vaidik dharm

vaidik reeti se hota yagya
is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

Om
itihaas · devata
sampradaaya · aagam
vishvaas aur darshanashaastr
punarjanm · moksh
karm · pooja · maaya
darshan · dharm
vedaant ·yog
shaakaahaar · aayurved
yug · sanskaar
bhakti {{hindu darshan}}
granth
vedasanhita · vedaang
braahmanagranth · aaranyak
upanishd · shreemadbhagavadgeeta
raamaayan · mahaabhaarat
sootr · puraan
shikshaapatri · vachanaamrut
sambandhit vishay
daivi dharm ·
vishv mein hindu dharm
guru · mandir devasthaan
yagya · mantr
shabdakosh · hindu parv
vigrah
praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

HinduSwastika.svg

hindu maapan pranaali

vaidik dharm vaidik sabhyata ka mool dharm tha, jo bhaarateeya upamahaadveep aur madhya Asia mein hajaaron varshon se chalta aa raha hai. aadhunik sanaatan dharm athva hindu dharm isi dhaarmik vyavastha par aadhaarit hain. vaidik sanskrut mein likhe chaar ved iski dhaarmik kitaabein hain. hindu maanyata ke anusaar rigved aur anya vedon ke mantr ishvar dvaara rishiyon ko prakat kiye gaye the. isliye vedon ko 'shruti' (yaani, 'jo suna gaya hai') kaha jaata hai, jabki raamaayan jaise baad ke hindu dharm granthon ko 'smruti' (yaani, 'jo maanav smruti par aadhaarit hai') kaha jaata hai. vedon ko 'apaurushaya' (yaani 'purush dvaara krut naheen') bhi kaha jaata hai, jiska taatparya hai ki unki kruti divya hai.

vaidik dharm ki jadein aadim hind-Irani dharm aur us se bhi praacheen aadim hind-Europeeya dharm tak pahuainchati hain, jinke kaaran bahut se vaidik devi-devata Europe, madhya Asia aur Iran ke praacheen dharmon mein bhi kisi-na-kisi roop mein maanya the, jaise ki mitr, varun, bruhaspati (dyaus-pitru), vaayu-vaat, sarasvati, vagairaah. isi tarah bahut se hindu dhaarmik shabdon ke sajaateeya shabd paarasi dharm aur praacheen Europeeya dharmon mein paae jaate hain, jaise ki som (faarasi: hom), yagya (faarasi: yasn), ityaadi.[1]

anukram

aatma ki ekta

vaidik dharm mein aatma ki ekta par sabse adhik jor diya gaya hai. jo aadmi is tatv ko samajh lega, vah kisase prem naheen karega? jo aadmi yeh samajh jaaega ki 'ghat-ghat mein tora saaaini ramat hai!' vah kis par naaraaj hoga? kise maarega? kise peetega? kise sataaega? kise gaali dega? kiske saath bura vyavahaar karega?

yasminsarvaani bhootaani aatmaivaabhoodvijaanat:.
tatr ko moh: k: shok ekatvamanupashyat: .

jo aadmi sab praaniyon mein ek hi aatma ko dekhta hai, uske liye kiska moh, kiska shok? vaidik dharm ka mool tatv yahi hai. is saare jagat mein ishvar hi sarvatr vyaapt hai. usi ko paane ke liye, usi ko samajhne ke liye hamein manushya ka yeh jeevan mila hai. use paane ka jo raasta hai, usaka naam hai dharm.

dharm ke chaar lakshan manu mahaaraaj ne dharm ke chaar lakshan bataae hain:

ved: smruti: sadaachaar: svasya ch priymaatman:.
etachchaturvighan praahu: saakshaad dharmasya lakshanam‌.

dharm ki kasauti chaar hain :

  • ved,
  • smruti,
  • sadaachaar
  • aatma ko ruchane wala aacharan
  • satyaacharan


ved

ved chaar hain. har ved ke chaar vibhaag hain : sanhita, braahman, aaranyak aur upanishd hindu dharm ka mool aadhaar hai ved. ved ka arth hai gyaan. sanskrut ki 'vid' dhaatu se 'ved' shabd bana hai. 'vid' yaani jaanana.

ved ko 'shruti' bhi kaha jaata hai. 'shru' dhaatu se 'shruti' shabd bana hai. 'shru' yaani sunana. kehte hain ki rishiyon ko antaraatma mein paramaatma ke paas se gyaan sunaai pada.

ved chaar hain : rigved, yajurved, saamaved aur atharvaved.

  • rigved : yeh sabse puraana ved hai. ismein 10 mandal hain aur 10552 mantra. rigved ki richaaon mein devataaon ki praarthana aur stutiyaaain hain.
  • yajurved : ismein 1975 mantra aur 40 adhyaaya hain. is ved mein adhiktar yagya ke mantra hain.
  • saamaved : ismein 1875 mantra hain. rigved ki hi adhiktar richaaeain hain. is sanhita ke sabhi mantra sangeetamaya hain, geya hain.
  • atharvaved : ismein 5987 mantra aur 20 kaand hain. ismein bhi rigved ki bahut-si richaaeain hain.

chaaron vedon mein kul milaakar 20389 mantra hain.

vaidik rishi

praacheenakaal mein Bhaarat desh mein jo log gyaani the, aachaar-vichaar vaale the, jinka hrudaya udaar tha, jinke vichaar ooainche the, unhein log 'rishi' kaha karte the. 'saada jeevan, uchch vichaar' unka aadarsh tha.

ve dharm ke goodh vishyon par chintan karte the, saada aur pavitra jeevan bitaate the aur samaaj ko sahi raasta dikhaaya karte the. vaidik saahitya in rishiyon ki hi pavitra dharohar hai. 5000 saal pehle bhi usase logon ko prerana milti thi aur aaj bhi milti hai.

vaidik devata

vedon mein hamein bahut se devataaon ki stuti aur praarthana ke mantra milte hain. inmein mukhya-mukhya devata ye hain :

vedon ke devataagan
agni, vaayu, Indra, varun, mitr, ashvineekumaar, ritu, marut‌ tvashta, som, ribhu:, dyau:, pruthvi, vishnu, poosha, savita, usha, aaditya, yam, rudr, soorya, bruhaspati, vaak‌, kaal, ann, vanaspati, parvat, parjanya, dhenu, pitru, mrutyu, aatma, aushadhi, aranya, shraddha, shachi, aditi, hirnyagarbh, vishvakarma, prajaapati, purush, aap:, shri seeta, sarasvati.

kabhi to ham shareer ko manushya kehte hain, kabhi usaki aatma ko. usi tarah vaidik rishi bhi do roopon mein devataaon ki praarthana karte the. kabhi jad padaarth ke roop mein, kabhi us jad ke bheetar rahane vaale chetan parampara ke roop mein. jaise- 'soorya' shabd se kabhi unka aashay hota tha us tej chamakate hue gole se, jise ham 'soorya' kehkar pukaarate hain.

kabhi 'soorya' se unka aashay hota tha, soorya ke roop mein prakaashamaan paramaatma se. rishiyon ka aisa vishvaas tha ki ek hi mahaan satta naana devataaon ke roop mein bikhri hai. usi ki ve stuti karte the, usi ki praarthana. usi ki ve upaasana karte the. usi ko prasann karne ke liye ve yagya karte the.

mantron ka saundarya

ved ke mantron mein sundarata bhari padi hai. vaidik pandit jab svar ke saath ved mantron ka paath karte hain, to chitt prasann ho uthata hai. jo bhi sasvar vedapaath sunata hai, mugdh ho uthata hai.

itna hi naheen, richaaon mein jo arth bhara hai, vah to usase bhi sundar hai. unamein jo bhaav bhare hain, ve manushya ko oopar uthaane vaale hain. samaaj ko oopar uthaane vaale hain. unase aatma ka bhi kalyaan hota hai, samaaj ka bhi.

karm, gyaan aur upaasana

vedon ke mukhya roop se teen bhaag hain : 1) karmakaand, 2) jnyaaanakaand aur 3) upaasanaakaand

karmakaand mein yagya karm diya gaya hai, jisse yagya karne aur karaane vaale ko lok-paralok mein sukh mile.

jnyaaanakaand mein paramaatma aur aatma ka tatv aur lok-paralok ka rahasya bataaya gaya hai.

upaasanaakaand mein ishvar bhajan ki vidhi bataai gayi hai. isse manushya ko lok-paralok mein sukh mil sakta hai aur ishvar ki praapti ho sakti hai.

braahman mein kaha hai

vedon ke do mukhya vibhaag hain : sanhita aur braahman. sanhita ko ved kehte hain. usamein mantra hain. braahman granthon ke teen bhaag hain :

1) braahman, 2) aaranya aur 3) upanishd

braahman granthon mein mukhya roop se yajnyaon ki charcha hai. vedon ke mantron ki vyaakhya hai. yajnyaon ke vidhaan ka vistaar se varnan hai.

mukhya braahman 3 hain :

  • aitareya,
  • taittireeya,
  • shatapath
aaranyak mein kaha hai

vedon ki rachana rishiyon ne ki hai. ve rahate the vanon mein, jangalon mein. van ko sanskrut mein kehte hain 'aranya'. aranyon mein bane hue granthon ka naam pad gaya 'aaranyak'.

mukhya aaranyak paaainch hain :

  1. aitareya,
  2. shaankhaayan,
  3. bruhadaaranyak,
  4. taittireeya aur
  5. tavalakaar.

upanishd

ved ke antim bhaag ka naam hai upanishd. upanishd shabd bana hai sad dhaatu se. sad ka arth hota hai naash hona, milna aur shithil karna. upanishd ka arth hai brahmavidya. brahmavidya se avidya ka naash hota hai, aanand milta hai aur janm-maran ka du:kh chhoot jaata hai.

mukhya upanishd

sabhi vedon ki apni-apni upanishdein hain. aajkal 108 upanishdein milti hain. mukhya upanishdein hain- ish, ken, kath, prashn, mundak, maandookya, taittireeya, aitareya, chhaandogya, bruhadaaranyak aur shvetaashvar.

smruti

smruti mein aate hain:-

  1. chh: vedaang,
    1. shiksha,
    2. kalp,
    3. vyaakaran,
    4. nirukt,
    5. chhand,
    6. jyotish
  2. dharmashaastr,
  3. itihaas,
  4. puraan aur
  5. neeti ke sabhi granth
mukhya smrutiyaaain hain
  1. manu smruti (maanav dharmashaastr),
  2. yaajnyaavalkya smruti,
  3. atri smruti,
  4. vishnu smruti,
  5. aapastamb smruti,
  6. paaraashar smruti,
  7. vyaas smruti aur
  8. vashishth smruti.

deeksha aur tap

satya ki saadhana ke liye deeksha bhi chaahiye aur tapasya bhi.

yajurved mein kaha hai :-

vraten deekshaamaapnoti deekshayaaऽpnoti dakshinaam‌. dakshina shraddhaamaapnoti shraddhaya satyamaapyate.

vrat se deeksha milti hai, deeksha se dakshina, dakshina se shraddha aur shraddha se satya ki praapti hoti hai.


tap ka arth

indriyon ka sanyam. kisi bhi lakshya ko paane ke liye tap karna hi padta hai. dharm ko paane ke liye bhi tap karna jaroori hai. brahmacharya-jeevan mein jis tarah tapasya karni padti hai, usi tarah aage bhi.


brahm aur yagya

brahm ka arth hai praarthana. vaidik mantron ka vidhivt paath karna, mantron ka jap karna, paramaatma ki stuti aur praarthana karna dharm ka aavashyak ang maana gaya hai. usi tarah yagya karna bhi. praarthana aur yagya karne wala sadaachaari hona chaahiye. naheen to usaki pooja-praarthana ka koi arth naheen hai. sadaachaari log hi tarate hain, duraachaari naheen.

rigved mein kaha hai :-

ritasya panthaan na taranti dushkrut:.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaan