vaidik sanskrut

rigved mein vaidik sanskrut ka sab se praacheen roop milta hai
rigved 10.90:2 ka shlok: yeh purush vah sarvasv hai jo hua hai (bhootan) ya hoga (bhavyan). amarata ka ishvar (ishaan:) ann se aur bhi vistrut (atiऽrohati) hota hai.

vaidik sanskrut 2000 isaapoorv (ya us se bhi pehle) se lekar 600 isaapoorv tak boli jaane waali ek hind-aarya bhaasha thi. yeh sanskrut ki poorvaj bhaasha thi aur aadim hind-Irani bhaasha ki bahut hi nikat ki santaan thi. us samay faarasi aur sanskrut ka vibhaajan bahut naya tha, isliye vaidik sanskrut aur avastaai bhaasha (praacheenatam gyaat Irani bhaasha) ek-doosare ke bahut kreeb hain. vaidik sanskrut hind-Europeeya bhaasha-parivaar ki hind-Irani bhaasha shaakha ki sab se praacheen pramaanit bhaasha hai.[1]

hinduon ko praacheen ved dharmagranth vaidik sanskrut mein likhe gaye hain. bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein shraut jaise sakht niyamit dhvaniyon vaale mantrochchaaran ki hajaaron varshon puraani parampara ke kaaran vaidik sanskrut ke shabd aur uchchaaran is kshetr mein likhaai aarambh hone se bahut pehle se surakshit hain. vedon ke adhyayan se dekha gaya hai ki vaidik sanskrut bhi sainkadon saalon ke kaal mein badalti gayi. rigved ki vaidik sanskrut, jise rigvaidik sanskrut kaha jaata hai, sab se praacheen roop hai. paanini ke niymikran ke baad ki shaastreeya sanskrut aur vaidik sanskrut mein kaafi antar hai isliye vedon ko mool roop mein padhne ke liye sanskrut hi seekhana paaryaapt naheen balki vaidik sanskrut bhi seekhani padhti hai. avastaai faarasi seekhane vaale vidvaanon ko bhi vaidik sanskrut seekhani padti hai kyonki avastai granth kam bache hain aur vaidik seekhane se us bhaasha ka bhi adhik vistrut bodh mil jaata hai.[2]

anukram

laukik sanskrut ka vaidik sanskrut se bhed

laukik sanskrut-saahitya ka vaidik saahitya se anek prakaar ka bhed paaya jaata hai. vaidik saahitya shuddhat: dhaarmik hai tatha ismein sabhi laukik tattvon ka beej samaahit hai. laukik sanskrut saahitya pradhaan roop se dhaarmik-dharmamanirpeksh hai athva dharm mein ise lok-paralok se hi sambandhit kaha ja sakta hai. is saahitya mein mahaakaavya (raamaayan evam mahaabhaarat), puraan evam anya kaavya (jinmein gadyakaavya bhi sammilit hain) naatak, alankaarashaastr, darshan, sootr, vidhi athva niyam, kala, vaastushaastr, aushadhi (aayurved), ganit, machine, udyog sambandhi granth aur anya vibhinn vidyaaon ki shaakhaaen bhi praapt hoti hain.

laukik saahitya ki bhaasha tatha vaidik saahitya ki bhaasha mein bhi antar paaya jaata hai. donon ke shabdaroop tatha dhaaturoop anek prakaar se bhinn hain. vaidik sanskrut ke roop keval bhinn hi naheen hain apitu anek bhi hain, vishishtataya ve roop jo kriya roopon tatha dhaatuon ke svaroop se sambandhit hain. is sambandh mein donon saahityon ki kuchh mahattvapoorn bhinnataaeain nimnalikhit hain:

(1) shabdaroop ki drushti se - udaaharanaarth, laukik sanskrut mein keval aise roop bante hain jaise devaa: janaa: (pratham vibhkti bahuvachan). jabki vaidik sanskrut mein inmein roop 'devaas:', 'janaam:' bhi bante hain. isi prakaar, prathama tatha dviteeya vibhkti bahuvachan mein 'vishvaani' roop vaidik saahitya mein 'vishva' bhi ban jaata hai. truteeya bahuvachan mein vaidik sanskrut mein 'devai:' is roop ke saath-saath 'devebhi:' bhi milta hai. isi prakaar saptami vibhkti ekavachan mein 'vyomni' athva 'vyomani' in roopon ke saath-saath vaidik sanskrut mein 'vyoman' yeh roop bhi praapt hota hai.

(2) vaidik tatha laukik sanskrut mein kriyaaroopon aur dhaaturoopon mein bhi vishesh antar hai. vaidik sanskrut is vishay mein kuchh adhik samruddh hai tatha usamein kuchh aur roopon ko upalabdhi hoti hai jabki laukik sanskrut mein kriya padon ki avastha bataane vaale aise keval do hi lakaar hain : lot aur vidhiling jok latprakruti arthaat vartamaanakaal ki dhaatu se bante hain.

udaaharanaarth path se pathatu aur pathet ye donon bante hain. vaidik sanskrut mein kriyaapadon ki avastha ko dyotit karne vaale do aur adhik lakaar hain : let lakaar evam nishedhaatmak luङalakaar (Injunctive) (jo laukik sanskrut mein keval nishedhaarthak 'ma' se pradarshit hota hai aur jo lakaar laukik sanskrut mein poornat: apraapya hai.) in chaaron avasthaaon ke dyotak lakaar vaidik sanskrut mein keval lat prakruti se hi naheen bante hain kintu lit prakruti aur luङ prakruti se bhi bante hain. is prakaar vaidik sanskrut mein dhaaturoop atyadhik maatra mein hain. iske atirikt liङ pratyaya sambandhi bhed vaidik sanskrut mein paaye jaate hain jaise mineemasi bhi (lat, uttam purush bahuvachan mein) prayukt hota hai parantu laukik sanskrut mein 'mineemahi' prayukt hota hai. jahaaain tak dhaatu se bane hue anya roopon ka prashn hai, laukik sanskrut mein keval ek hi 'tumun' (jaise gantum) milta hai jabki vaidik sanskrut mein iske lagbhag ek darjan roop milte hain jaise gantavai, gamadhyai, jeevasai, daatavai ityaadi.

(3) punashch, laukik sanskrut aage chalakar adhikaadhik krutrim athva subaddh hoti gayi hai aur iske udaaharan hamein subandhu aur baanabhatt ke gadyakaavyon mein prayukt bhayaavah samaason mein milte hain. is kala mein vah apne kshetr ke anya gadyakaaron se atyant utkrusht hain.

(4) kuchh vaidik shabd laukik sanskrut mein apraapya hain aur kuchh naye shabdon ka udbhav bhi ho gaya hai. udaaharanaarth, vaidik shabd 'apas' ka 'kaarya' ke arth mein prayog laukik sanskrut mein lupt ho gaya hai. laukik sanskrut mein prayukt 'parivaar' shabd vaidik sanskrut mein anupalabdh hai. yeh vaidik evam laukik sanskrut ki apni visheshata hai.

shabdaarth vigyaan ki drushti se kuchh shabdon mein ek vishisht parivartan hua hai jaise 'ritu' jiska vaidik sanskrut mein arth hai 'shakti' aur laukik sanskrut mein usaka arth 'yagya' ho gaya hai.

dhvani antar

vaidik sanskrut mein 'f' (angreji: f, a॰adha॰ava॰: [ɸ]) aur 'kh' (a॰adha॰ava॰: [x]) ki dhvaniyaaain theen jo baad ki sanskrut mein khoi gayi.[3] ismein 'kh' ke uchchaaran par dhyaan dein kyonki yeh 'kh' se bahut bhinn hai, aur 'khraab' aur 'khaas' jaise shabdon mein milti hai. aadhunik kaal mein ek glat dhaarana hai ki 'f' aur 'kh' ki dhvaniyaaain sanskrut-parampara mein videshaj hain. vargeekaran ki drushti se 'f' ko 'upadhmaaneeya' aur 'kh' ko 'jihvaamooleeya' kaha jaata hai.[4] 'kh' ki dhvani ko visrg mein aghosh kanthya varnon se pehle uchchaarit kiya jaata tha.[5]

anya antar

bhaasha mein parivartan ke atirikt donon saahityon mein kuchh aur bhinnataaeain praapya hain:

  • (1) prathamat:, jaisa ki oopar kaha ja chuka hai, vaidik saahitya, pradhaanat: dhaarmik hai jab ki laukik sanskrut apne varnyavishya ki drushti se dharm ke saath-saath laukik jeevan ke pratyek kshetr se sambaddh hai.
  • (2) donon ki aatma yadyapi abhinn hai tathaapi abhinnata mein bhi bhinnata ke darshan hote hain. vaidik vaaङamaya, mukhyat: jaisa ki rigved tatha atharvaved mein hamein praapt hota hai, aashaavaadi hai jabki laukik sanskrut saahitya niraashaavaadi hai, is niraashaavaad ki jhalak bauddhon ke 'sarv du:khan' mein bhi hai. bauddhon ke vyavahaaryapaksh 'karuna' aur 'maitri' ka udghosh bhi vaidik saahitya ki maulikta hai.
  • (3) vaidik dharm bhi paravarti kaal mein avyakt roop se vishisht parivrdhit hua dikhaai deta hai. yahaaain tak ki vaidik yug ke pradhaan devata jaise indr, agni, varun ko laukik sanskrut mein apekshaakrut vishishtata praapt naheen hui parantu brahma, vishnu aur Shiv in teenon ko vedon mein keval gaun sthaan hi praapt tha, paravarti kaal mein inhein ek mahattvapoorn sthaan praapt ho gaya. is kaal mein kuchh nae devi devataaon : ganesh, kuber, lakshmi aur durga ityaadi ka bhi vaidik mool se vikaas hua.
  • (4) paravarti, visheshat: aathaveen aur naveen shataabdi ke baad ke, kaviyon mein atyukti ka aashray grahan karne ki or adhik jhukaav hai, jaise maagh, shreeharsh aadi mein jabki poorvavarti kaviyon jaise ashvaghosh (bauddh kavi), bhaas aur kaalidaas mein atyukti ka abhaav hai. vaidik vaaङamaya mein atyukti ka maha abhaav hai.
  • (5) laukik sanskruti mein chhandobaddh roopon ke prayogon ki or hamein ek vishisht aagrah dikhaayi deta hai. vaidik yug mein bhi chhandobaddh roopon ka aadhikya milta hai, kintu vahaan visheshat: yagya sambandhi saahitya mein gadya ka bhi prayog hua, jaise yajurved aur braahmanon mein. laukik sanskrut kaal mein chhandobaddh roopon ke prayog ki or itna adhik jhukaav hai ki yahaaain tak ki vaidyak granth (charakasanhita, sushrutasanhita ityaadi) bhi padya mein hi likhe gaye. aashcharya to is baat se hota hai ki koshon ki rachana (jaise amarakosh) bhi chhandon mein hi hui. kuchh aage chalakar paravarti kaal mein baan aur subandhu ne gadya kaavyon ke lekhan ki shaili ka vikaas kiya, jo ki bade-bade samaason se mishrit hone ke kaaran atyant krutrim kahi jaati hai. iske atirikt poorvavarti kaal mein sootr-roop mein daarshanik granthon ko likhne ki pranaali ka bhi prachalan hua.

aage chalakar hamein chhandon ki pranaali ka bhi ek parivartan drushtigochar hota hai. vaidik chhand jagati, trishtubh, anushtubh to laukik sanskrut mein sarvatha anupalabdh hai. jabki laukik sanskrut ke chhand vanshasth, upendravajra shikhrini aadi vedon mein poornat: apraapya hain. haan, yeh avashya sach hai ki laukik sanskrut mein prayukt shlok chhand vaidik anushtubh chhand ka hi roop hain.

vaidik evam laukik sanskrut ki bhinnataaon ki or drushtipaat karte hue yeh dhyaan dena aavashyak hai ki siddhaant ki drushti se donon ek doosare se kaafi milti-julati hain. vedon mein kuchh aur adhik dhvaniyaan milti hain, jaise ki l. anya dhvani-siddhaant donon ke samaan hi hain aur unamein koi bhi vaisa antar naheen dikhaayi deta jaisa ki praakrut boliyon mein hamein praapt hota hai.

avastai faarasi aur vaidik sanskrut ki tulana

19veen shataabdi mein avastaai faarasi aur vaidik sanskrut donon par pashchimi vidvaanon ki nazar nai-nai padi thi aur in donon ke gahre sambandh ka tathya unke saamane jaldi hi aa gaya. unhone dekha ke avastaai faarasi aur vaidik sanskrut ke shabdon mein kuchh saral niyamon ke saath ek se doosare ko anuvaadit kiya ja sakta tha aur vyaakaran ki drushti se yeh donon bahut najdeek the. apni san 1892 mein prakaashit kitaab "avastaai vyaakaran ki sanskrut se tulana aur avastaai varnamaala aur usaka lipyantaran" mein bhaashaavaijnyaaanik aur vidvaan ebraaham Jackson ne udahaaran ke liye ek avastaai dhaarmik shlok ka vaidik sanskrut mein seedha anuvaad kiya[6] -

mool avastaai
vaidik sanskrut anuvaad
tam amavantam yajtam
sooram daamohu savishtam
mithram yajaai jothraabyo
tam aamavantam yajataam
shooram dhaamasoo shaavishtham
mitraam yajaai hotraabhy:

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. A brief history of India, Alain Daniéalou, Kenneth Hurry, Inner Traditions / Bear & Co, 2003, ISBN 978-0-89281-923-2, ... The language of the Indian Aryans, Vedic Sanskrit, is the oldest of the languages known as Indo-European, of which written documents and spoken forms exist ...
  2. Aufsäatze zur Indoiranistik: Volume 3, Karl Hoffmann, Johanna Narten, Reichert, 1992, ISBN 978-3-88226-532-3, ... Avestan Language. III. The grammar of Avestan: 'The morphology of Avestan nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs is, like that of the closely related Old Persian, inherited from Proto-Indo-European via Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Aryan), and agrees largely with that of Vedic, the oldest known form of Indo-Aryan. The interpretation of the transmitted Avestan texts presents in many cases considerable difficulty for various reasons, both with respect to their contexts and their grammar. Accordingly, systematic comparison with Vedic is of much assistance in determining and explaining Avestan grammatical forms ...
  3. A practical grammar of the Sanskrit language, Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Clarendon Press, 1864, ... An Ardha-visarga ... sometimes employed before k,kh and p,ph. Before the two former letters this symbol is properly called Jihva-muliya, and the organ of its enunciation said to be the root of the tongue ...
  4. The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa, Bernard Comrie, Taylor & Francis, 1990, ISBN 9780415057721, ... Certain sounds, however, have particular names: r ḥ ṁ χ φ, respectively, are called repha, visarjaniya, anusvara, jihvamuliya, upadhmaniya ...
  5. Sociolinguistic perspectives: papers on language in society, 1959-1994, Charles Albert Ferguson, Thom Huebner, Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 9780195092905, ... This weakened variant, also spelled with visarga, is described by grammarians as a weak voiceless fricative that varies in place of constriction in accordance with the following consonant: labial before /p, ph/, retroflex before /ṣ, ṭ, ṭah/, palatal before /ś, č, čah/, and velar before /k, kh/ ...
  6. An Avesta grammar in comparison with Sanskrit and The Avestan alphabet and its transcription, Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson, AMS Press, 1892, ISBN 978-0-404-09010-4