vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog

vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog (seeesateeti) hindi aur anya sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke vaigyaanik aur takaneeki shabdon ko paribhaashit evam nae shabdon ka vikaas karta hai. Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke baad vaigyaanik-takaneeki shabdaavali ke liye shiksha mantraalaya ne san 1950 mein board ki sthaapana ki. san 1952 mein board ke tattvaavadhaan mein shabdaavali nirmaan ka kaarya praarambh hua. antat: 1960 mein kendreeya hindi nideshaalaya aur 1961 E. mein vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog ki sthaapana hui. is prakaar vibhinn avsaron par taiyaar shabdaavali ko 'paaribhaashik shabd sangrah' sheershak se prakaashit kiya gaya, jiska uddeshya ek or vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog ke samanvaya kaarya ke liye aadhaar pradaan karna tha aur doosari or antarim avadhi mein lekhakon ko nai sankalpanaaon ke liye sarvasammat paaribhaashik shabd pradaan karna tha.

svatantrata ke baad Bhaarat ke samvidhaan ke nirmaataaon ka dhyaan desh ki sabhi pramukh bhaashaaon ke vikaas ki or gaya. samvidhaan mein hindi ko sangh ki raajabhaasha ke roop mein maanyata di gayi aur keindreeya sarkaar ko yeh daayitv saunpa gaya ki vah hindi ka vikaas-prasaar karein evam use samruddh kare. tadanusaar Bhaarat sarkaar ke keindreeya shiksha mantraalaya ne samvidhaan ke anuchhed 351 ke adheen hindi ka vikaas evam samruddhi ki anek yojanaaeain aarambh keen. in yojanaaon mein hindi mein takaneeki shabdaavali ke nirmaan ka kaaryakram bhi shaamil kiya gaya taaki gyaan-vigyaan ki sabhi shaakhaaon mein hindi ke maadhyam se adhyayan evam adhyaapan ho sake. shabdaavali nirmaan kaaryakram ko sahi disha dene ke liye 1950 mein shiksha salaahakaar ki adhyakshata mein vaigyaanik shabdaavali board ki sthaapana ki gayi.

pehle yeh kaarya shiksha mantraalaya ke antargat hindi ekak dvaara kiya jaata tha kintu baad mein vibhinn vishyon ki hindi shabdaavali ka nirmaan karne ke dauraan yeh gyaat hua ki yeh kaam bahut hi adhik vishaal, gahan aur bahuaayaami hai. iske poore hone mein bahut sakaya lagega aur is kaarya ke liye sabhi vishyon ke visheshagyon evam bhaashaavidon ki aavashyakta hogi. at: Bhaarat sarkaar ne 1 October, 1961 ko prakhyaat vaigyaanik Dr. di.S. kothaari ki adhyakshata mein vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog ki sthaapana ki taaki shabdaavali nirmaan ka kaarya sahi evam vyaapak pariprekshya mein kaaryaanvit kiya ja sake.

anukram

parichay tatha itihaas

hindi tatha anya aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ko prashaasan, shiksha tatha pareeksha ka maadhyam banaane ka sapana tatha sankalp svantatrata praapti ke baad Bhaarat ke samvidhaan nirmaataaon ne bahut soojh-boojh tatha vidhaar mathan ke pashchaat Bhaarat ki janta ke sammukh rakha . yeh sankalp, yeh sapana Bhaarat ki saanskrutik tatha bhaashaayi vividhta ko dhyaan mein rakhakar liya gaya ek aadarsh aitihaasik faisala tha. yeh ek aisa sankalp tha, jo Bhaarat ki mitti mein janmi prajnyaa ko gyaan-vigyaan ke kshetr mein maulikta pradaan karne tatha bhaarateeyata ko surakshit rakhane ke liye liya gaya tha. yeh raashtreeya ekta tatha saamaajik vikaas ke liye aavashyak tha tatha ek aisa bhavishyagaami faisala tha jismein 'sarvebhavantu sukhin:' ki bhaavana nihit thi.

jab koi sapana dekha jaata hai, jab koi sankalp liya jaata hai, jab koi aadarsh saamane rakha jaata hai, to use moortaroop dene ke liye kaaragar yojanaaon aur unke kriyaanvayan ki aavashyakta bhi hoti hai. samvidhaan ki 351veen dhaara mein hindi tatha anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke liye jo vidhaan kiye gaye, unhein kaaryaroop dene ke liye sarkaar ne kai yojanaaen banaai jismein vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali ka vikaas, maanakeekaran tatha ekaroopata ki mahatvaakaankshi yojana bhi thi jo baad mein chalakar Bhaarat sarkaar ki shiksha neeti mein bhi sammilit ki gayi.

svatantrata ke samay gyaan ki vibhinn vidhaaon mein angreji bhaasha ka varchasv tha tatha parishcham se liye hue udhaar ke gyaan ke liye ek aisi shabdaavali bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein viksit karni thi jiska janm Bhaarat ki mitti mein naheen hua tha. isi kaaran yeh ek sahaj prayaas na hokar kuchh apraakrutik svaroop grahan karne ke liye baadhya thi. is saayaas aur niyojit prayaas mein takaneeki paryaayon ya samaanarthi shabdon ka vidhaan kiya jaana tha. aise paryaaya, jo anveshak ya vidvaan ki kruti naheen, balki vishay visheshagya tatha bhaashaavid dvaara mool takaneeki sankalpana ki soochana anoodit bhaasha mein sanprekshit kar sake.

shabdaavali nirmaan ki is asahaj prakriya ne us samay kai visangatiyon ko janm diya. kai vidvaanon ne us samay vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali ke vikaas ka kaam praarambh kar diya. kuchh vidvaanon ne shabdaavali ko sanskrutanishth karna chaaha, to kuchh ne ise urdoo-faarasi aur hindustaani kahi jaane waali bhaasha mein dhaalana chaaha. us samay kuchh aise bhi vidvaan the jinhonne angreji ke takaneeki shabdon ko devanaagari mein lipyaantaran karke sveekaar karne ki peshakash rakhi parantu in sabse vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki vishyon ke bahuyaami tatha vishaal shabd bhandaar ko apni bhaasha ke vyaakaran, usaki prakruti tatha vidyaarthiyo, praadhyaapakon, shodhaarthiyon, anuvaadakon, granth lekhakon ki aakaankshaaon ki poorti naheen ho rahi thi aur jis dhang se log shabdaavali ka nirmaan kar rahe the usase samvidhaan ki garima mein nihit aashay ki poorti bhi naheen ho rahi thi. ek hi takaneeki shabd ke kai-kai paryaaya upalabdh hone se ek aisi araajak sthiti utpann ho gayi jisne shabdaavali nirmaan ke niyojan tatha prabandhan ki or logon ka dhyaan aakarshit kiya. aise mein Bhaarat sarkaar ne yeh kaarya apne haath mein lena hi uchit samjha aur 1 October 1961 ko sthaai aayog ke room mein vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog ki sthaapana raashtrapati ke aadesh ke adheen ki gayi.

padm vibhooshan professor daulat Singh kothaari jaise svapnadrashta, prasiddh shikshaavid tatha moordhanya vaigyaanik ko aayog ka pehla adhyaksh banaakar Bhaarat sarkaar ne yeh siddh kiya ki ve vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali ke vikaas hetu gambhir prayaas ke liye katibddh hai.

pro. kothaari ne vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali ke vikaas ke liye samanvayavaadi drushtikon ko apnaaya tatha shabdaavali nirmaan, usaki sameeksha evam samanvayan ke liye kuchh aise mahatvapoorn siddhaanton ka niroopan kiya jiske paalan karne se Bhaarat ki saamasik sanskruti bhaashaayi vividhta, raashtreeya ekta tatha asmita ko surakshit rakhate hue gyaan-vigyaan ki vibhinn shaakhaaon ki aadhunik tatha aadhuniktam aavashyakataaon ki poorti karte hue vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali ko viksit karne mein kisi prakaar ki koi rukaavat naheen aa sahati thi.

apni sthaapana se ab tak ke varshon mein shabdaavali aayog ne gyaan ki vibhinn shaakhaaon, yatha-vigyaan, maanaviki, samaajashaastr, krushi, aayurvigyaan tatha engineering ityaadi mein lagbhag 8 lakh takaneeki shabdon ke hindi paryaaya nirdhaarit kar unhein vibhinn shabd sangrahon tatha paribhaasha koshon ke roop mein prakaashit kiya hai. saath hi saath san 1968 mein granth nirmaan ki yojana ke antargat 15 raajyon mein 'granth academy' tatha 'paathya pustak mandalon' ki sthaapana ki hai jisse ki hindi ke saath-saath Bhaarat ki anya aadhunik bhaashaaon mein takaneeki shabdaavali ka vikaas tatha paathya-pustak ka prakaashan kiya ja sake. shabdaavali aayog tatha vibhinn raajyon mein sthaapit granth akaadamiyon tatha paathya-pustak mandalon ke samanvit prayaas se ab tak lagbhag 12 hajaar paathya-pustakon ka prakaashan kiya ja chuka hai. iske atirikt poorak saamagri ke roop mein granth maalaaon, chayanikaaon tatha patra-patrikaaon ki ek lambi soochi prastut ki ja sakti hai. akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali, vibhaageeya shabdaavaliyaaain tatha prashaasanik shabdaavali apne aap mein aayog ke anoothe prayaas hai. shabdaavali aayog ne kapyootareekrut raashtreeya shabdaavali bank ki sthaapana bhi ki hai.

vishvavidyaalayon mein padhaaya jaane wala ab aisa koi vishay naheen hoga ya prayojanamoolak hindi ki aisi koi vidha ab naheen bachi hai jiski angreji aadhaarit sankalpanaaon ko vyakt karne vaale hindi paryaaya sthir na ho gaye hon. aayog ki akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali yojana ke antargat 18 shabdaavaliyaaain prakaashit ki ja chuki hain jismein 20,000 aise shabdon ko vishyavaar sankalit kiya gaya hai jinhein akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali ke roop mein sveekaar kiya ja sakta hai.

vigyaan mein uchch-stareeya lekhan ko protsaahit karne ke liye aayog vigyaan ki traimaasik patrika 'vigyaan garima sindhu' ka prakaashan karta hai. maanaviki tatha samaaj vigyaan vishyon mein isi uddeshya se 'gyaan garima sindhu' naamak patrika ka prakaashan bhi January 2000 se praarambh kiya gaya hai.

aayog ke poornakaalik adhyaksh

  1. Dr. daulat Singh kothaari (1961-1965)
  2. Dr. nihaalakaran sethi (1965-1966)
  3. Dr. vishvanaath prasaad (1966-1967)
  4. Dr. S. baalasubrahmanyam (1967-1968)
  5. Dr. baabooraam Saxena (1968-1970)
  6. da. Krishna dayaal bhaargav (1970)
  7. shri ganti jogi somayaaji (1970 se 1971 tak)
  8. da. pi. gopaal sharma (1971 se 1975 tak)
  9. Dr. harabansh laal sharma (1975-1980)
  10. da. kapila vaatsyaayan (1980 se 1983 tak)
  11. pro. malik mohammad (1983-1987)
  12. pro. soorajabhaan Singh (1988-1994)
  13. pro. prem svaroop sakalaani (1994-1998)
  14. Dr. rai avadhesh Kumar shreevaastav (1998 se 2001 tak)
  15. Dr. hareesh Kumar (2001 se 2003 tak)
  16. Dr. pushpalata taneja (2003 se 2005 tak)
  17. pro. ke. bijya Kumar (2005 se - 2012)
  18. Dr keshareelaal varma (03 December, 2012 se ab tak)

aayog ke kaarya evam uddeshya

aayog jo kaarya kar raha hai ve is prakaar hain :[1]

hindi ke sandarbh mein

1. vaigyaanik shabdaavali ke nirmaan ke siddhaanton ka nirdhaaran karna tatha takaneeki shabdaavali ke kshetr mein ab tak kiye gaye kaarya ka punareekshan, samanvaya tatha samekan.

2. vibhinn vishyon ki maanak vaigyaanik shabdaavali ka nirmaan, prakaashan, prachaar-prasaar evam prashikshan.

3. aayog dvaara nirmit shabdaavali ke prayog ko parilkshit karte hue vibhinn paaribhaashik shabdakoshon ka nirmaan evam prakaashan.

4. paathamaalaaon, monograaf, chayanikaaon (daaijest) evam paath-sangrahon (reedings) ka nirmaan evam prakaashan.

5. vigyaan tatha maanaviki aadi mein uchch stareeya vishvavidyaalaya star ke paathya granthon ke nirmaan evam prakaashan ke liye sabhi hindi-bhaashi raajyon mein hindi granth akaadamiyon/vishvavidyaalaya ekakon ki sthaapana karna, unhein anudaan dena evam maargadarshan pradaan karna.

6. akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali ka sankalan, prakaashan, prachaar evam anuprayog.

7. vigyaan tatha maanaviki mein uchch stareeya lekhan ko protsaahit karne ke liye kramash: traimaasik patrikaaon 'vigyaan garima sindhu' tatha gyaan garima sindhu' ka prakaashan.

8. vishvavidyaalayon evam uchch takaneeki sansthaanon ke praadhyaapakon/vaigyaaniko aadi ko aayog dvaara nirmit shabdaavali ka prashikshan dene tatha hindi mein vigyaan lekhan ko protsaahit karne ke liye shabdaavali kaaryashaalaaon ka aayojan karna.

9. aayog dvaara nirmit samast shabdaavali ka kanpyootareekaran karte hue computer-aadhaarit raashtreeya shabdaavali bank ki sthaapana karna taaki desh bhar mein sabhi vishyon ki adyatan maanak shabdaavali sarvasulabh ho jaae.

10. krushi, aayurvigyaan evam injeeniyri ke sabhi vishyon mein vishvavidyaalaya-stareeya paathyapustakon, sandarbh-grathon evam sahaayak saamagri ka nirmaan evam prakaashan.

11. shabdaavali ka maanakeekaran tatha prayoktaaon ke beech sarvekshan kaarya .

anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke sandarbh mein

12. ahindi-bhaashi raajyon mein sthaapit paathya pustak mandalon ke maadhyam se paathya pustakon ke nirmaan, shabdaavali nirmaan evam anya sandarbh-granthon ke nirmaan aadi ke liye keindreeya anudaan, maargadarshan, paraamarsh evam visheshajnyaata pradaan karna, unke kaaryon ka akhil bhaarateeya star par samanvaya evam punareekshan karna.

13. takaneeki shabdaavali ke abhyaas, prashikshan evam punareekshan ke liye in ahindi-bhaashi raajyon ke paathya pustak mandalon ko takaneeki shabdaavali kaaryashaala ke aayojan ke liye aarthik sahaayata, maargadarshan evam visheshajnyaata pradaan karna.

14. aayurvigyaan ke shabdon aur vaakyaanshon ke dvibhaashi sanskaran arthaat tamil-hindi, maraathi-hindi, gujaraati-hindi aadi sanskaranon ka nirmaan evam prakaashan .

vividh kaarya

aayog ke kaaryon ka vyaapak prachaar-prasaar, vigyaapan, prakaashnon ka mudran, bikri, vitran, pradarshaniyon ka aayojan, visheshagya samitiyon, sangoshthiyon, kaaryashaalaaon, sameeksha samitiyon, moolyaankan samitiyon aadi ki baithakon ka aayojan aadi vividh kaarya karna .

shabdaavali nirmaan mein aayog ki adhikaarita

raashtrapati ke 27 April, 1960 ke aadesh ke anusaar sabhi vishyon ki shabdaavali ke hindi paryaayon ke nirmaan ka uttaradaayitv keval vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog ko saunpa gaya hai. at: shiksha, prashaasan, adhyaapan aadi sabhi kshetron mein sabhi par yeh baadhyata hai ki keval shabdaavali aayog dvaara nirmit maanak shabdaavali ka hi sarvatr prayog kiya jaae. vastut: poore desh mein maanak shabdaavali ke prayog ki vaanchhaneeyata aur ekaroopata ki drushti se yeh anivaarya bhi hai. vishvavidyaalaya anudaan aayog ne bhi sabhi vishvavidyaalayon aadi ko yeh nirdesh diya hai ki hindi tatha anya bhaashaaon ki paathyapustakon mein keval shabdaavali aayog ki shabdaavali ka hi prayog kiya jaae. isi prakaar raajabhaasha vibhaag, gruh mantraalaya ne bhi prashaasan ke kshetr mein aayog dvaara nirmit prashaasanik tatha anya shabdaavaliyon ke prayog ki baadhyata ka nirdesh diya hai.

aayog ki pragati tatha upalabdhiyaaain

vibhinn vijnyaaanon, maanaviki tatha saamaajik vijnyaaanon ki moolabhoot shabdaavali ke nirmaan ka kaarya san 1971 mein poora kar liya gaya. tatpashchaat ukt shabdaavali ke samanvaya tatha samekan ka kaarya praarambh hua. in sabhi shabd sangrahon ki sthiti is prakaar hai:

kramaank naam shabd sankhya
1 vruhat paaribhaashik shabd sangrah (vigyaan khand ) 1,30,000
2 vruhat paaribh aashaik shabd sangrah (maanaviki khand ) 80,000
3 vruhat paaribhaashik shabd sangrah (aayurvigyaan ) 50,000
4 vruhat paaribhaashik shabd sangrah (injeeniyri ) 50,000
5 vruhat paaribhaashik shabd sangrah (raksha ) 40,000
6 vruhat paaribhaashik shabd sangrah (krushi ) 17,500
7 samekit prashaasan shabdaavali (prashaasan ) 8,000
8 yog 2,75,500 shabd

hindi ki takaneeki shabdaavali ka nirmaan

vibhinn vishyon ki takaneeki shabdaavali ka nirmaan san 1950 se hi shiksha mantraalaya ke hindi ekak mein shuroo ho gaya tha. mantraalaya ne vividh vishyon ki anek aaranbhik aur anantim shabdaavaliyaaain chhaapeen aur unhein ni:shulk vishvavidyaalayon aadi ke praadhyaapakon ko vitrit kiya. iske baad anek vishyon ki antim roop se sveekrut shabdaavali bhi alag-alag chhaapi gayi. san 1962 mein in sabhi shabdon ko ekatr kar 'paaribhaashik shabd-sangrah' ke naam se pehli baar chhaapa gaya. is shabd-sangrah mein lagbhag 9000 shabd the. shabdaavi aayog ki sthaapana ke baad is kaarya mein bahut gati I. tab se aayog ne vibhinn vishyon ki shabdaavaliyon ko anek shabd sangrahon ke roop mein prakaashit kiya hai. ab tak kul milaakar lagbhag 35 shabd-sangrah/shabdaavaliyaaain chhaapi ja chuki jinmein kul milaakar lagbhag 8.5 lakh takaneeki shabdon ke hindi paryaaya diye gaye hain.

aayog ne ab tak gyaan-vigyaan ki lagbhag sabhi aadhuniktam shaakhaaon ki adhikaansh shabdaavaliyon ke hindi paryaaya bana diye hain.

prashaasan shabdaavali

samvidhaan mein hindi ko sangh ki raajabhaasha ke roop mein maanyata di gayi hai. tadanusaarinhandi ki prashaasanik shabdaavali ki maanakata, ekaroopata aur sarvatr sveekaaryata ki drushti se aayog ne prashaasan se sambandhit 12000 shabdon ka sankalan 'samekit prashaasan shabdaavali' ke naam se kiya hai. ab tak iske anek sanskaran prakaashit ho chuke hain. yeh shabdaavali sabhi vibhaagon, kaaryaalayon aadi ko ni:shulk bheji jaati hain taaki sabhi kaaryaalayon mein hindi ki maanak shabdaavali ke prayog ko badhaava mile . iske angreji-hindi tatha hindi-angreji donon hi sanskaran aayog ne prakaashit kiya hai .

vibhaageeya shabdaavali

vishvavidyaalaya mein padhaae jaane vaale vishyon ke saath-saath aayog vibhinn sarkaari vibhaagon ke anurodh par un vibhaagon ki takaneeki shabdaavali ke hindi paryaayon ke nirmaan ka bhi kaarya karta hai. vibhaageeya shabdaavaliyon mein ab tak daak-taar shabdaavali, railway shabdaavali, raksha shabdaavali, raajasv shabdaavali, vaimaaniki shabdaavali, vaaniki shabdaavali, mausam vigyaan shabdaavali, svaasthya bhautiki tatha vikirn jaiviki shabdaavali. resham shabdaavali, kapaas shabdaavali, koyala shabdaavali, ilektrauniki shabdaavali, peinshan shabdaavali, aasoochana bureau shabdaavali, aadi ka prakaashan kiya ja chuka hai. door sanchaar shabdaavali (15000 shabd), naabhikeeya bhautiki aadi ke paryaayon ko antim roop de diya gaya hai. kuchh vibhaageeya shabdaavali ko sambandhit vibhaagon ko prakaashanaarth bhej di gayi hain tatha kuchh vichaaraadheen hain. vibhinn vibhaagon se hindi paryaayon ke nirmaan ke liye takaneeki shabdon ki soochiyaaain aayog mein samay-samay par praapt hoti hi tatha inakein hindi payaaryo ka nirdhaaran yatha samay kar diya jaata hai .

shabdaavali ka adyataneekaran

shabdaavali nirmaan ek nirantar jaari rahane waali prakriya hai. har saal vishv mein vividh vishyon mein hajaaron nae shabd prayog mein aate hain jinmein se kuchh hajaar shabd hi vaigyaaniko dvaara sthaayi roop se apanaae jaate hain. in shabdon ke hindi paryaaya banaane ka kaarya bhi aayog ke vibhinn vishay ekak nirantar karte rahate hain. is prakaar sabhi vishyon ki shabdaavaliyon mein sanshodhan, parivrdhan evam adyataneekaran nirantar hota rahata hai.

vishyavaar shabdaavaliyaaain tatha vishay-samoohavaar shabdaavaliyaaain

praarambh mein aayog ne alag-alag vishyon ki shabdaavaliyaaain chhaapi theen. kaafi shabdon ke nirmaan ke nirmaan ke baad unhein vishay-samoohavaar bruhat shabd-sangrahon ke roop mein chhaapa gaya. vigyaan ke shabdon ko ek sankalan mein aur maanaviki ke shabdon ko anya sankalan mein chhaapa gaya. baad mein injeeniyri, aayurvigyaan, krushi, pashu-chikitsa, lok prashasan, raksha, vaanijya, prashaasan, computer-vigyaan, antariksh-vigyaan, mudran injeeniyri, dhaatukarm aadi vishyon ke anusaar inhein alag-alag bhi chhaapa gaya. vastut: anek shabdaavali ki maang kaafi samay se hoti rahi hain taaki vah prayokta ko kam moolya mein hi praapt ho jaae. tadanusaar ab aayog apni ek yojana ke antargat vishyavaar shabdaavaliyaaain hi parivrdhit roop mein prakaashit kar raha hai.

moolabhoot shabdaavaliyaaain

1994 se aayog ne vigyaan tatha anya vishyon ki mahatvapoorn shaakhaaon mein viksit shabdaavaliyon mein prakaashit aamtaur par prayog kiye jaane vaale shabdon ka chayan kar 'moolabhoot shabdaavali' ke prakaashan ka kaarya praarambh kiya hai . in shabdaavaliyon ko vidyaarthiyon/adhyaapakon tatha anya prayokta varg mein ni:shulk vitrit kiya jaata hai jisse hindi mein vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali ke prayog ko badhaava mil sake tatha vah lokapriya ho sake. in shabdaavaliyon mein aise shabdon ke chayan par vishesh dhyaan rakha jaata hai jo snaatak tatha paraasnaatak star ke vidyaarthi, shodh chhaatr tatha praadhyaapak saamaanyat: prayog karte hain . aayog ne ab tak computer vigyaan, ganit, bhoogol, bhoovijnyaaan, bhautiki, pashuchikitsa vigyaan, yaantrik injeeniyri jaise vishyon ki moolabhoot shabdaavaliyaun prakaashit ki hain tatha ilektraaniks, arthashaastr, manovijnyaaan, vaastukala, puraatatv, itihaas, raksha, raajaneeti vigyaan, praani vigyaan, krushi vigyaan, vanaspati vigyaan tatha sootr krumi vigyaan ki moolabhoot shabdaavaliyaun prakaashanaarth taiyaar ki ja rahi hain .

shabdaavaliyon ke angreji-hindi, hindi-angreji evam dvibhaashi sanskaran

aayog ke sabhi shabd-sangrah moolat: angreji-hindi mein hain, kyonki srot bhaasha angreji rahi hai. aayog ne inmein se anek shabd-sangrahon ke hindi-angreji sanskaran prakaashit kiye hain. inmein vigyaan ke vishyon ka shabd-sangrah, maanaviki ke vishyon ka shabd-sangrah, aayurvigyaan, krushi evam injeeniyri shabd-sangrah evam prashaasanik shabdaavali ke hindi-angraji sanskaran ab tak prakaashit kiye ja chuke hain. bhaashaavijnyaaan shabdaavali ka dvibhaashi sanskaran (arthaat ek hi jild mein angreji sanskaran) bhi prakaashit kiya gaya hai. shesh sabhi shabdaavaliyon ke hindi-angreji sanskaran) bhi prakaashit kiye gaye hain .

raashtreeya shabdaavali bank

aayog ne apni shabdaavaliyon ke prastuteekaran evam prakaashan ki prakriya ka aadhunikeekaran karne ke liye computer-aadhaarit raashtreeya shabdaavali bank ki sthaapana ki hai taaki aayog ki shabdaavali sabhi prayogakartaaon ko turant upalabdh ho sake . is kanpyootareekrut shabdaavali bank se yeh laabh hoga ki-

  • 1. nae shabdon ko unke apne akaaraadi kram mein tatkaal bhara ja sakta hai.
  • 2. shabdon mein kabhi bhi sanshodhan-parivrdhan kiya ja sakta hai athva unhein hataaya ja sakta hai.
  • 3. shabdon ke hindi paryaaya tatkaal maaloom kiye ja sakte hain.
  • 4. shabdaavali ke tatkaal mudran ke liye lesar print taiyaar kiye ja sakte hain.
  • 5. shabdon ko vishyavaar ya vishay-samoohavaar ya samekit roop mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai.
  • 6. shabdon ke angreji-hindi sanskaran ya hindi-angreji sanskaran ya dvibhaashi sanskaran praapt kiye ja sakte hain.
  • 7. shabdaavaliyaaain flaapiyon tatha seedi ke roop mein praapt ki ja sakti hain tatha bechi ja sakti hain.

aayog ka website

February 2000 mein aayog ne raashtreeya soochana kendra ke sarvar par website http://www.cstt.nic.in/ praarambh kiya hai. is website par aayog ke vishay mein agreinji tatha hindi donon bhaashaaon mein poori jaankaari di gayi hai tatha kai mahatvapoorn vishyon ki shabdaavaliyaun bhi upalabdh karaayi gayi hai .

akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali

sabhi shikshaavidon, bhaashaavidon evam vidvaanon ki yeh dhaarana hai ki bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki takaneeki shabdaavali aisi honi chaahiye jismein sabhi bhaashaaon mein paraspar samaroopata ho taaki uchch shiksha, anusandhaan, vigyaan ke aadaan-pradaan evam sanpreshan mein suvidha rahe tatha unamein akhil bhaarateeya star par ekaroopata evam samaanata sthaapit ho. sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein samaanata ka pehla aadhaar yeh hai ki hamaari adhikaansh bhaashaaeain sanskrutamoolak hain. sanskrut mool ke shabd kaafi raajyon mein aasaani se sveekrut kiye jaate hain. fir prashaasan evam uchch takaneeki shiksha mein angreji ke shabd aur adaalaton aadi ke kaam mein urdoo ke shabd sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein samaan roop se milte hain. is prakaar sabhi raajyon ke liye samaan takaneeki shabdaavali ki khoj karna bhi vaigyaanik tatha takaneeki shabdaavali aayog ka ek uttradaayitv raha hai . tadanusaar 1980 se aayog ne akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali yojana shuroo ki jiske antargat sabhi raajyon ki bhaashaaon se aise shabdon ka sankalan kiya gaya jinhein akhil bhaarateeya prayog ke liye sveekaar kiya ja sakta tha. in shabdon ki soochiyon ke nirmaan mein vibhinn bhaashaaon ke vidvaanon, vaigyaaniko evam bhaashaavidon ki sahaayata li gayi aur unhein vishyavaar soocheebaddh kiya gaya. in shabd-soochiyon ko sabhi raajyon mein bhejkar unke paathya pustak nirmaan mandalon mein kaam karne vaale vaigyaaniko/bhaashaavidon se unki bhaasha mein un shabdon ke maanak paryaaya maingaae gaye. vibhinn raajyon ke bordon se sabhi bhaashaaon ke paryaaya praapt ho jaane ke baad aayog ne vibhinn sthalon par akhil bhaarateeya sangoshthiyaaain aayojit keen jinmein sabhi raajyon ke vishyavidon evam bhaashaavidon ko aamantrit kiya gaya. in sangoshthiyon ke parinmasvaroop vibhinn vishyon ke lagbhag 20,000 aise shabd sankalit kar diye gaye hain jinhein akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali ke roop mein sveekaar kiya ja sakta hai. in shabdon ko aayog ne vibhinn vishyon ki akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali ke roop mein vishyavaar prakaashit kiya hai. ab tak aisi 19 shabdaavaliyaaain prakaashit ki ja chuki hain. jin vishyon mein akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali ki pehchaan ki ja chuki hai, unka vivran nimnalikhit hai :

1. arthashaastr aur vaanijya
2. aayurvigyaan (shalya vigyaan)
3. khagoliki
4. ganit
5. jeevavijnyaaan
6. praanivijnyaaan
7. praayogik bhoogol
8. bhaashaavijnyaaan
9. bhoogol
10. bhoovijnyaaan (sanshodhit)
11. bhautiki
12. maanav bhoogol
13. rasaayan vigyaan-1
14. vanaspativijnyaaan
15. shiksha, manovijnyaaan tatha manorog vigyaan
16. samaajavijnyaaan evam saanskrutik nruvijnyaaan
17. samudravijnyaaan
18. saankhyiki
19. civil injeeniyri

ye shabdaavaliyaaain vishvavidyaalaya ke vibhinn vishyon ke praadhyaapakon, bhaashaavidon, lekhakon, anuvaadakon, koshakaaron, patrakaaron evam raajyon ke paathya pustak nirmaan bordon ko ni:shulk vitrit ki jaati hai. aayog ki yeh yojana hai ki sabhi vishyon ki akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavali ko ab ek hi sangrah mein prakaashit kar diya jaae taaki shabd-nirmaataaon ko ye shabdaavaliyaaain ek hi granth mein upalabdh ho sakein.

aayurvigyaan se sambandhit anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki shabdaavali evam vaakyaansh

san 1982 mein svaasthya aur parivaar kalyaan mantraalaya ke anurodh par aayog ne aayurvigyaan ke aam prayog ke shabdon aur vaakyaanshon ke dakshin bhaashaayi paryaayon ka sankalan karke unhein hindi ke saath prakaashit karne ki yojana banaai. is yojana ke antargat lagbhag 5-6 hajaar shabdon ka sankalan kiya ja chuka hai. pehle charan ke roop mein angreji shabdon aur vaakyaashon ke hindi paryaaya nishchit karne ke baad unke tamil paryaaya taiyaar kar liye gaye hain tatha bangala, punjabi, maraathi tatha udiya bhaashaaon ke payaaryo ko antim roop diya ja raha hai.

takaneeki shabdaavali kaaryashaalaaeain

aayog dvaara nirmit shabdaavali ka uddeshya shabd-sangrah tak seemit rahana naheen hai balki vishvavidyaalaya star par shikshan mein usaka prayog hona bhi usaka antim lakshya hai. sabhi paathya granthon mein aayog ki shabdaavali ka hi prayog ho, sabhi maulik lekhak, anuvaadak tatha sandarbh-saahitya ke nirmaata, chhaatr evam praadhyaapak aayog ki shabdaavali ka prayog karein, iske liye aayog ne anek yojanaaeain chaaloo ki hain. inmein se ek pramukh yojana takaneeki shabdaavali kaaryashaalaaon ke aayojan ki hai.

shabdaavali kaaryashaala yojana ke antargat aayog vibhinn vishvavidyaalayon evam uchchatar takaneeki sansthaaon mein vibhinn vishyon mein aisi kaaryashaalaaon ka aayojan karta hai jinmein aayog ke sankaaya ke sadasya athva vibhinn vishyon ke visheshagya vidvaan, bhaashaavid evam shabd-nirmaata aayog dvaara nirmit shabdaavali ka parichay dete hue tatha unki vyaakhya karte hue unke sambandh mein kaaryashaala mein upasthit praadhyaapakon, vaigyaaniko, lekhakon, anuvaadakon se vichaar-vimarsh karte hain. in kaaryashaalaaon mein praay: do-teen vishyon ko ek-saath rakha jaata hai aur inmein un vishyon se sambandhit aaspaas ke mahaavidyaalayon ke praadhyaapak sahabhaagi ke roop mein aamantrit kiye jaate hain.

yeh dekha gaya hai ki ye kaaryashaalaaeain apne uddeshya mein bahut hi safal rahi hain kyonki in kaaryashaalaaon mein vichaar-vimarsh ke maadhyam se aayog dvaara nirmit takaneeki shabdaavali ke prayog ki pareeksha ho jaati hai, sabhi sahabhaagi praadhyaapakon ko aayog dvaara nirmit shabdaavali ki maanakata ki jaankaari dene se unhein apne vishyon ke adhyaapan mein maanak shabdaavali ka prayog karne ki disha praapt ho jaati hai aur apne vishay ko hindi maadhyam se padhaane mein unka sankoch samaapt ho jaata hai. shabdaavali-nirmaan ki prakriya ki jaankaari saksham vidvaanon se praapt hone ke baad un praadhyaapakon ko aayog ki shabdaavali sveekaar karne mein suvidha hoti hai. unhein yeh bhi gyaan ho jaata hai ki takaneeki shabdon ke liye sarvatr ek samaan hindi paryaayon ka prayog anivaarya hai taaki ek hi sankalpana ke liye vibhinn shabdon ke prayog se araajakata utpann na ho. kaaryashaala mein vichaar-vimarsh ke parinaamasvaroop anek shabdon ke hindi paryaayon par punarvichaar bhi kiya jaata hai.

paribhaasha-koshon ka nirmaan

vibhinn vishyon mein takaneeki shabdaavali ke nirmaan ke baad aayog ne paribhaasha-koshon ke nirmaan ki yojana bhi shuroo ki. shabdaavali ya shabd-sangrahon mein angreji takaneeki shabdaavali tatha unke hindi paryaaya maatr hote hain, kintu paribhaasha-koshon mein angreji takaneeki shabd, usaka hindi paryaaya aur uske baad teen-chaar panktiyon mein hindi mein usaki paribhaasha di jaati hai. paribhaasha-kosh kisi bhi vishay ke takaneeki shabd ki sankalpana ko sahi roop se samajhne mein chhaatr, adhyaapak athva anusandhaanakarta ki bahut sahaayata karte hain. vastut: paribhaasha ke aadhaar par hi kisi shabd ko upayukt thaharaaya ja sakta hai. saath hi paribhaashaaon se takaneeki shabdon ke prayog ki kshamata bhi spasht ho jaati hai. is tarah paribhaasha-kosh ek prakaar se shabdaavali-nirmaan ki prakriya ke hi vistaar ke roop mein hai kyonki takaneeki shabdon ko unki paribhaashaaon athva vyaakhyaaon ke maadhyam se hi theek se samjha ja sakta hai.

shabdaavali aayog ne ab tak lagbhag 56 paribhaasha kosh prakaashit kiye hain. inka sambandh samaajavijnyaaan evam maanaviki, moolabhoot vigyaan, anuprayukt vigyaan aadi sabhi se hai. inmein vigyaan ke naveenatam vishay, udaaharanaarth- arthamiti, ilektrauniki, taral yaantriki, maanachitr-vigyaan, shail vigyaan, paadap aanuvanshiki, krushi-keet vigyaan aadi bhi shaamil hain. in paribhaasha-koshon ki upayogita ki drushti se anek vishyon ke ek se adhik paribhaasha kosh bhi prakaashit kiye gaye hain. udaaharanaarth, vanaspati vigyaan ke paanch paribhaasha-kosh, rasaayan vigyaan ke teen paribhaasha-kosh, shiksha ke do paribhaasha-kosh aadi.

vishvavidyaalaya-stareeya granthon ka nirmaan

takaneeki shabdaavali ka nirmaan hindi mein paathya pustakon ke nirmaan ka pehla charan hai. maadhyam parivartan ke poorv yeh anivaarya hai ki pratyek vishay mein uchit sankhya mein vishvavidyaalaya star ki paathya pustakon ka nirmaan kiya jaae. ye pustakein na keval vishay ki drushti se uchch stareeya hon apitu inki shabdaavali bhi maanak ho aur unamein sarvatr ekaroopata ho. tadanusaar shiksha mantraalaya ne 1959 se hi hindi mein granth-nirmaan yojana ka sootrapaat kiya. is yojana ke antargat swayam aayog dvaara evam vibhinn vishvavidyaalayon, academic sansthaaon aur raajya sarkaaron ke maadhyam se aur saath hi niji prakaashakon ke sahayog se pustakon ke anuvaad, maulik lekhan evam prakaashan ka kaaryakram aarambh kiya gaya. shabdaavali aayog ne anuvaad, maulik lekhan evam prakaashan ka kaaryakram aarambh kiya . shabdaavali aayog ne anuvaad, maulik lekhan ke liye sheershakon ka chunaav karne ke uddeshya se vividh vishyon mein 16 visheshagya samitiyon ka gathan kiya aur unke paraamarsh se is kaaryakram ke antargat anek pustakein prakaashit keen.

san 1968 mein raashtreeya shiksha neeti mein hindi sahit sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ko vishvavidyaalaya star par shiksha ke maadhyam ke roop mein apnaane ke liye teji se prayaas karne par bal diya gaya. tadanusaar shiksha mantraalaya ne pratyek raajya sarkaar ko vishvavidyaalaya star ke granthon ke nirmaan ke liye ek-ek karod rupae dene ki manjoori di. tab se hi is yojana ke adheen vibhinn raajyon ko aarthik sahaayata di ja rahi hai. is yojana par punarvichaar karne ke liye 1987 mein dalaal samiti tatha 1994 mein kolahaatakar samiti ka gathan kiya gaya.

vishvavidyaalaya granth-nirmaan yojana ki vartamaan sthiti

sankshep mein is prakaar hai :

  • 1. pratyek hindi-bhaashi raajya (uttr pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana) mein ek-ek hindi granth academy ki sthaapana hui hai jo vibhinn uchchastareeya paathya pustakon ka hindi mein anuvaad kar rahi hain.
  • 3. Himachal pradesh mein hindi granth academy ki sthaapana vichaaraadheen hai.
  • 4. ahindi bhaashi raajyon (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, udeesa, Maharashtra, Punjab, pashchimi Bengal tatha Tamil Nadu) mein granth nirmaan kaaryakram ke liye sansthaaeain sthaapit ki gayi hain.
  • 5. asam mein Guwahati vishvavidyaalaya tatha dibroogadh vishvavidyaalaya evam Karnataka mein baingaloor vishvavidyaalaya, krushi-vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya, Mysore vishvavidyaalaya tatha Karnataka vishvavidyaalaya bhi is yojana ke antargat keindreeya sarkaar ki aarthik sahaayata se paathya pustakon ka nirmaan kar rahe hain.

paathamaalaaeain, chayanikaaeain tatha paath-sangrah

vishvavidyaalaya-stareeya uchch vishyon mein adhyayan tatha adhyaapan ke liye paathya pustakein hi paryaapt naheen hoteen. anek gahan vishyon ko theek se samajhne ke liye uchch stareeya patrikaaon evam sandarbh-granthon mein upalabdh saamagri ko paathamaala, monograaf, chayanika (daaijest) evam paath-sangrah ke roop mein prastut karna aavashyak hota hai. paathamaala ek lekhak dvaara ek hi vishay mein likhit pustika ke roop mein hoti hai jabki paath-sangrah mein ek hi vishay par vibhinn lekhakon ke lekh sankalit kiye jaate hain. chayanikaaon mein bhi anek sheershakon ke antargat kisi vishay ya vishay-samooh ki adyatan jaankaari prastut ki jaati hai.

shabdaavali aayog ne gyaan-vigyaan ki anek paathamaalaaon, chayanikaaon aur paath-sangrahon ka nirmaan aur prakaashan 1980 se aarambh kiya tha. ab tak lagbhag 10 paathamaalaaon/paath-sangrahon evam 10 chayanikaaon ka prakaashan ho chuka hai.

traimaasik patrikaayein

vigyaan garima sindhu

vishvavidyaalaya ke praadhyaapakon evam uchch shiksha tatha anusandhaan kaarya mein rat chhaatron ko unke vishay ki adyatan jaankaari dene, hindi mein maulik vigyaan lekhan evam stareeya anuvaad ko protsaahit karne tatha vaigyaanik lekhan mein aayog dvaara nirmit shabdaavali ke prayog ko sunishchit karne ke liye evam hindi ke vigyaan lekhakon ko stareeya manch pradaan karne tatha vigyaan lekhan ke kshetr mein hindi ko sashakt maadhyam banaane ke liye aayog 1986 se 'vigyaan garima sindhu' naamak traimaasik patrika ka niyamit roop se prakaashan kar raha hai. is patrika mein uchch stareeya lekh prakaashit kiye jaate hain.

gyaan garima sindhu

haal hi mein aisa anubhav kiya gaya ki saamaajik vigyaan evam maanaviki ke kshetr mein bhi paathya saamagri ke atirikt aise poorak evam lokapriya saahitya ki aavashyakta hai jo uchch shikshan ke star par hindi maadhyam se pathan-paathan karne vaalon ke saath-saath saamaanya jan ko bhi apne chaaron or ke aarthik, saamaajik, raajaneetik, saanskrutik, daarshanik, manovaigyaanik aadi kshetron mein ho rahe parivrtanon, nae siddhaanton, vichaaron tatha anya avayatan jaankaari se avagat kara sake . isi uddeshya ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue aayog ne 'gyaan garima sindhu' naamak traimaasik patrika ke prakaashan ka kaarya January 2000 se praarambh kiya hai. patrika ka uddeshya hindi mein lekhan ki takaneeki shaili ko protsaahan dena tatha saamaajik vigyaan evam maanaviki ke kshetr se sambandhit adyatan upayogi bauddhik jaankaari ko hindi maadhyam se pathan paathan karne vaalon ke saath-saath saamaanyajan ko sulabh karaana hai .

anya patrikaaeain

aayog ne samay-samay par shiksha maadhyam parivartan ki saralata ke liye anusandhaanaatmak / vivranaatmak patrikaaon ka prakaashan kiya tha. inke naam is prakaar hain :

  • 1. aayurvigyaan patrika
  • 2. injeeniyri patrika
  • 3. chikitsa seva
  • 4. shilpi mitr

pustak pradarshaniyaaain evam bikri aadi

aayog ne ab tak hindi tatha anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein hajaaron pustakein prakaashit kar li hain aur anek shabd-sangrah, paribhaasha-kosh, paathamaalaaeain, chayanikaaeain, akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavaliyaaain, vaigyaanik patrika aadi bhi. aayog ke prakaashanon evam anya kaaryon ke uchit prachaar-prasaar ke liye aayog ka pradarshani ekak samay-samay par pradarshaniyon ka aayojan karta rahata hai. ye pradarshaniyaaain vibhinn vishvavidyaalayon tatha uchch takaneeki sansthaaon ki maaaing par athva akhil bhaarateeya pradarshaniyon evam aayog dvaara aayojit takaneeki shabdaavali kaaryashaalaaon, sangoshthiyon evam baithakon ke avsar par vibhinn sthalon par aayojit ki jaati hain. aayog ka vitran ekak prashaasan shabdaavali tatha vibhinn vishyon ki akhil bhaarateeya shabdaavaliyon tatha moolabhoot shabdaavaliyon ka ni:shulk vitran bhi karta hai. aayog inki bikri swayam bhi karta hai aur ye pustakein Bhaarat sarkaar ke prakaashan niyantrak, civil laains, Delhi-110006 se bhi upalabdh hoti hain.

poorvottar raajyon mein shabdaavali aayog ka yogadaan

san 1994 mein shiksha vibhaag dvaara 'kolhaatakar samiti' ka gathan kiya gaya tatha hindi pradeshon ki granth akaadamiyon tatha ahindi bhaashi raajyon ke paathya-pustak mandalon ke kriya-kalaapon ki sameeksha ka kaarya saunpa gaya tha . kolhaatakar samiti ne manipuri, nepaali tatha konkani bhaashaaon mein paathya-pustak mandalon ki sthaapana ki sanstuti di.

poorvottr raajyon mein bhaashaagat vividhtaaon, angreji ko kai raajyon dvaara raajya ki bhaasha ghoshit kiya jaana tatha shiksha mein kshetreeya bhaashaaon ki shaishav avastha ko dekhte hue aayog ne ise ek chunauti ke roop mein liya hai tatha sarvapratham manipur raajya mein May 1999 mein 7 dinon ki ek kaaryashaala manipur vishvavidyaalaya, imfaal mein raajya ke shiksha nideshaalaya ke bhaasha prabhaag ke sanyukt tatvaavadhaan mein aayojit ki gayi.

aayog dvaara shabd-nirmaan ki prakriya

shabdaavali aayog mein vibhinn vishyon ke ekak evam adhikaari hain jo apne-apne vishisht vishay ki paathya pustakon, adyatan shabdakoshon, vishvakoshon evam sandarbh-granthon ki sahaayata se paryaayon ka chayan karte hain. paryaayon ko antim roop dene ke liye aayog ke ye adhikaari apne-apne vishyon/upavishyon/vishay ki shaakhaaon ke vishisht vidvaanon, vishvavidyaalaya evam uchchatar takaneeki sansthaanon ke visheshagyon aadi ko paraamarsh ke liye aamantrit karte hain. in visheshagyon evam anubhavi bhaashaavidon ke paraamarsh se hi pratyek vishay ke paryaaya ko antim roop diya jaata hai taaki aayog dvaara nirmit shabdaavali ko maanak sveekruti praapt ho. in shabdaavaliyon par samay-samay par anek kaaryashaalaaon, sangoshthiyon evam baithakon mein punirvichaar bhi kiya jaata hai aur aavashyakataanusaar sanshodhan evam parivrdhan bhi.

shabdaavali nirmaan ke liye sveekrut siddhaant

aayog dvaara shabdaavali nirmaan ke liye sveekrut siddhaanton ka saar is prakaar hai:

  • (1) antararaashtreeya shabdon ko yathaasanbhav unke prachalit angreji roopon mein hi apanaana chaahiye tatha hindi va anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki prakruti ke anusaar hi unka lipyantaran karna chaahiye. antararaashtreeya shabdaavali ke antargat nimnalikhit udaaharan diye ja sakte hain :
  • (kh) taul aur maap ki ikaaiyaaain tatha bhautik parimaan ki ikaaiyaaain, jaise daain, kailari, aimpiyr aadi;
  • (g) aise shabd jo vyaktiyon ke naam par banaae gaye hain, jaise maarksavaad (kaarl maarks), brel (brel), bauyakaat (captain bauyakaat), gilotin (Dr. gilotin), gereemaindar (mistar geri), empiyr (mistar empiyr), faarenahaait taapakram (mistar faarenahaait) aadi;
  • (gh) vanaspati-vigyaan, praani-vigyaan, bhoovijnyaaan aadi ki dvipdi naamaavali;
  • (ङ) sthiraank, jaise p, g aadi;
  • (ch) aise anya shabd jinka aamtaur par saare sansaar mein vyavahaar ho raha hai, jaise radio, petrol, redaar, ilektraun, protaun, nyootraun aadi;
  • (chh) ganit aur vigyaan ki anya shaakhaaon ke sankhyaank, prateek, chinh aur sootr, jaise sign, kosaain, tenjent, laug aadi (ganiteeya sankriyaaon mein prayukt akshar roman ya greek varnamaala ke hone chaahiye).
  • (2) prateek, roman lipi mein antarraashtreeya roop mein hi rakhe jaaeainge parantu sankshipt roop devanaagari aur maanak roopon se bhi, visheshat: saadhaaran taul aur maap mein likhe ja sakte hain, jaise senteemeetar ka prateek c.m. hindi mein bhi aise hi prayukt hoga parantu devanaagari mein sankshipt roop se.mi. bhi ho sakta hai. yeh siddhaant baal-saahitya aur lokapriya pustakon mein apnaaya jaaega, parantu vigyaan aur praudyogiki ki maanak pustakon mein keval antarraashtreeya prateek, jaise cm hi prayukt karna chaahiye.
  • (3) jyaamiteeya aakrutiyon mein bhaarateeya lipiyon ke akshar prayukt kiye ja sakte hain, jaise k, kh, g, ya a, b, s parantu trikonamiteeya falanon mein keval roman athva greek akshar prayukt karne chaahiye, jaise sign x, kaus y aadi.
  • (4) sankalpanaaon (kaansept) ko vyakt karne vaale shabdon ka saamaanyat: anuvaad kiya jaana chaahiye.
  • (5) hindi paryaayon ka chunaav karte samay saralata, arth ki parishuddhata aur subodhata ka vishesh dhyaan rakhana chaahiye. sudhaar-virodhi pravruttiyon se bachana chaahiye.
  • (6) sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke shabdon mein yathaasanbhav adhikaadhik ekaroopata laana hi iska uddeshya hona chaahiye aur iske liye aise shabd apnaane chaahiye jo -
  • (k) adhik se adhik praadeshik bhaashaaon mein prayukt hote hon, aur
  • (kh) sanskrut dhaatuon par aadhaarit hon.
  • (7) aise deshi shabd jo saamaanya prayog ke paaribhaashik shabdon ke sthaan par hamaari bhaashaaon mein prachalit ho gaye hain, jaise telegraph/telegram ke liye taar, continent ke liye mahaadveep, post ke liye daak aadi isi roop mein vyavahaar mein laae jaane chaahiye.
  • (8) angreji, purtagaali, fraanseesi aadi bhaashaaon ke aise videshi shabd jo bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein prachalit ho gaye hain, jaise ticket, signal, peinshan, police, bureau, restaurant, deelaks, aadi isi roop mein apanaae jaane chaahiye.
  • (9) antarraashtreeya shabdon ka devanaagari lipi mein lipyantaran : angreji shabdon ka lipyantaran itna jatil naheen hona chaahiye ki uske kaaran vartamaan devanaagari varnon mein nae chinh va prateek shaamil karne ki aavashyakta pade. shabdon ka devanaagari lipi mein lipyantaran angreji uchchaaran ke adhikaadhik anuroop hona chaahiye aur unamein aise parivartan kiye jaaen jo Bhaarat ke shikshit varg mein prachalit hon.
  • (10) ling : hindi mein apanaae gaye antarraashtreeya shabdon ko, anyatha kaaran na hone par, pulling roop mein hi prayukt karna chaahiye.
  • (11) sankar shabd : paaribhaashik shabdaavali mein sankar shabd, jaise guaranteed ke liye 'gaarantit', classical ke liye 'klaasiki', codifier ke liye 'kodakaar' aadi, ke roop saamaanya aur praakrutik bhaashaashaastreeya prakriya ke anusaar banaae gaye hain aur aise shabdaroopon ko paaribhaashik shabdaavali ki aavashyakataaon, yatha subodhata, upayogita aur sankshiptata ka dhyaan rakhate hue vyavahaar mein laana chaahiye.
  • (12) paaribhaashik shabdon mein sandhi aur samaas : kathin sandhiyon ka yathaasambhav kam se kam prayog karna chaahiye aur sanyukt shabdon ke liye do shabdon ke beech haaifan ( - ) laga dena chaahiye. isse nai shabd-rachanaaon ko saralata aur sheeghrata se samajhne mein sahaayata milegi. jahaaain tak sanskrut par aadhaarit aadivruddhi ka sambandh hai, 'vyaavahaarik', 'laakshanik' aadi prachalit sanskrut tatsam shabdon mein aadivruddhi ka prayog hi apekshit hai. parantu navanirmit shabdon mein isse bacha ja sakta hai.
  • (12) halant : nae apanaae hue shabdon mein aavashyakataanusaar halant ka prayog karke unhein sahi roop mein likhna chaahiye.
  • (14) pancham varn ka prayog : pancham varn ke sthaan par anusvaar ka prayog karna chaahiye parantu lens, patent aadi shabdon ka lipyantaran leins, peteint/petent na karke lens, petent hi karna chaahiye.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain