas kaaryakram. 1992maanav vikaas report, 1992 (new yaark, Oxford university press)
  42. enaeefateee 10 par, jef fauks, aarthik neeti sansthaan, di .si.
  43. "painbaajooka samaachaar". Pambazuka.org. 2007-01-26. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/features/39464. abhigman tithi: 2012-12-23.