vaigyaanik vidhi

vigyaan, prakruti ka vishesh gyaan hai. yadyapi manushya praacheen samay se hi prakruti sambandhi gyaan praapt karta raha hai, fir bhi vigyaan arvaacheen kaal ki hi den hai. isi yug mein iska aarambh hua aur thode samay ke bheetar hi isne badi unnati kar li hai. is prakaar sansaar mein ek bahut badi kraanti hui aur ek nai sabhyata ka, jo vigyaan par aadhaarit hai, nirmaan hua.

brahmaand ke pareekshan ka samyak tareeka bhi dheere-dheere viksit hua. kisi bhi cheej ke baare mein yon hi kuchh bolne va tark-vitrk karne ke bajaay behtar hai ki us par kuchh prayog kiye jaanya aur usaka saavadhaani poorvak nireekshan kiya jaaya. is vidhi ke parinaam is arth mein saarvatrik hain ki koi bhi un prayogon ko pun: dohara kar praapt aankadon ki jaanch kar sakta hai.

satya ko asatya va bhram se alag karne ke liye ab tak aavishkrut tareekon mein vaigyaanik vidhi sarvashreshth hai. sankshep mein vaigyaanik vidhi nimn prakaar se kaarya karti hai:

  • (1) brahmaand ke kisi ghatak ya ghatna ka nireekshan kariye,
  • (2) ek sambhaavit parikalpana (hypothesis) sujhaaie jo praapt aakadon se mel khaati ho,
  • (3) is parikalpana ke aadhaar par kuchh bhavishyavaani (prediction) kariye,
  • (4) ab prayog karke bhi dekhiye ki ukt bhavishyavaaniyaan prayog se praapt aankadon se satya siddh hoti hain ya naheen. yadi aakade aur praakkathan mein kuchh asahamati (discrepancy) dikhti hai to parikalpana ko tadanusaar parivrtit kariye,
  • (5) uparokt charan (3) va (4) ko tab tak doharaaiye jab tak siddhaant aur prayog se praapt aankadon mein poori sahamati (consistency) na ho jaaya.

kisi vaigyaanik siddhaant ya parikalpana ki sabse badi visheshata yeh hai ki use asatya siddh karne ki gunjaaish (scope) honi chaahiye. jabaki majahabi maanyataaen aisi hoteen hain jinhe asatya siddh karne ki koi gunjaaish naheen hoti. udaaharan ke liye 'jo jeesas ke bataaye maarg par chaleinge, keval ve hi svarg jaayeinge' - iski satyata ki jaanch naheen ki ja sakti.

anukram

itihaas

prashn yeh hai ki vigyaan ki drut gati se jo unnati hui, usaka shreya kise hai? kya praacheen kaal ke manushya in arvaacheen vaigyaaniko ki apeksha buddhi kam rakhate the? yadi aisi baat hai, to darshan, saahitya evam lalit kalaaon ki unnati praacheen samay mein itni adhik kyon hui? sambhavat: iska rahasya un vaigyaanik vidhiyon mein nihit hai, jinka prashraya paakar vigyaan itni unnati kar saka hai.

arvaacheen vigyaan ka aarambh lagbhag teen sau varsh poorv hua. jaisa oopar kaha gaya hai, praacheen kaal mein bhi vigyaan ki kuchh unnati hui, kintu usaka kram aage na badh paaya. isliye kuchh baat iske peechhe avashya rahi hogi. vastut: praacheen kaal ke maneeshiyon ne jo bhi gyaan arjit kiya, use buddhivaadi kehna theek hoga. apni buddhi aur tark ke bal par gyaan ki uchch koti ki baatein unhonne bataain, kintu unke prakaar aur vardhan ki vyavastha naheen thi aur sansaar bhar mein unka vyaapak prachaar aur prasaaran naheen ho paaya arvaacheen vigyaan iske vipreet praayogik gyaan hai, jiska aarambh mein bada virodh hua. isi ke falasvaroop gaililiyo jaise agragaami vaigyaaniko ko kadi yaatanaaeain sahani padeen. fir bhi prayog dvaara satyaapan vidhi ke bheetar hi prasaaran ka beej bhi chhipa hua tha. is prakaar jo gyaan milta gaya, vah ek shrunkhala mein aabaddh ho chala, jiska kram aage bhi jaari raha. is gyaan se shakti ke nae nae sroton ka pata chala aur parinaamasvaroop na keval iska virodh kam hota gaya apitu ek bahut badi kraanti samaaj mein hui. machine yug ka sootrapaat hua aur sansaar me aasha ki ek nai kiran saamane I. kintu jis prakaar sabhi vastuon ke saath achhaai aur buraai donon ke pahaloo jude hue hain, vigyaan bhi maanav ke liye keval varadaan hi na raha, usaka paishaachik roop hiroshima mein aitam bam ke roop mein vishv ne dekha, jiske visfot ke kaaran sansaar ke vinaash tatha pralaya ki leela ka drushya upasthit ho gaya. is prakaar sansaar ke saamane "satya ko keval satya ke liye" khoj na karne ki aavashyakta jaan padi aur "satyan shivan sundaram" ke adarsh ko vigyaan jagat mein bhi apanaana hi shreyaskar maaloom hua. vigyaan is prakaar niyantrit hokar hi maanav kalyaan mein yogadaan kar sakta hai. isi niyantran ke falasvaroop paramaanveeya bhatthiyaaain bani, jo ek prakaar se niyantrit aitam bam maatr hain, kintu jinse apaar suvidhaaeain mil sakti hain. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki alp kaal mein hi vigyaan ne badi unnati ki aur iska sab shreya prayogavidhi ko hai, jiska upayog praacheen samay mein naheen kiya gaya tha. is prayogavidhi mein prayog ka mahatva sarvopari hai, fir bhi anya aur vidhiyon ka upayog bhi ek vishesh dhang aur kram se kiya jaata hai, jinhein ham vaigyaanik vidhiyaaain kah sakte hain.

pramukh vaigyaanik vidhiyaaain

vigyaan ke adhyayan mein jin vidhiyon ka upayog saamoohik roop se athva aanshik roop se kiya jaata hai, unka neeche varnan kiya ja raha hai :

Science process

(1) nireekshan (observation) - jis praakrutik vastu ya ghatna ka adhyayan karna ho, sabse pehle usaka dhyaanapoorvak nireekshan aavashyak hai. yadi koi ghatna kshanik ho, ta usaka chitran kar lena aavashyak hai, taaki baad mein usaka nireekshan ho sake, jaise grahan. nireekshan ke liye sookshmadarshi ya dooradarshi ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai, taaki adhik vistaar ke saath aur theek theek nireekshan ho sake. yadi anya log bhi nireekshan ka kaarya kar rahe hon, to usaka svaagat karna chaahiye ki keval nireekshit vastu par hi dhyaan keindrit rahe, jaise arjun ko vaanavidya ke pareekshan ke samay keval pakshi ka sir dikhaai pad raha tha. kabhi-kabhi kis vastu ke vishay mein mastishk mein pehle se kuchh dhaarana bani rahati hai, jo nishpaksh nireekshan mein bahut baadhak hoti hai. nireekshan ke samay is prakaar ki dhaaranaaon se unmukt hokar kaarya karna chaahiye.

(2) varnan (description)- nireekshan ke saath hi saath, ya turant baad, nireekshit vastu ya ghatna ka varnan likhna chaahiye. iske liye nape-tule shabdon ka prayog karna chaahiye, jisse padhnevaale ke saamane nirokshit vastu ka chitr khinch jaae. jahaaain kaheen aavashyakta ho, anumaan ke dvaara ankon mein vastu ke gunavishesh ki maap de deni chaahiye, kitu yeh tabhi karna chaahiye jab vaisa karna baad mein upayogi siddh honevaala ho. foolon ke rang ka varnan karte samay anumaanit tarangadairdhya dena vyarth hai, kintu kisi vastu ki kathorata ki tulana anya vastu ki apeksha ankon mein dena hi theek hai. vyarth ke vyore na diye jaaeain aur bhaasha saral tatha subodh ho. desh, kaal evam vaataavaran ka varnan de dena chaahiye taaki vastu kin paristhitiyon mein upalabdh ho sakti hai, yeh gyaat ho sake.

(3) kaarya-kaaran-vivechan (cause and effect) - prakruti ke rahasyodghaatan mein kaaryakaaran ka vivechan mahatvapoorn hai. varsha ka hona, baadal ki garaj, bijli ki chamak, aaaindhi aur toofaan aadi ghatanaaeain saath ho sakti hain. inmein kaun kitna kaaran hain? praaya: kaaran pehle aata hai, kintu keval kram hi kaaran ka nishchaya nahi karta. isliye in baaton par thodaavichaar kar lena chaahiye, taaki aage kisi prakaar ka bhram na paida ho. saath hi vibhinn kaaranon ka taaratamya bhi baaaindh rakhana chaahiye. ye sab baatein ghatna ko samajhne mein sahaayak hoti hain.

(4) prayogeekaran (experimentation) - vigyaan ki is yug mein jo bhi sheegra unnati ho pai, usaka ekamaatr shreya is vidhi ko hi hai, kyoki anya vidhiyaaain to isi mukhya vidhi ke ird gird sanjoi gayi hain. yeh takaneek is yug ki den hai. praacheen samay mein isi ke abhaav mein vigyaan ki pragati naheen ho pai thi. antarikshayaatra ev paaramaanveeya shakti ka vikaas, isi prayogeekaran ke kaaran, sambhav ho saka hai.

prayog aur saadhaaran nireekshan mein kya antar hai? prayog mein bhi to nireekshan ka kaarya hota hai. vaastav mein saadhaaran nireekshan mein prakruti ke saath kisi prakaar ka dakhal naheen diya jaata, kintu prayog mein dakhal diya jaata hai. falasvaroop aisi sanbhaavanaaeain evam paristhitiyaaain nikal aati hain jinse prayog ke samay ka nireekshan rahasyodghaatan mein bada sahaayak hota hai.

prayog satya jaanane ke liye kiye jaate hain, kintu nirantar vaigyaanik prayogon ke falasvaroop aisi sthiti paida ho gayi hai ki keval satya ke hi naam par prayog karna shreyaskar naheen, yadi vah satya mangalakaari na ho. us satya se kya laabh jiske falasvaroop saare sansaar ka vinaash nishchitpraaya ho. isliye achha hi hai ki is samay saare sansaar mein paramaanveeya pareekshan ka virodh ho raha hai. satya ki khoj ke vaaste hi yeh pareekshan kuchh raashtron ke dvaara hote rahate hain, kintu uske parinaamasvaroop radio aiktivta badhti ja rahi hai aur ho sakta hai, bhavishya mein uske kaaran janajeevan ke liye bhaari khatra paida ho jaae.

prayog karte samay sachchaai aur imaandaari baratani padti hai. shuddhi aur trutiyon ka dhyaan rakhana padta hai. anek vibhinnataaon ke adhyayan ke pashchaat koi parinaam nikaala jaata hai. yadi koi asangat baat dikhlaai pade, to use chhod naheen diya jaata, balki dhyaanapoorvak usapar vichaar kiya jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi isi kram mein bade-bade aavishkaar hue hain. nireekshan ko kai baar duharaaya jaata hai aur madhyamaan parinaam par hi bal diya jaata hai. takaneeki bhaasha mein vidhi, nireekshan evam parinaam ka varnan kiya jaata hai.

(5) parikalpana (hypothesis) - prayog karne ka ek maatr uddeshya prakruti ke kisi rahasya ka udghaatan hota hai. koi ghatna kyon aur kaise ghatit hoti hai, isko samajhna padta hai. varsha kyon hoti hai? indradhanush kaise banta hai? is prakaar ke prashnon ke uttar dene ke liye ek parikalpana ki aavashyakta padti hai. yadi parikalpana theek hai, to vah jaaainch mein theek baithegi. parikalpana ki jaaainch ke liye vibhinn paprayeg kiye ja sakte hain. aage chalakar aise tathya bhi prakaash mein aate hain jo us parikalpana ki pushti kar sakte hain. yadi aisi baatein hain, to usi parikalpana ko siddhaant ya niyam ki sajnyaa di jaati hai, anyatha usaka sanshodhan karna padta hai, ya use chhod dena padta hai. nyootan ke gati ke niyam aur aainstaan ka saapekshavaad ka siddhaat iske udaaharan hain.

(6) aagaman (induction) - jab kisi varg ke kuchh sadasyon ke gun gyaat hon, to unke aadhaar par us vargavishesh ke gunon ke baare mein anumaan lagaana upapaadan kahalaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, a, b, s aadi. manushya maranasheel praani hain; iske aadhaar par kaha jaata hai ki sab manushya maranasheel praani hai. is prakaar ke saamaanyeekaran (generalisation) ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki jo namoone ikatthe kiye jaaeain, ve aniyt tareeke se kiye jaaeain, naheen to jo parinaam nikaala jaaega vah theek naheen hoga. kabhi kabhi kuchh raashiyon ka madhyamaan nikaala jaata hai, kintu yeh tabhi karna theek hoga jab aisa karna tarkasangat ho. udaaharanaarth, "lekha jokha thaahe, ladka dooba kaahe" se pata chalta hai ki nadi ki ausat gaharaai kisi ladke ki ooainchaai se kam hote hue bhi ladka doob sakta hai.

(7) nigman (Deduction) - aagaman mein jo kaarya hota hai, usaka ulta nigman mein hota hai. ismein kisi varg vishesh ke gunon ke aadhaar par us varg ke kisi sadasya ke gunon ke baare mein anumaan lagaaya jaata hai, jaise maanav maranasheel praani hai, isliye "k", jo ek manushya hai, maranasheel hai. nishkarsh nikaalne ki is vidhi ko hi nigman kehte hain. iske liye do baatein aavashyak hain: nigman vyavahaarya aur tarkasangat hona chaahiye.

(8) ganit aur pratiroop (mathematics and model) - bahut si baatein hamaari samajh se pare hain, unke samajhne mein pratiroop (model) se badi sahaayata milti hain. shareer ki aantarik rachana, anuon ka sangathan aadi vishay pratiroop ki sahaayata se achhi tarah bodhagamya ho jaate hain. ganit ke dvaara bhi vigyaan ke kathin prashnon ko hal karne mein badi sahaayata milti hai. bahut si aisi baatein hain jo hamaari jnyaaaneindriyon dvaara aatmasaat naheen ki ja sakateen, jaise padaarthatarangein, kintu ganit ke sootron ke dvaara unki chhaanabeen sambhav ho pai hai aur prayogon dvaara unki pushti bhi hui hai. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki aadhunik vigyaan ki pragati mein ganit ka bahut bada haath hai.

(9) vaigyaanik drushtikon (scientific outlook) - ant mein ek bahut hi mahatvapoorn vidhi rah jaati hai. vah hai kisi prashn ke prati vaigyaanik drushtikon ka apanaana. khule dimaag se khoj ki bhaavana rakhakar vichaar karna hi sahi drushtikon hai apne vyaktitv ko prashn se alag rakhana chaahiye aur sachchaai evam pakshapaatarahit bhaav se kisi nishkarsh par pahuainchana chaahiye. jeevan ke roj ke prashnon mein bhi is prakaar ka drushtikon apanaana shreyaskar hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain