vaishaali

vaishaali
jila
Map of बिहार with वैशाली marked
भारत के मानचित्र पर बिहार अंकित
vaishaali ka maanachitr
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya Bihar
jila vaishaali
janasankhya
ghanatv
27,18,421 (2001 tak )
• 1335 prati varg kilo meter
kshetrafal 2,036 varg kilometer ki.mee²

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 25°a52′a00″aN 85°a10′a00″aE / 25.86667°aN 85.18333°aE / 25.86667; 85.18333 vaishaali Bihar praant ke vaishaali jila mein sthit ek gaaainv hai. aitihaasik sthal ke roop mein prasiddh yeh gaaainv mujaffarapur se alag hokar 12 aktubar 1972 ko vaishaali ke jila banane par iska mukhyaalaya Hajipur banaaya gaya. bajjika tatha hindi yahaaain ki mukhya boli/bhaasha hai. aitihaasik pramaanon ke anusaar vaishaali mein hi vishv ka sabse pehla ganatantr yaani "ripblik" kaayam kiya gaya tha.[1] Bhagwan mahaaveer ki janm sthali hone ke kaaran jain dharm ke mataavalanbiyon ke liye vaishaali ek pavitra sthal hai.[2] Bhagwan buddh ka is dharati par teen baar aagaman hua, yeh unki karm bhoomi bhi thi. mahaatma buddh ke samay solah mahaajanapadon mein vaishaali ka sthaan magadh ke samaan mahatvapoorn tha. atimhatvapoorn bauddh evam jain sthal hone ke alaava yeh jagah pauraanik hindu teerth evam paataleeputr jaise aitihaasik sthal ke nikat hai. mashahoor raajanartaki aur nagaravadhu aamrapaali bhi yahi ki thi|[3] [4] aaj vaishaali paryatakon ke liye bhi bahut hi lokapriya sthaan hai|vaishaali mein aaj doosare deshon ke kai mandir bhi bane hue hain|

anukram

itihaas

vaishaali jan ka pratipaalak, vishv ka aadi vidhaata,
jise dhoondhata vishv aaj, us prajaatantr ki maata.
ruko ek kshan pathik, is mitti pe sheesh navaao,
raaj siddhiyon ki samaadhi par fool chadhaate jaao|| (raamadhaari Singh dinkar ki panktiyaaain)

vaishaali ka naamaakaran mahaabhaarat kaal ek raaja ikshvaaku vansheeya raaja vishaal ke naam par hua hai. vishnu puraan mein is kshetr par raaj karne vaale 34 raajaaon ka ullekh hai jismein pratham namanadeshti tatha antim sumati ya pramaati tha. is raajavansh mein 24 raaja hue.[5] raaja sumati ayodhya naresh Bhagwan Ram ke pita raaja dasharathake samakaleen the. isa poorv saataveen sadi ke uttari aur madhya Bhaarat mein viksit hue 16 mahaajanapadon mein vaishaali ka sthaan ati mahatvapoorn tha. Nepal ki taraai se lekar ganga ke beech faili bhoomi par vajjiyon tatha lich‍aachhaviyon ke sangh (ashtakul) dvaara ganataantrik shaasan vyavastha ki shurooaat ki gayi thi. lagbhag chhathi shataabdi isa poorv mein yahaaain ka shaasak janta ke pratinidhiyon dvaara chuna jaane laga aur ganatantr ki sthaapana hui. vish‍aav ko sarvapratham ganatantr ka gyaan karaanevaala s‍aathaan vaishaali hi hai. aaj vaishvik s‍aatar par jis lokashaahi ko apnaaya ja raha hai vah yahaaain ke lichhavi shaasakon ki hi den hai. praacheen vaishaali nagar ati samruddh evam surakshit nagar tha jo ek doosare se kuchh antar par bani hui teen deevaalon se ghira tha. praacheen granthon mein varnan milta hai ki nagar ki kilebandi yathaasanbhav in teenon koti ki deevaalon se ki jaaya taaki shatru ke liye nagar ke bheetar pahuainchana asambhav ho sake. cheeni yaatri hvenasaang ke anusaar poore nagar ka ghera 14 meal ke lagbhag tha.
maurya aur gup‍aat raajavansh mein jab paataleeputr (aadhunik Patna) rajdhani ke roop mein viksit hua, tab vaishaali is kshetr mein hone vaale v‍aayaapaar aur udyog ka pramukh kendra tha. Bhagwan buddh ne vaishaali ke sameep kol‍aahuaa mein apna antim sambodhan diya tha. iski yaad mein mahaan maurya mahaan samraat ashok ne teesari shataabdi isa poorv Singh s‍aatanbh ka nirmaan karavaaya tha. mahaat‍aama buddh ke mahaaparinirvaan ke lagbhag 100 varsh baad vaishaali mein doosare bauddh parishad ka aayojan kiya gaya tha. is aayojan ki yaad mein do bauddh s‍aatoop banavaae gaye. vaishaali ke sameep hi ek vishaal bauddh math hai, jismein mahaat‍aama buddh upadesh diya karte the. Bhagwan buddh ke sabse priya shishya aanand ki pavitra asthiyaan Hajipur (puraana naam- uchchakala) ke paas ek stoop mein rakhi gayi thi.
yeh bhi ambpali ka janm sthaan hai, vaishaali ko chaubeesavein teerthankar Bhagwan mahaaveer ke janm sthal ka gaurav bhi praapt hai. jain dharmaavalanbiyon ke liye vaishaali kaafi mahat‍aavapoorn hai. yaheen par 599 isaapoorv mein jain dharm teerthankar Bhagwan mahaaveer ka jan‍aam kundalapur (kundagraam) mein hua tha. vajjikul mein janme Bhagwan mahaaveer yahaaain 22 varsh ki umr tak rahe the. is tarah vaishaali hindu dharm ke saath-saath Bhaarat ke do anya mahat‍aavapoorn dharmon ka kendra tha. bauddh tatha jain dharmon ke anuyaayiyon ke alaava aitihaasik paryatan mein dilchas‍aapi rakhane vaale logon ke liye bhi vaishaali mahat‍aavapoorn hai. vaishaali ki bhoomi na keval aitihaasik roop se samruddh hai varan kala aur sans‍aakruti ke drushtikon se bhi kaafi dhani hai. vaishaali jila ke chechar (shvetapur) se praapt moortiyaaain tatha sikke puraataatvik mahatva ke hain.
poorvi Bhaarat mein muslim shaasakon ke aagaman ke poorv vaishaali mithila ke karnaat vansh ke shaasakon ke adheen raha lekin jald hi yahaaain bakhtiyaar khalajee ka shaasan ho gaya. turk-Afghan kaal mein Bengal ke ek shaasak haaji iliyaas shaah ne 1345 E se 1358 E tak yahaan shaasan kiya. baabar ne bhi apne Bengal abhiyaan ke dauraan gandak tat ke paar apni sainya tukadi ko bheja tha. 1572 i॰ se 1574 i॰ ke dauraan Bengal vidroh ko kuchalane ke kram mein Akbar ki sena ne do baar Hajipur kile par ghera daala tha. 18 veen sadi ke dauraan Afghaanon dvaara tirhut kahalaanevaale is pradesh par kabja kiya. svatantrata aandolan ke samay vaishaali ke shaheedon ki agrani bhoomika rahi hai. vasaaban sinh, bechan sharma, akshayavat rai, seetaaraam Singh,baikunth shukla, yogendra shukla jaise svatantrata senaaniyon ne angreji hukoomat ke khilaaf ladaai mein mahatvapoorn hissa liya. aajaadi ki ladaai ke dauraan 1920, 1925 tatha 1934 mein mahaatma gaaaindhi ka vaishaali mein aagaman hua tha. vaishaali ki nagaravadhoo aachaarya chaturasen ke dvaara likhi gayi ek rachana hai jiska filmaantaran bhi hua evam jisme ajaatashatru ki bhoomika shri suneeladatt ke dvaara nibhaayi gayi hai|

jalavaayu evam bhoogol

vaishaali ki jalavaayu maanasooni prakaar ki hai| vaastav me tatkaaleen vaishaali ka vistaar aajkal ke uttar pradesh sthit devariya evam kusheenagar janapad se lekar ke Bihar ke Gazipur tak tha| is pradesh me patajhad vaale vruksh paaye jaate hain| jinmein aam, mahuaa, katahal, leechi, jaamun, sheesham, bargad, shahatoot aadi ki pradhaanata hai| bhaugolik roop se yeh ek maidaani pradesh hai jahaan anek nadiyaan paayi jaati hain iska ek bada hissa taraai pradesh mein gina jaata hai|

darshaneeya sthal

ashok s‍aatanbh

vaishaali mein kolhuaa ke nikat aanand stoop ke paas bana ashok stambh

samraat ashok ne vaishaali mein hue mahaat‍aama buddh ke antim upadesh ki yaad mein nagar ke sameep Singh s‍aatanbh ki s‍aathaapana ki thi. paryatakon ke beech yeh s‍aathaan lokapriya hai. darshaneeya mukhya parisar se lagbhag 3 kilometer door kolhuaa yaani bakhara gaaainv mein hui khudaai ke baad nikle avasheshon ko puraatatv vibhaag ne chaaradeevaari banaakar sahej rakha hai. parisar mein pravesh karte hi khudaai mein mila inton se nirmit golaakaar stoop aur ashok stambh dikhaayi de jaata hai. ekaashm s‍aatanbh ka nirmaan laal baluaa pat‍aathar se hua hai. is s‍aatanbh ke oopar ghanti ke aakaar ki banaavat hai (lagbhag 18.3 meter oonchi) jo isko aur aakarshak banaata hai. ashok stambh ko sthaaneeya log ise bheemasen ki laathi kehkar pukaarate hain. yaheen par ek chhota sa kund hai, jisko raamakund ke naam se jaana jaata hai. puraatatv vibhaag ne is kund ki pehchaan markak-had ke roop mein ki hai. kund ke ek or buddh ka mukhya stoop hai aur doosari or kutaagaarashaala hai. sambhavat: kabhi yeh bhikshuniyon ka pravaas sthal raha hai.

bauddh s‍aatoop

Bhagwan buddh ke parinirvaan ke pashchaat lichhavi dvaara vaishaali mein banavaaya gaya asthi stoop

doosare bauddh parishad ki yaad mein yahaaain par do bauddh s‍aatoopon ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha. in s‍aatoopon ka pata 1958 ki khudaai ke baad chala. Bhagwan buddh ke raakh paae jaane se is s‍aathaan ka mahat‍aav kaafi badh gaya hai. yeh s‍aathaan bauddh anuyaayiyon ke liye kaafi mahat‍aavapoorn hai. buddh ke paarthiv avashesh par bane aath maulik stoopon mein se ek hai yeh. bauddh maanyata ke anusaar Bhagwan buddh ke maha parinirvaan ke pashchaat kusheenagar ke mall shaasakon pramukhat: raaja shri sastipaal mall jo ki Bhagwan budv ke rishtedaar bhi the ke dvaara unke shareer ka raajakeeya sammaan ke saath antim sanskaar kiya gaya tatha asthi avashesh ko aath bhaagon mein baanta gaya, jismein se ek bhaag vaishaali ke lichhaviyon ko bhi mila tha. shesh saat bhaag magadh naresh ajaatashatru kapilvastu ke shaakya, alakapp ke buli, raamagraam ke koliya betadveep ke ek braahman tatha paava evam kusheenagar ke mallon ko praapt hue the. moolat: yeh paanchavi shati E. poorv mein nirmit 8.07 meter vyaas wala mitti ka ek chhota stoop tha. maurya, shung va kushaan kaalon mein paki into se aachhaadit karke chaar charanon mein iska parivartan kiya gaya jisse stoop ka vyaas badhkar lagbhag 12 meter ho gaya.[6]

Abhishek push‍aakarani

buddh stoop ke nikat sthit Abhishek pushkarani

praacheen vaishaali ganaraajya dvaara dhaai hajaar varsh poorv banavaaya gaya pavitra sarovar hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki is ganaraaj‍aaya mein jab koi naya shaasak nirvaachit hota tha to unako yaheen par Abhishek karavaaya jaata tha. isi ke pavitra jal se abhishikt ho lichhiviyon ka araajak ganataantrik santhaagaar mein baithata tha. Rahul saankrutyaayan ne apne upanyaas "Singh senaapati" mein iska ullekh kiya hai.

vishv shaanti stoop

Abhishek pushkarani ke najadeek hi Japan ke nipponaji bauddh samudaaya dvaara banavaaya gaya vish‍aav shaantis‍aatoop sthit hai. gol ghumaavadaar gumbad, alankrut seedhiyaan aur unke donon or svarn rang ke bade Singh jaise paharedaar shaanti stoop ki rakhavaali kar rahe prateet hote hain. seedhiyon ke saamane hi dhyaanamagn buddh ki svarn pratima dikhaayi deti hai. shaanti stoop ke chaaron or buddh ki bhinn-bhinn mudraaon ki atyant sundar moortiyaan ojasvita ki chamak se bhari dikhaai deti hain.

baavan pokhar mandir

baavan pokar ke uttari chhor par bana paalakaaleen mandir mein hindu devi-devataaon ki pratimaaeain sthaapit hai.

raaja vishaal ka gadh

yeh vaas‍aatav mein ek chhota teela hai, jiski paridhi ek kilometer hai. iske chaaron taraf do meter oonchi deevaal hai jiske chaaron taraf 43 meter chaudi khaai hai. samjha jaata hai ki yeh praacheenatam sansad hai. is sansad mein 7,777 sangheeya sadas‍aaya ikattha hokar samas‍aayaaon ko sunate the aur usapar bahas bhi kiya karte the. yeh bhavan aaj bhi paryatakon ko Bhaarat ke lokataantrik pratha ki yaad dilaata hai.

kun‍aadalapur (kundagraam)

yeh jagah Bhagwan mahaaveer ka jan‍aamas‍aathaan hone ke kaaran kaafi lokapriya hai. yeh s‍aathaan jain dharmaavalanbiyon ke liye kaafi pavitra maana jaata hai. vaishaali se iski doori 4 kilometer hai.

iske alaava vaishaali mahot‍aasav, vaishaali sangrahaalaya tatha Hajipur ke paas ki darshaneeya sthal evam sonapur mela aadi bhi dekhne laayak hai.

yaataayaat

sadak maarg

Patna, Hajipur athva mujaffarapur se yahaan aane ke liye sadak maarg sabse upayuk‍aat hai. vaahanon ki upalabdhata seemit hai isliye paryatak Hajipur ya mujaffarapur se niji vaahan bhaade par lekar jyaada pasand karte hain. vaishaali se Patna samet ut‍aatari Bihar ke sabhi pramukh shaharon ke liye basein jaati hai.

rel maarg

vaishaali ka najadeeki railway s‍aateshan Hajipur hai jo poorv madhya railway ka mukhyaalaya bhi hai. yeh s‍aateshan vaishaali se lagbhag 35 kilometer ki doori par hai. dil‍aali, Mumbai, chen‍aanai, Kolkata, guvaahaathi tatha amrutasar ke atirikt Bhaarat ke mahatvapoorn shaharon ke liye yahaan se seedhi trenaseva hai.

havaai maarg

vaishaali ka sabse najadeeki havaai adda raajya ki rajdhani Patna (55 kilometer) mein sthit hai. jayaprakaash Narayan antarraashtreeya havaai kshetr ke liye Indian, spaais jet, kingafisr, jetalaait, indigo aadi vimaanasevaaeain upalabdh hain. yahaaain aanevaale paryatak dil‍aali, Kolkata, kaathamaandu, baagadogara, raaainchi, banaaras aur Lucknow se flight le sakte hain. havaai adade se Hajipur hote hue niji athva saarvajanik vaahan se vaishaali tak jaaya ja sakta hai. iske aalaava Gorakhpur se bhi train aadi dvaara bhi aasaani se vaishaali panhucha ja sakta hai|

pramukh doori

Patna- 55 kilometer Hajipur- 35 kilometer mujaffarapur- 37 kilometer bodhagaya- 163 kilometer raajageer- 145 kilometer naalanda- 140 kilometer

ek najar mein

  • janasankh‍aaya :- 27,18,421 (2001 ki janagananana anusaar)

purushon ki sankhya:- 14,15,603
striyon ki sankhya:- 13,02,818

  • janasankhya ka ghanatv:- 1,335
  • saaksharata dar:- 50.49%
  • samudra tal se oonchaai- 52 meter
  • taapamaan- 44 degree celcius-21 degree celcius (garmiyon mein), 23 degree celcius - 6 degree celcius (sardiyon mein)
  • saalaana varsha- 120 se.mi.

bhraman samay evam tips

vaishaali saalobhar jaaya ja sakta hai kintu September se March ka samay sabse upyukt hai. vaishaali apne has‍aatashil‍aap ke liye vikh‍aayaat hai. kaartik ke maheene mein lahanevaale sonapur mela se bhi yaadagaar ke taur par khareedadaari kiya ja sakta hai. yahaaain se hastashil‍aap ka saamaan khareeda ja sakta hai. prasiddh madhubani kala ki peinting bhi khareedi ja sakti hai.

sandarbh