vaisheshik darshan

vaisheshik hinduon ke shadadarshanon mein se ek darshan hai. iske mool pravartak rishi kanaad hain (isa poorv doosari shataabdi). yeh darshan nyaaya darshan se bahut saamya rakhata hai kintu vaastav mein yeh ek svatantr bhautik vijnyaaanavaadi darshan hai.

is prakaar ke aatmadarshan ke vichaaron ka sabse pehle maharshi kanaad ne sootr roop mein likha. kanaad ek rishi the. ye "uchhavrutti" the aur dhaanya ke kanon ka sangrah kar usi ko khaakar tapasya karte the. isi liye inhein "kanaad" ya "kanabhuk" kehte the. kisi ka kehna hai ki kan arthaat parmaanu tatv ka sookshm vichaar inhonne kiya hai, isliye inhein "kanaad" kehte hain. kisi ka mat hai ki din bhar ye samaadhi mein rahate the aur raatri ko kanon ka sangrah karte the. yeh vrutti "ulloo" pakshi ki hai. kis ka kehna hai ki inki tapasya se prasann hokar ishvar ne ulook pakshi ke roop mein inhein shaastr ka upadesh diya. inheen kaaranon se yeh darshan "aulookya", "kaanaad", "vaisheshik" ya "paashupat" darshan ke naamon se prasiddh hai.

pathan-paathan mein vishesh prachalit na hone ke kaaran vaisheshik sootron mein anek paathabhed hain tatha 'trutiyaaain' bhi paryaapt hain. meemaansaasootron ki tarah iske kuchh sootron mein punaruktiyaaain hain - jaise "saamaanyavisheshaabhaavech" (4 baar) "saamaanyatodrushtaachcha vishesh:" (2 baar), "tattvan bhaaven" (4 baar), "dravyatvanityatve vaayuna vyakhyaate" (3 baar), "sandigdhastoopachaar:" (2 baar).

anukram

naamakaran

iske naamakaran ke do kaaran kahe jaate hain -

(1) pratyek nitya dravya ko paraspar pruthak karne ke liye tatha pratyek tatv ke vaastavik svaroop ko pruthak-pruthak jaanane ke liye inhonne ek "vishesh" naam ka padaarth maana hai ;

(2) "dvitv", "paakajotpatti" evam "vibhaagaj vibhaag" in teen baaton mein inka apna vishesh mat hai jismein ye drudh hain. abhipraaya yeh hai ki vaisheshik darshan vyaavahaarik tatvon ka vichaar karne mein sanlagn rahane par bhi sthool drushti se sarvatha vyavahaarat: samaan rahane par bhi, pratyek vastu doosare se bhinn hai. inhonne iske parichaayak ekamaatr padaarth "vishesh" par bal diya hai, isliye praacheen bhaarateeya darshan ki is dhaara ko "vaisheshik" darshan kehte hain. anya shaastron ne is baat ka vivechan naheen kiya hai. par ukt kuchh kaaranon se is darshan ko "vaisheshik darshan" ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai.

vaisheshik darshan ke mukhya granth

  • vaisheshiksootr ke do bhaashyagranth hain - raavanabhaashya tatha bhaaradvaajavrutti. vartamaan mein dono apraapya hain.
  • padaarthadharmasangrah (prashastapaad, 4 vi sadi ke poorv) vaisheshik ka prasiddh granth hai. yadyapi ise vaisheshiksootr ka bhaashya kaha jaata hai kintu yeh ek svatantr granth hai.
  • padaarthadharmasangrah ki teeka "'vyomavati'" (vyomashivaachaarya, 8 veen sadi),
  • padaarthadharmasangrah ki anya teekaaeain hain- nyaayakandali (shreedharaachaarya, 10 veen sadi), kirnaavali (udayanaachaarya 10 veen sadi), leelaavati (shreevats, 11veen shadi).
  • padaarthadharmasangrah par aadhaarit chandr ke dashapadaarthashaastr ka ab keval cheeni anuvaad praapya hai.
  • gyaarahaveen shadi ke aaspaas rachit shivaaditya ki saptapadaarthi mein nyaaya tatha vaisheshik ka sammishran hai.
  • anya : katandi, vrutti-upaskar (shankar mishr 15 veen sadi), vrutti, bhaashya (chandrakaant 20 veen sadi), vivrutti (jayanaaraayan 20 veen sadi), kanaad-rahasya, taarkik-raksha aadi anek maulik tatha teeka granth hain.

nyaaya evam vaisheshik

vaisheshik tatha nyaaya donon darshan hi "samaanatantr" hain. vyaavahaarik jagat ko yeh vaastavik maanate hain. ye baahya jagat tatha antarjagat ki avadhaarana mein paraatpar evam ghanishth sambandh maanate hain. baahya jagat (maanasik) vichaar par nirbhar naheen hai, yeh svatantr hai.

'aatmadarshan' ke liye vishv ki sabhi chhoti-badi, taatvik tatha tuchh vastuon ka gyaan praapt karna saamaan roop se aavashyak hai. in tatvon ke gyaan ke liye pramaanon ki apeksha hoti hai. nyaayashaastr mein pramaan par vishesh vichaar kiya gaya hai, kintu vaisheshik darshan mein mukhya roop se 'prameya' ke vichaar par bal diya gaya hai.

yahaaain smaran karaana aavashyak hai ki nyaaya ki tarah vaisheshik bhi, laukik drushti hi se vishv ke 'vaastavik' tatvon par daarshanik vichaar karta hai. laukik jagat ki vaastavik paristhitiyon ki upeksha vah kabhi naheen karta, tathaapi jahaaain kisi tatv ka vichaar bina sookshm drushti ka ho naheen sakta, vahaaain kisi prakaar ateendriya, adrusht, sookshm, yogaj aadi hetuon ke aadhaar par apne siddhaant ko sthaapit karna is dhaara ke daarshanikon ka svabhaav hai, anyatha unki vaichaarik bhittiyaan antarvirodhi hoteen ; falat: parmaanu, aakaash, kaal, dik, aatma, man aadi sattaaon ka sveekaar is darshan mein baraabar upasthit hai.

vaisheshikon ke svaroop, vesh tatha aachaar aadi 'naiyaayikon' ki tarah hote hain; jaise, ye log shaiv hain, inhein shaiv-deeksha di jaati thi. inke chaar pramukh bhed hain - shaiv, paashupat, mahaavratadhar, tatha kaalamukh evam bharat, bhaktar, aadi gaun bhed bhi milte hain. vaisheshik vishesh roop se "paashupat" kahe jaate hain. (shaddarshanasamuchchaya, gunarast ki teeka nyaaya-vaisheshik mat. is granth se anya 'aachaaron' ke sambandh mein sanjnyaaan ho sakta hai).

parichay

vaisheshik mat mein samast vishv "bhaav aur abhaav" in do vibhaagon mein vibhaajit hai. inmein "bhaav" ke chhah vibhaag kiye gaye hain- jinke naam hain - dravya, gun, karm, saamaanya, vishesh, tatha samavaaya. abhaav ke bhi chaar up-bhed hain - praagabhaav, pradhvansaabhaav, atyantaabhaav tatha anyonyaabhaav. granthon mein inke lakshan aadi kuchh is tarah praapt hote hain :

bhaav

dravya jismein "dravyatv jaati" ho vahi dravya hai. kaarya ke samavaayikran ko dravya kehte hain. dravya gunon ka aashray hai. pruthvi, jal, tejas, vaayu, aakaash, kaal, dik, aatma tatha manas ye nau "dravya" kahalaate hain. inmein se pratham chaar dravyon ke nitya aur anitya, do bhed hain. nityaroop ko "parmaanu" tatha anitya roop ko kaarya kehte hain. chaaron bhooton ke us hisse ko "parmaanu" kehte hain jiska pun: bhaag na kiya ja sake, ataev yeh nitya hai. pruthveeparamaanu ke atirikt anya paramaanuon ke gun bhi nitya hai.

jisse gandh ho vah "pruthvi", jismein sheet sparsh ho vah "jal" jismein ushn sparsh ho vah "tejas", jinmein roop na ho tatha agni ke sanyog se utpann na hone wala, anushn aur asheet sparsh ho, vah "vaayu", tatha shabd jiska gun ho arthaat shabd ka jo samavaayeekaran ho, vah "aakaash" hai. ye hi 'panchabhoot' bhi kahalaate hain.

aakaash, kaal, dik tatha aatma ye chaar "vibhu" dravya hain. manas abhautik parmaanu hai aur nitya bhi hai. aaj, kal, is samay, us samay, maas, varsh, aadi samay ke vyavahaar ka jo saadhaaran kaaran hai- vah kaal hai. kaal nitya aur vyaapak hai. poorv, pashchim, uttar, dakshin, aadi dishaaon tatha vidishaaon ka jo asaadhaaran kaaran hai, vah "dik" hai. yeh bhi nitya tatha vyaapak hai. aatma aur manas ka svaroop yahaaain nyaayamat ke samaan hi hai.

gun kaarya ka asamavaayeekaran "gun" hai. roop, ras, gandh, sparsh, sankhya, parimaan, pruthaktv, sanyog, vibhaag, paratv, aparatv, gurutv, dravatv, sneh (chiknaapan), shabd, gyaan, sukh, du:kh, ichha, dvesh, prayatn, dharm adharm tatha sanskaar ye chaubees gun ke bhed hain. inmein se roop, gandh, ras, sparsh, sneh, svaabhaavik dravatv, shabd tatha gyaan se lekar sanskaar paryant, ye "vaisheshik gun" hain, avashisht saadhaaran gun hain. gun dravya hi mein rahate hain.

karm kriya ko "karm" kehte hain. oopar feinkana, neeche feinkana, sikudna, failaana tatha (anya prakaar ke) gaman, jaise bhraman, spandan, rechan, aadi, ye paaainch "karm" ke bhed hain. karm dravya hi mein rahata hai.

saamaanya anek vastuon mein jo ek si buddhi hoti hai, uske kaaran pratyek ghat mein jo "yeh ghat hai" is prakaar ki A si buddhi hoti hai, usaka kaaran usamein rahanevaala "saamaanya" hai, jise vastu ke naam ke aage "tv" lagaakar kaha jaata hai, jaise - ghatatv, patatv. "tv" se us jaati ke antargat sabhi vyaktiyon ka gyaan hota hai.

yeh nitya hai aur dravya, gun tatha karm mein rahata hai. adhik sthaan mein rahanevaala "saamaanya", "parasaamaanya" ya "sattaasaamaanya" ya "par satta" kaha jaata hai. sattaasaamaanya dravya, gun tatha karm in teenon mein rahata hai. pratyek vastu mein rahanevaala tatha avyaapak jo saamaanya ho, vah "upper saamaanya" ya "saamaanya vishesh" kaha jaata hai. ek vastu ko doosari vastu se pruthak karna saamaanya ka arth hai.

vishesh dravyon ke antim vibhaag mein rahanevaala tatha nitya dravyon mein rahanevaala "vishesh" kahalaata hai. nitya dravyon mein paraspar bhed karanevaala ekamaatr yahi padaarth hai. yeh anant hai.

samavaaya ek prakaar ka sambandh hai, jo avayav aur avayavi, gun aur guni, kriya aur kriyaavaan jaati aur vyakti tatha vishesh aur nitya dravya ke beech rata hai. vah ek hai aur nitya bhi hai.

abhaav

kisi vastu ka na hona, us vastu ka "abhaav" kaha jaata hai. iske chaar bhed hain - "praag abhaav" kaarya utpann hon ke pehle kaaran mein us karya ka na rahana, "pradhvans abhaav" kaarya ke naash hone par us kaarya ka na rahana, "atyant abhaav" teenon kaalon mein jiska sarvatha abhaav ho, jaise vandhya ka putr tatha "anyonya abhaav" paraspar abhaav, jaise ghat mein pat ka na hona tatha pat mein ghat ka na hona.

nyaaya evam vaisheshik darshan ki tulana

ye sabhi padaarth nyaayadarshan ke prameyon ke antargat hai. isliye nyaayadarshan mein inka pruthak vichaar naheen hai, kintu vaisheshik darshan mein to mukhya roop se inka vichaar hai. vaisheshik mat ke anusaar in saaton padaarthon ka vaastavik gyaan praapt karne se mukti milti hai.

in donon samaan tatvon mein padaarthon ke svaroop mein itna bhed rahane par bhi donon darshan ek hi mein mile rahate hain, iska kaaran hai ki donon shaastron ka mukhya prameya hai "aatma". aatma ka svaroop donon darshanon mein ek hi sa hai. anya vishay hai - usi aatma ke jaanane ke liye upaaya. usamein in donon darshanon mein vishesh antar bhi naheen hai. keval shabdon mein tatha kaheen-kaheen prakriya mein bhed hai. fal mein bhed naheen hai. ataev nyaayamat ke anusaar pramaan, prameya aadi solah padaarthon ke tatvajnyaaan se donon se ek hi prakaar ki "mukti" milti hai. donon ka drushtikon bhi ek hi hai.

nyaaya vaisheshik mat mein pruthvi, jal, tejas tatha vaayu inheen chaar dravyon ka kaarya roop mein bhi astitv hai. in laagon ka mat mein sabhi kaarya dravyon ka naash ho jaata hai aur ve parmaanu roop mein aakaash mein rahate hain. yahi avastha "pralaya" kahalaati hai. is avastha mein pratyek jeevaatma apne manas ke saath tatha poorv janmon ke karmon ke sanskaaron ke saath tatha adrusht roop mein dharm aur adharm ke saath vidyamaan rahati hai. paratu is samay srushti ka koi kaarya naheen hota. kaaran roop mein sabhi vastueain us samay ki prateeksha mein rahati hain, jab jeevon ke sabhi adrusht kaarya roop mein parint hone ke liye tatpar ho jaate hain. parantu adrusht jad hai, shareer ke na hone se jeevaatma bhi koi kaarya naheen kar sakti, parmaanu aadi sabhi jad hain, fir "srushti" ke liye kriya kis prakaar utpann ho?

iske uttar mein yeh jaanana chaahiye ki utpann honevaale jeevon ke kalyaan ke liye paramaatma mein srushti karne ki ichha utpann ho jaati hai, jisse jeevon ke adrusht kaaryonmukh ho jaate hain. paramaanuon mein A prakaar ki kriya utpann ho jaati hai, jisse ek parmaanu, doosare parmaanu se sanyukt ho jaate hain. do paramaanuon ke sanyog se ek "dravyanuk" utpann hota hai. paarthiv shareer ko utpann karne ke liye jo do parmaanu ikatthe hote hain ve paarthiv parmaanu hain. ve donon utpann hue "davyanuk" ke samavaayikaaran hain. un donon ka sanyog asamavaayikaaran hai aur adrusht, ishvar ki ichha, aadi nimittakaaran hain. isi prakaar jaleeya, taijas aadi shareer ke sambandh mein samajhna chaahiye.

yeh smaran rakhana chaahiye ki sajaateeya donon parmaanu maatr hi se srushti naheen hoti. unke saath ek vijaateeya parmaanu, jaise jaleeya parmaanu bhi rahata hai. "dravyanuk" mein anu-parimaan hai isliye vah drushtigochar naheen hota. "davayanuk" se jo kaarya utpann hoga vah bhi anuparimaan ka hi rahega aur vah bhi drushtigochar na hoga. ataev davyanuk se sthool kaarya dravya ko utpann karne ke liye "teen sankhya" ki sahaayata li jaati hai. nyaaya-vaisheshik mein sthool dravya, sthool dravya ka mahat parimaanavaale dravya se tatha teen sankhya se utpann hota hai. isliye yahaaain davyanuk ki teen sankhya se sthool dravya "tryanuk" ya "trasarenu" ki utpatti hoti hai. chaar tryanuk se chaturanuk utpann hota hai. isi kram se pruthivi tatha paarthiv dravyon ki utpatti hoti hai. dravya ke utpann hone ke pashchaat usamein gunon ki bhi utpatti hoti hai. yahi srushti ki prakriya hai.

sansaar mein jitni vastueain utpann hoti hain sabhi utpann hue jeevon ke bhog ke liye hi hain. apne poorvajanm ke karmon ke prabhaav se jeev sansaar mein utpann hota hai. usi prakaar bhog ke anukool uske shareer, yoni, kul, desh, aadi sabhi hote hain. jab vah vishesh bhog samaapt ho jaata hai, tab usaki mrutyu hoti hai. isi prakaar apne apne bhog ke samaapt hone par sabhi jeevon ki mrutyu hoti hai.

nyaayamat - "sanhaar" ke liye bhi ek kram hai. kaarya dravya mein, arthaat ghat mein, prahaar ke kaaran uske avayavon mein ek kriya utpann hoti hai. us kriya se uske avayavon mein vibhaag hota hai, vibhaag se avayavi (ghat) ke aaranbhak sanyogon ka naash hota hai. aur fir ghat nasht ho jaata hai. isi kram se ishvar ki ichha se samast kaarya dravyon ka ek samay naash ho jaata hai. isse spasht hai ki asamavaayikaaran ke naash se kaaryadravya ka naash hota hai. kabhi samavaayikaaran ke naash se bhi kaaryadravya ka naash hota hai.

inka dhyeya hai ki bina kaaran ke naash hue kaarya ka naash naheen ho sakta. ataev srushti ki tarah sanhaar ke liye bhi parmaanu mein hi kriya utpann hoti hai aur parmaanu to nitya hai, usaka naash naheen hota, kintu do paramaanuon ke sanyog ka naash hota hai aur fir usase utpann "dravyanuk" roop kaarya ka tatha usi kram se "tryanuk" evam "chaturanuk" tatha anya kaaryon ka bhi naash hota hai. naiyaayik log sthool drushti ke anusaar itna sookshm vichaar naheen karte. unke mat mein aaghaat maatr hi se ek baaragi sthool dravya nasht ho jaata hai. kaarya dravya ke naash hone par uske gun nasht ho jaate hain. ismein bhi poorvavat do mat hain jinka niroopan "paakaj prakriya" mein kiya gaya hai.

nyaaya mat ki tarah vaisheshik mat mein bhi buddhi, upalabdhi, gyaan tatha pratyaya ye samaan arth ke bodhak shabd hain. anya darshanon mein ye sabhi shabd bhinn bhinn paaribhaashik arth mein prayukt hote hain. buddhi ke anek bhed hone par bhi pradhaan roop se iske do bhed hain - "vidya" aur "avidya", avidya ke chaar bhed hai - sanshaya, vipryaya, anadhyavasaaya tatha svapn.

sanshaya tatha vipryaya ka niroopan nyaaya mein kiya gaya hai. vaisheshik mat mein inke arth mein koi antar naheen hai. anishchayaatmak gyaan ko "anadhyavasaaya" kehte hain. jaise - katahal ko dekhkar vaaheek ko, ek saasna aadi se yukt gaaya ko dekhkar naarikel dveepavaasiyon ke man mein shanka hoti hai ki yeh kya hai?

din bhar kaarya karne se shareer ke sabhi ang thak jaate hain. unako vishraam ki apeksha hoti hai. indriyau visheshakar thak jaati hain aur man mein leen ho jaati hai. fir man manovah naadi ke dvaara pureetat naadi mein vishraam ke liye chala jaata hai. vahaaain pahuainchane ke pehle, poorvakarmon ke sanskaaron ke kaaran tatha vaat, pitt aur kaf in teenon ke vaishamya ke kaaran, adrusht ke sahaare us samay man ko anek prakaar ke vishyon ka pratyaksh hota hai, jise svapnajnyaaan kehte hain.

yahaaain itna dhyaan mein rakhana chaahiye ki vaisheshik mat mein gyaan ke antargat ho "avidya" ko rakha hai aur iseeliye "avidya" ko "mithya gyaan" bhi kehte hain. bahuton ka kehna hai ki ye donon shabd paraspar viruddh hai. jo mithya hain, vah gyaan naheen kaha ja sakta aur jo gyaan hai, vah kadaapi mithya naheen kaha ja sakta.

vidya bhi chaar prakaar ki hai - pratyaksh, anumaan, smruti tatha aarsh. yahaaain yeh dhyaan mein rakhana hai ki nyaaya mein "smruti" ko yathaarthajnyaaan naheen kaha hai. vah to gyaat hi ka gyaan hai. isi prakaar "aarsh gyaan" bhi naiyaayik naheen maanate. naiyaayikon ke shabd ya aagam ko anumaan mein tatha upamaan ko pratyaksh mein vaisheshikon ne antarbhoot kiya hai.

ved ke rachanevaale rishiyon ko bhoot tatha bhavishya ka gyaan pratyaksh ke samaan hota hai. usamein indriya aur arth ke sannikrsh ki aavashyakta naheen rahati. yeh "praatibh" (pratibha se utpann) gyaan ya "aarshajnyaaan" kahalaata hai. yeh gyaan vishuddh at:karanavaale jeev mein bhi kabhi kabhi ho jaata hai. jaise - ek pavitra kanya kehti hai - kal mere bhaai aaveinge aur sachmuch kal uske bhaai aa hi jaate hain. yeh "praatibh gyaan" hai.

pratyaksh aur anumaan ke vichaar mein donon darshanon mein koi bhi matabhed naheen hai. isliye pun: inka vichaar yahaaain naheen kiya gaya.

karm ka bahut vistrut vivechan vaisheshik darshan mein kiya gaya hai. nyaaya darshan mein kahe gaye "karm" ke paaainch bhedon ko ye log bhi unheen arthon mein sveekaar karte hain. kaayik cheshtaaon hi ko vastut: in logon ne "karm" kaha hai. fir bhi sabhi cheshtaaeain prayatn ke taaratamya hi se hoti hain. ataev vaisheshik darshan mein ukt paaainch bhedon ke pratyek ke saakshaat tatha parampara mein prayatn ke sambandh se koi karm prayatnapoorvak hote hain, jinhein "satpratyaya-karm" kehte hain, koi bina prayatn ke hote hain, jinhein "asatpratyaya-karm" kehte hain. inke atirikt kuchh aise karm hote hain, jaise pruthvi aadi mahaabhooton mein, jo bina kisi prayatn ke hote hain, unhein "apratyaya-karm" kehte hain.

in sab baaton ko dekhkar yeh spasht hai ki vaisheshik mat mein tatvon ka bahut sookshm vichaar hai. fir bhi saansaarik vishyon mein nyaaya ke mat mein vaisheshik bahut sahamat hai. ataev ye donon "samaanatantr" kahe jaate hain.

nyaaya evam vaisheshik mein pramukh bhed (saaraansh)

in donon darshanon mein jin baato mein "bhed" hai, unamein se kuchh bhedon ka pun: ullekh yahaaain kiya jaata hai.

  • (1) nyaayadarshan mein pramaanon ka vishesh vichaar hai. pramaanon hi ke dvaara tatvajnyaaan hone se moksh ki praapti ho sakti hai. saadhaaran laukik drushtikon ko dhyaan mein rakhakar nyaayashaastr ke dvaara tatvon ka vichaar kiya jaata hai. nyaayamat mein solah padaarth hain aur nau prameya hain.
    vaisheshik darshan mein prameyon ka vishesh vichaar hai. is shaastr ke anusaar tatvon ka vichaar karne mein laukik drushti se door bhi shaastrakaar jaate hain. inki drushti sookshm jagat ke dwaar tak jaati hai isliye is shaastr mein pramaan ka vichaar gaun samjha jaata hai. vaisheshik mat mein saat padaarth hain aur nau dravya hain.
  • (2) pratyaksh, anumaan, upamaan tatha shabd in chaar pramaanon ko nyaaya darshan maanata hai, kintu vaisheshik keval pratyaksh aur anumaan inheen do pramaanon ko maanata hai. iske anusaar shabdapramaan anumaan mein antarbhoot hai. kuchh vidvaanon ne ise svatantr pramaan bhi maana hai.
  • (3) nyaayadarshan ke anusaar jitni indriyaaain hain utane prakaar ke pratyaksh hote hain, jaise - chaakshush, shraavan, raasan, dhraanaj tatha spaarshana kintu vaisheshik ke mat mein ekamaatr chaakshush pratyaksh hi maana jaata hai.
  • (4) nyaaya darshan ke mat mein samavaaya ka pratyaksh hota hai, kintu vaisheshik ke anusaar iska gyaan anumaan se hota hai.
  • (5) nyaaya darshan ke anusaar sansaar ki sabhi kaaryavastu svabhaav hi se chhidravaali hoti hain. vastu ke utpann hote hi unheen chhidron ke dvaara un samast vastuon mein bheetar aur baahar aag ya tej pravesh karta hai tatha parmaanu paryant un vastuon ko pakaata hai. jis samay tej ki kanaaeain us vastu mein pravesh karti hain, us samay us vastu ka naash naheen hota. yeh angreji mein 'kemikl aikshan' kahalaata hai. jaise - kumhaar ghada banaakar aavein mein rakhakar jab usamein aag lagaata hai, tab ghade ke pratyek chhidr se aag ki kanaaeain us mein pravesh karti hain aur ghade ke baahari aur bheetari hisson ko pakaati hain. ghada vaise ka vaisa hi rahata hai, arthaat ghade ke naash hue bina hi usamein Pak ho jaata hai. ise hi nyaaya shaastr mein "pithrapaak" kehte hain.
    vaisheshikon ka kehna hai ki kaarya mein jo gun utpann hota hai, us pehle us kaarya ke samavaayikaaran mein utpann hona chaahiye. isliye jab kachcha ghada aag mein pakane ko diya jaata hai, tab aag sabse pehle us ghade ke jitne parmaanu hain, un sabko pakaati hai aur usamein doosra rang utpann karti hai. fir kramash: vah ghada bhi pak jaata hai aur usaka rang bhi badal jaata hai. is prakriya ke anusaar jab kumhaar kachche ghade ko aag mein pakane ke liye deta hai, tab tej ke jor se us ghade ka parmaanu paryant naash ho jaata hai aur uske parmaanu alag alag ho jaate hain pashchaat unamein roop badal jaata hai, arthaat ghada nasht ho jaata hai aur parmaanu ke roop mein parivrtit ho jaata hai tatha rang badal jaata hai, fir us ghade se laabh uthaanevaalon ke adrusht ke kaaranavash srushti ke kram se fir bankar vah ghada taiyaar ho jaata hai. is prakaar un pakv paramaanuon se sansaar ke samast padaarth, bhautik ya abhautik tej ke kaaran pakate rahate hain. in vastuon mein jitne parivartan hote hain ve sab isi paakaj prakriya (kemikl aikshan) ke kaaran hote hain. yeh dhyaan rakhana aavashyak hai ki yeh Pak keval pruthivi se bani hui vastuon mein hota hai. ise vaisheshik "peeluvaak" kehte hain.
  • (6) naiyaayik asiddh, viruddh, anaikaantik, prakaranasam tatha kaalaatyayaapadisht - ye paaainch hetvaabhaas maanate hain, kintu vaisheshik viruddh, asiddh tatha sandigdh, ye hi teen hetvaabhaas maanate hain.
  • (7) naiyaayikon ke mat mein punya se utpann "svapn" satya aur paap se utpann svapn asatya hote hain, kintu vaisheshik ke mat mein sabhi svapn asatya hain.
  • (8) naiyaayik log Shiv ke bhakt hain aur vaisheshik maheshvar ya pashupati ke bhakt hain. aagam shaastr ke anusaar in devataaon mein paraspar bhed hai.
  • (9) inke atirikt karm ki sthiti mein, vegaakhya sanskaar mein, sakhandopaadhi mein, vibhaagaj vibhaag mein, dvitvasankhya ki utpatti mein, vibhuon ke beech ajasanyog mein, aatma ke svaroop mein, arth shabd ke abhipraaya mein, sukumaaratv aur karkashatv jaati ke vichaar mein, anumaan sambandhon mein, smruti ke svaroop mein, aarsh gyaan mein tatha paarthiv shareer ke vibhaagon mein bhi paraspar in donon shaastron mein matabhed hain.

is prakaar ke donon shaastr katipya siddhaanton mein bhinn-bhinn mat rakhate hue bhi paraspar sambaddh hain. inke anya siddhaant paraspar laagoo hote hain.

baahari kadiyaaain