vaidik saahitya

vaidik saahitya bhaarateeya sanskruti ke praacheenatam svaroop par prakaash daalne wala tatha vishv ka praacheenatam saahitya hai. vaidik saahitya ko shruti bhi kaha jaata hai, kyonki puraane rishiyon ne is saahitya ko shravan-parampara se grahan kiya tha. ved ke asal mantr bhaag ko sanhita kehte hain. vaidik saahitya ke antargat upar likhe sabhi vedon ke kai upanishd, aaranyak tatha upaved aadi bhi aate jinka vivran neeche diya gaya hai. inki bhaasha sanskrut hai jise apni alag pehchaan ke anusaar vaidik sanskrut kaha jaata hai - in sanskrut shabdon ke prayog aur arth kaalaantar mein badal gaye ya lupt ho gaye maane jaate hain. aitihaasik roop se praacheen Bhaarat aur hind-aarya jaati ke baare mein inko ek achha sandarbh maana jaata hai. sanskrut bhaasha ke praacheen roop ko lekar bhi inka saahityik mahatva bana hua hai.

rachanaake anusaar pratyek shaakha ki vaidik shabd-raashi ka vargeekaran- chaar bhaag hote hain. pehle bhaag (sanhita) ke alaava harek mein teeka athva bhaashya ke teen star hote hain. kul milaakar ye hain :

jab ham chaar vedon ka baat karte hain to usase sanhita bhaag ka hi arth liya jaata hai. upanishd (rishiyon ki vivechana), braahman (arth) aadi mantra bhaag (sanhita) ke .haayak granth samajhe jaate hain. ved 4 hain - rik, saam, yaju: aur atharv.

anukram

vaidik saahitya ka kaal

is vishay ke vidvaanon mein paryaapt matabhed hai ki vedon ki rachana kab hui aur unamein kis kaal ki sabhyata ka varnan milta hai. bhaarateeya vedon ko apaurusheya (kisi purush dvaara na banaaya hua) maanate hain at: nitya hone se unke kaal-nirdhaaran ka prashn hi naheen uthata; kintu pashchimi vidvaan inhein rishiyon ki rachana maanate hain aur iske kaal ke sambandh mein unhonne anek kalpanaaeain ki hain. unamein pehli kalpana maiksamoolar ki hai. unhonne vaidik saahitya ka kaal 1200 E. poo. se 600 E. poo. maana hai. doosari kalpana jarman vidvaan vintaranitj ki hai. usane vaidik saahitya ke aarambh hone ka kaal 2500-2000 E. poo. tak maana. tilk aur yaakobi ne vaidik saahitya mein varnit nakshatron ki sthiti ke aadhaar par is saahitya ka aarambh kaal 4500 E.poo. maana. shri avinaashachandr das tatha paavagi ne rigved mein varnit bhoogarbh-vishyak saakshi dvaara rigved ko kai lakh varsh poorv ka thaharaaya hai.

vaidik saahitya ka vargeekaran

vaidik saahitya nimn bhaagon mein bainton hai-

(1) sanhita, (2) braahman aur aaranyak, (3) upanishd (4) vedaang (5) sootr-saahitya

sanhita

sanhita ka arth hai sangrah. sanhitaaon mein devataaon ke stutiprak mantron ka sankalan hai. sanhitaaeain chaar hain-(1) rik (2) yajush, (3) saam aur (4) atharv praacheen parampara ke anusaar ved nitya aur apaurusheya hain. unki kabhi manushya dvaara rachana naheen hui. srushti ke praarambh mein paramaatma ne inka prakaash agni, vaayu aaditya aur angira naamak rishiyon ko diya. pratyek vaidik mantr ka devata aur rishi hota hai. mantr mein jiski stuti ki jaaya vah us mantr ka devata hai aur jisne mantr ke arth ka sarvapratham pradarshan kiya ho vah usaka rishi hai. paashchaatya vidvaan rishiyon ko hi ved-mantron ka rachayita maanate hain. vaidik saahitya ko shruti bhi kaha jaata hai, kyonki puraane rishiyon ne is saahitya ko shravan-parampara se grahan kiya tha. baad mein is gyaan ko smaran karke jo granth likhe gaye, ve smruti kahalaae. shruti ke sheersh sthaan par uparyukt chaar sanhitaaeain hain.

rigved

rigved mein 10,600 mantr aur 1,028 sookt hain, ye das mandalon mein vibhkt hain. sookton mein devataaon ki stutiyaaain haiain. ye badi bhavya, udaatt aur kaavyamayi hain. inmein kalpana ki naveenata, varnan ki praudhta aur pratibha ki ooainchi udaan milti hai. 'usha' aadi kai devataaon ke varnan bade hrudayagraahi hain. paashchaatya vidvaan rigved ki sanhita ko sabse praacheen maanate hain. unka vichaar hai ki iske adhikaansh sookton ki rachana Punjab mein hui. us samay aarya Afghanistan se ganga-yamuna tak ke pradeshon mein faile hue the. unke mat mein rigved mein kubha (Kabul), suvaastu (svaat), kramu (kurram), gomati (gomal), sindhu, ganga, yamuna sarasvati tatha Punjab ki paaainch nadiyon shatudri (sataluj), vipaasha (vyaas), parushni (raavi), asivni (chanaab) aur vitsta (Jhelum) ka ullekh hai. in nadiyon se sinchit pradesh Bhaarat mein aarya-sabhyata ka janm-sthaan maana jaata hai.

yajurved

ismein yagya-vishyak mantron ka sangrah hai. inka prayog yagya ke samay adhvaryu naamak purohit kiya karta tha. yajurved mein 40 adhyaaya hain. paashchaatya vidvaan ise rigved se kaafi samay baad ka maanate hain. rigved mein aaryon ka kaarya-kshetr Punjab hai, ismein kuru-paanchaal. kuru sataluj yamuna ka madhyavarti bhoo-bhaag (vartamaan ambaala diveejn) hai aur paanchaal ganga-yamuna ka doaab tha. isi samay se ganga-yamuna ka pradesh aarya-sabhyata ka kendra ho gaya. rigved ka dharm upaasana-pradhaan tha, kintu yajurved ke do bhed hain-Krishna yajush aur shukl yajush. donon ke svaroop mein bada antar hai, pehle mein keval mantron ka sangrah hai aur doosare mein chhandobaddh mantron ke saath gadyaatmak bhaag sabhi hai.

saamaved

ismein geya mantron ka sangrah hai. yagya ke avsar par jis devata ke liye hom kiya jaata tha, use bulaane ke liye udgaata uchit svar mein us devata ka stuti-mantr gaata tha. is gaayan ko 'saam' kehte the. praay: richaaeain hi gaai jaati theen. at: samast saamaved mein richaaeain hi hain. inki sankhya 1,549 hai. inmein se keval 75 hi nai hain, baaki sab rigved se li gain hain. bhaarateeya sangeet ka mool saamaved mein upalabdh hota hai.

atharvaved

iska yajnyaon se bahut kam sambandh hai. ismein aayurved sambandhi saamagri adhik hai. iska pratipaadya vishay vibhinn prakaar ki oshadhiyaaain, jvar, peeliya, sarpadansh, vish-prabhaav ko door karne ke mantr soorya ki svaasthya-shakti, rogotpaadak keetaanuon tatha vibhinn beemaariyon ko nasht karne ke upaaya hain. paashchaatya vidvaan ise jaadoo-tone aur andh-vishvaas ka bhandaar maanate hain. ve ismein aarya aur anaarya dhaarmik vichaaron ka sammishran dekhte hain, kintu vastut: ismein raajaneeti tatha samaaj-shaastr ke anek ooainche siddhaant hain. ismein 20 kaand, 34 prapaathak, 111 anuvaak, 731 sookt tatha 5,839 mantr hain, inmein 1200 ke lagbhag mantr rigved se liye gaye hain.

vedon ki shaakhaaeain

praacheen kaal mein vedon ki raksha guru-shishya parampara dvaara hoti thi. inka likhit evam nishchit svaroop na hone se vedon ke svaroop mein kuchh bhed aane laga aur inki shaakhaaon ka vikaas hua. rigved ki paaainch shaakhaaeain theen - shaakal, baashkal, aashvalaayan, shaankhaayan aur maandookeya. inmein ab pehli shaakha hi upalabdh hoti hai. shukl yajurved ki do pradhaan shaakhaaeain hain - maadhyandin aur kaanv. pehli uttari Bhaarat mein milti hai aur doosari Maharashtra mein. inmein adhik bhed naheen hai. Krishna yajurved ki aajkal chaar shaakhaaeain milti hain - taittireeya maitraayani, kaatak, kath tatha kaapishthal sanhita. inmein doosari-teesari pehli se milti hain, kram mein thoda hi antar hai. chauthi shaakha aadhi hi mili hai. saamaved ki do shaakhaaeain theen - kauthum aur raanaayaneeya. ismein kauthum ka keval saatavaaain prapaathak milta hai. atharvaved ki do shaakhaaeain upalabdh hain-paippalaad aur shaunak.

braahman-granth

sanhitaaon ke baad braahman-granthon ka nirmaan hua. inmein yajnyaon ke karmakaand ka vistrut varnan hai, saath hi shabdon ki vyutpattiyaaain tatha praacheen raajaaon aur rishiyon ki kathaaeain tatha srushti-sambandhi vichaar hain. pratyek ved ke apne braahman hain. rigved ke do braahman hain - (1) aitareya aur (2) kausheetaki. aitareya mein 40 adhyaaya aur aath panchikaaeain hain, ismein agnishtom, gavaamayan, dvaadashaah aadi somayaagon, agnihotr tatha raajyabhishek ka vistrut aitareya braahman-jaisa hi hai. inse tatkaaleen itihaas par kaafi prakaash padta hai. aitareya mein shun:shep ki prasiddh katha hai. kausheetaki se prateet hota hai ki uttar Bhaarat mein bhaasha ke samyak adhyayan par bahut bal diya jaata tha. shukl yajurved ka braahman shatapath ke naam se prasiddh hai, kyonki ismein sau adhyaaya haiain. rigved ke baad praacheen itihaas ki sabse adhik jaankaari isi se milti hai. ismein yajnyaon ke vistrut varnan ke saath anek praacheen aakhyaanon, vyutpattiyon tatha saamaajik baaton ka varnan hai. iske samay mein kuru-paanchaal aarya sanskruti ka kendra tha, ismein puroorava aur urvashi ki pranaya-gaatha, chyavan rishi tatha maha pralaya ka aakhyaan, janamejaya, shakuntala aur bharat ka ullekh hai. saamaved ke anek braahmanon mein se panchavinsh ya taandya hi mahattvapoorn hai. atharvaved ka braahman gopath ke naam se prasiddh hai.

aaranyak

braahmanon ke ant mein kuchh aise adhyaaya bhi milte hain jo gaaainvon ya nagaron mein naheen padh jaate the. inka adhyayan-adhyaapan gaaainvon se door aranyon (vanon) mein hota tha, at: inhein aaranyak kehte hain. gruhasthaashram mein yajnyaavidhi ka nirdesh karne ke liye braahman-granth upayogi the aur uske baad vaanaprasth aashram mein vanavaasi aarya yagya ke rahasyon aur daarshanik tattvon ka vivechan karne vaale aaranyakon ka adhyayan karte the. upanishdon ka inheen aaranyakon se vikaas hua.

upanishd

upanishdon mein maanav-jeevan aur vishv ke goodhtam prashnon ko sulajhaane ka prayatn kiya gaya hai. ye bhaarateeya adhyaatm-shaastr ke dedeepyamaan ratn hain. inka mukhya vishay brahm-vidya ka pratipaadan hai. vaidik saahitya mein inka sthaan sabse ant mein hone se ye 'vedaant' bhi kahalaate hain. inmein jeev aur brahm ki ekta ke pratipaadan dvaara ooainchi-se-ooainchi daarshanik udaane li gayi hai. bhaarateeya rishiyon ne gambheeratam chintan se jin aadhyaatmik tattvon ka saakshaatkaar kiya, upanishd unka amoolya kosh hain. inmein anek shatakon ki tattv-chinta ka parinaam hai. muktikopanishd chaaron vedon se sambaddh 108 upanishd ginaaye gaye hain, kintu 11 upanishd hi adhik prasiddh hain-ish, ken, kath, prashn, mundak, maandookya, taittireeya, aitareya, chhaandogya, bruhadaaranyak aur shvetaashvatar inmein chhaandogya aur bruhadaaranyak adhik praacheen aur mahattvapoorn maane jaate hain.

sootr-saahitya

vaidik saahitya ke vishaal evam jatil hone par karmakaand se sambaddh siddhaanton ko ek naveen roop diya gaya. kam-se-kam shabdon mein adhik-se-adhik arth-pratipaadan karne vaale chhote-chhote vaakyon mein sab mahattvapoorn vidhi-vidhaan prakat kiye jaane lage. in saaragarbhit vaakyon ko sootr kaha jaata tha. karmakaand-sambandhi sootr-saahitya ko chaar bhaagon mein baaainta gaya-

(1) shraut sootr (2) gruhya sootr (3) dharm sootr aur (4) shulb sootr

pehle mein vaidik yagya sambandhi karmakaand ka varnan hai. doosare mein gruhasth ke dainik yajnyaon ka, teesare mein saamaajik niyamon ka aur chauthe mein yagya-vediyon ke nirmaan ka.

shraut sootr

shraut ka arth hai shruti (ved) se sambaddh yagya yaag. at: shraut sootron mein teen prakaar ki agniyon ke aadhaan agnihotr, darsh paurnamaas, chaaturmaasyaadi saadhaaran yajnyaon tatha agnishtom aadi somayaagon ka varnan hai. ye Bhaarat ki praacheen yagya-paddhati par bahut prakaash daalte hain. rigved ke do shraut sootr hain-shaankhaayan aur aashvalaayan. shukl yajurved ka ek-kaatyaayan: Krishna yajurved ke chh: sootr hain-aapastamb, hirnyakeshi, baudhaayan, Bhardwaj, maanav, vaikhaanas. saamaved ke laatyaayan, draahmaayan aur aarsheya naamak teen sootr hain. atharvaved ka ek hi vaitaan sootr hai.

gruhya sootr

inmein un vichaaron tatha janm se maranaparyant kiye jaane vaale sanskaaron ka varnan hai, jinka anushthaan pratyek hindu-gruhasth ke liye aavashyak samjha jaata tha. upanayan aur vivaah-sanskaar ka vistaar se varnan hai. in granthon ke adhyayan se praacheen bhaarateeya samaaj ke ghareloo aachaar-vichaar ka tatha vibhinn praanton ke reeti-rivaaj ka parichay poorn roop se ho jaata hai. rigved ke gruhya sootr shaankhaayan aur aashvalaayan hain. shukl yajurved ka paaraskar, Krishna yajurved ke aapastamb, hirnyakeshi, baudhaayan, maanav, kaathak aur vaikhaanas, saamaved ke gobhil tatha khadir aur atharvaved ka kaushik. inmein gobhil praacheenatam hai.

dharmasootr

dharmasootron mein samaajik jeevan ke niyamon ka vistaar se pratipaadan hai. varnaashram-dharm ki vivechana karte hue brahmachaari, gruhasth va raaja ke karttavyon, vivaah ke bhedon, daaya ki vyavastha, nishiddh bhojan, shuddhi, praayashchitt aadi ka vishesh varnan hai. inheen dharmasootron se aage chalakar smrutiyon ki utpatti hui, jinki vyavasthaaeain hindu-samaaj mein aaj tak maananeeya samajhi jaati hain. ved se sambaddh keval teen dharmasootr hi ab tak upalabdh ho sake hain-aapastamb, hirnyakeshi va baudhaayan. ye yajurved ki taittireeya shaakha se sambaddh hain. anya dharmasootron mein Gautam aur vasishth ullekhaneeya hain.

shulb sootr

inka sambandh shrautasootron se hai. shulb ka arth hai maapane ka dora. apne naam ke anusaar shulb sootron mein yagya-vediyon ko naapana, unke liye sthaan ka chunana tatha unke nirmaan aadi vishyon ka vistrut varnan hai. ye bhaarateeya jyaamiti ke praacheenatam granth hain.

vedaang

kaafi samay beetane ke baad vaidik saahitya jatil evam kathin prateet hone laga. us samay ved ke arth tatha vishyon ka spashteekaran karne ke liye anek sootr-granth likhe jaane lage. isliye inhein vedaang kaha gaya.

vedaang chh: hain-

shiksha, chhand, vyaakaran, nirukt, kalp aur jyotish

pehle chaar ved mantron ke shuddh uchchaaran aur arth samajhne ke liye tatha antim do dhaarmik karmakaand aur yajnyaon ka samay jaanane ke liye aavashyak hain. vyaakaran ko ved ka mukh kaha jaata hai, jyotish ko netr, nirukt ko shrotr, kalp ko haath, shiksha ko naasika tatha chhand ko donon pair.

shiksha

un granthon ko shiksha kehte hain, jinki sahaayata se ved-mantron ke uchchaaran ka shuddh gyaan hota tha. ved-paath mein svaron ka vishesh mahattv tha. inki shiksha ke liye pruthak vedaang banaaya gaya. ismein varnon ke uchchaaran ke anek niyam diye gaye hain. sansaar mein uchchaaran-shaastr ki vaigyaanik vivechana karne vaale pehle granth yahi hain. ye vedon ki vibhinn shaakhaaon se sambandh rakhate hain aur praatishaakhya kahalaate hain. rigved atharvaved, vaajasaneyi va taittireeya sanhita ke praatishaakhya milte hain. baad mein iske aadhaar par shiksha-granth likhe gaye. inmein shukl yajurved ki yaajnyaavalkya-shiksha, saamaved ki naarad shiksha aur paanini ki paanineeya shiksha mukhya hain

chhand

vaidik mantr chhandovaddh hain. chhandon ka theek gyaan bina praapt kiye, ved- mantron ka shuddh uchchaaran naheen ho sakta. at: chhandon ki vistrut vivechana aavashyak samajhi gayi. shaunak muni ke rikpraatishaakhya mein, shaankhaayan shrautasootr mein tatha saamaved se sambaddh nidaan sootr mein is shaastr ka vyavasthit varnan hai. kintu is vedaang ka ekamaatr svatantr granth pingalaachaarya-praneet chhand sootr hai. ismein vaidik aur laukik donon prakaar ke chhandon ka varnan hai.

vyaakaran

is ang ka uddeshya sandhi, shabd-roop, dhaatu-roop tatha inki nirmaan-paddhati ka gyaan karaana tha. is samay vyaakaran ka sabse prasiddh granth paanini ka ashtaadhyaayi hai; kintu vyaakaran ka vichaar braahman-granthon ke samay se shuroo ho gaya tha. paanini se pehle gaargya, sfotaayan, Bhardwaj aadi vyaakaran ke anek mahaan aachaarya ho chuke the. in sabke granth ab lupt ho chuke hain.

nirukt

ismein vaidik shabdon ki vyutpatti dikhaai jaati thi. praacheen kaal mein ved ke kathin shabdon ki kramabaddh taalika aur kosh nighantu kahalaate the aur inki vyaakhya nirukt mein hoti thi. aajkal keval yaaskaachaarya ka nirukt hi upalabdh hota hai. iska samay 800 E. poo. ke lagbhag hai.

jyotish

vaidik yug mein yeh dhaarana thi ki vedon ka uddeshya yajnyaon ka pratipaadan hai. yagya uchit kaal aur muhoort mein kiye jaane se hi faladaayak hote hain. at: kaal-gyaan ke liye jyotish ka vikaas hua. yeh ved ka ang samjha jaane laga. iska praacheenatam granth lagadhamuni-rachit vedaang jyotish hai.

kalp sootr

shraut, gruhya evam dharm sootron ke hi kalp sootr kehte hain. inka varnan oopar kiya ja chuka hai.

baahari kadiyaaain