vaayumandaleeya daab

vaayumandaleeya dabaav pruthvi ke vaayumandal mein kisi satah ki ek ikaai par usase oopar ki hava ke vajan dvaara lagaaya gaya bal hai. adhikaansh paristhitiyon mein vaayumandaleeya dabaav ka lagbhag sahi anumaan maapan bindu par uske oopar waali hava ke vajan dvaara lagaae gaye dravasthaitik dabaav dvaara lagaaya jaata hai. kam dabaav vaale kshetron mein un sthaanon ke oopar vaayumandaleeya dravyamaan kam hota hai, jabki adhik dabaav vaale kshetron mein un sthaanon ke oopar adhik vaayumandaleeya dravyamaan hota hai. isi prakaar, jaise-jaise oonchaai badhti jaati hai us star ke oopar vaayumandaleeya dravyamaan kam hota jaata hai, isliye badhti oonchaai ke saath dabaav ghat jaata hai. samudra tal se vaayumandal ke sheersh tak ek varg inch anuprasth kaat vaale hava ke stambh ka vajan 6.3 kilogram hota hai (aur ek varg seinteemeetar anuprasth kaat vaale vaayu stambh ka vajan ek kilogram se kuchh adhik hota hai).

anukram

maanak vaayumandaleeya dabaav

maanak vaayumandal (prateek atm) dabaav ki ek ikaai hai aur ise 101,325 Pa ya 101.325 kPa ke baraabar paribhaashit kiya jaata hai.[1][2] nimnalikhit ikaaiyaan baraabar hain, kintu darshaae gaye dashamlav sthaanon tak hee: 760 mmHg (torr), 29.92 inHg, 14.696 psi, 1013.25 millibars. ek maanak vaayumandal vaayaveeya taral oorja (ISO R554), antariksh praudyogiki (ISO 2533) tatha petrolium udyog (ISO 5024) mein prayukt hone wala maanak dabaav hai.

1999 mein, shuddh evam prayukt rasaayan vigyaan ke antarraashtreeya sangh (yoopaik (UPAC)) ne kaha ki padaarthon ke gunon ko nirdisht karne ke prayojan se maanak dabaav ko “aek maanak vaayumandala” ke maan 101.325 kPa ki bajaay shuddhata se 100 kPa (≈a750.01 torr) ya 29.53 inHg ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaana chaahiye. [3] is maan ka upayog sanpeedk tatha vaayaveeya upakaran udyog (ISO 2787) ke liye maanak dabaav ke roop mein kiya jaata hai.[4] (maanak taapamaan aur dabaav bhi dekhein) sanyukt raajya America mein, sanpeedit veeyu pravaah ko aksar prati ikaai samay “amaanak ghan foot” mein maapa jaata hai, jahaan “amaanak” ka aashay hai maanak taapamaan aur dabaav par nami ki tulya maatra. aap ke dvaara chadhaai karne par pratyek 1,000 foot par vaayumandaleeya dabaav mein 4% ki kami ho jaati hai. haalaanki, is maanak vaayumandal ko thoda alag dhang se paribhaashit kiya jaata hai: taapamaan = 20 °ase (68 °afai), vaayu ghanatv = 1.225 / kigra/ mee³ (0.0765 pound /ghan feet), oonchaai = samudra tal aur saapeksh aardrata = 20%. vaataanukoolak udyog mein maanak jiske bajaay aksar taapamaan = 0 °ase (32 °afai) hota hai. praakrutik gas ke liye, gas prosesar association (GPA) ek maanak taapamaan 60 °afai (15.6 °ase) ko nirdisht karta hai, lekin 14.65 paaund/varg inch (101.0 kilopaaskal), 14.656 paaund/varg inch (101.05 kilopaaskal), 14.73 paaund/varg inch (101.6 kilopaaskal) aur 15.025 paaund/varg inch (103.59 kilopaaskal) sahit vibhinn prakaar ke “aaadhaara” taapamaan bhi prayog kiye ja sakte hain.[5]

ausat samudra tal dabaav

June, July aur aagast (sheersh) tatha December, January aur February (neeche) ke liye maadhya samudra tal dabaav ka 15 varsh ka ausat.
[13] ki oonchaai pradarshit karne wala kolsamain-prakaar ke vaayudaabamaapeeya vaayuyaan ka tungataamaapi jiska istemaal uttari America mein kiya jaata hai.

ausat samudra tal dabaav (emaesaelapi (MSLP)) samudra tal par dabaav ya (jab jameen par ek di hui oonchaai par maapa jaata hai) kendra ke taapamaan par ek samataapi parat ki kalpana karte hue kendra ke dabaav ko samudra tal tak kam kiya hua, dabaav hai.

yeh vah dabaav hai jo saamaanya roop se radio, television, samaachaar patra aur Internet par mausam report mein diya jaata hai. jab ghar mein vaayudaabamaapi ko sthaaneeya mausam report se Milan karke set kiya jaata hai, to ve samudra tal ke daab ka maapan karte hain, na ki vaastavik sthaaneeya vaayumandaleeya dabaav ka. dekhein oonchaai maapak yantr (elteemeetar) (daabamaapak banaam nirpeksh).

samudra tal tak kam karne ka arth hai ki dabaav mein saamaanya utaar chadhaav ki seema sab ke liye samaan hoti hai. ve dabaav jo uchch dabaav ya kam dabaav maane jaate hain, ve bhaugolik sthaanon par nirbhar naheen hote. iske kaaran ek mausam maanachitr par samabhaarik saarthak aur upayogi upakaran ban jaate hain.

kyooenaech (QNH) ya kyooefai (QFE) set hua vimaanan udyog mein tungataamaapi ka samaayojan, samudra tal tak kam kiya hua ek anya vaayumandaleeya dabaav hai, kintu is kami ko ankit karne ka tareeka kuchh alag hai.

kyooenaech (QNH)
vaayudaabamaapeeya tungataamaapi samaayojan ke kaaran jab vah havaai kshetr mein hoga to tungataamaapi oonchaai ko padhega. aaiesae taapamaan paristhitiyon mein tungataamaapi aaspaas ke vaayu kshetr mein ausat samudra tal se oonchaai ko padhega.
kyooefai (QFE)
vaayudaabamaapeeya tungataamaapi samaayojan ke kaaran ek vishisht havaai kshetr ke sandarbh aadhaar (aamtaur par ek havaaipatti ki dahaleej) par tungataamaapi shoonya padhega. aaiesae taapamaan paristhitiyon mein tungataamaapi aaspaas ke vaayu kshetr mein aadhaar se oonchaai ko padhega.

kyooefai (QFE) aur kyooenaech (QNH) koi sankshipteekaran na hokar ek svechhit kyoo (Q) code hai, lekin in donon mein antar rakhane ke liye vimaan chaalakon dvaara smruti sahaayakon “anautikl oonchaai” tatha “akshetr oonchaai” ka prayog aksar kiya jaata hai.

ausat samudra tal dabaav 101.325 kPa (1013.25 mili baar, ya hPa) ya 29.921 inch paara (inHg) ya 760 mileemeetar (mmHg) hota hai. vimaanan mausam report (emaiteeeaar (METAR)) mein kyooenaech (QNH) ko duniya bhar mein mileebaar ya hektopaaskals (1 mileebaar = 1 hektopaaskal) mein prasaarit kiya jaata hai, keval sanyukt raajya America, Canada aur Columbia ko chhodkar, jahaan ise paare ke inchon mein (do dashamlav sthaanon tak) vyakt kiya jaata hai. (sanyukt raajya America aur Canada bhi samudra tal dabaav esaelapi (SLP) report karte hain, lekin jise ek bhinn vidhi dvaara samudra tal tak kam kiya jaata hai, tippani anubhaag mein, hektopaaskals ya mileebaar mein code ka antararaashtreeya star par prasaarit bhaag naheen hai.[6] haalaanki, Canada ki saarvajanik mausam report mein samudra tal dabaav iske bajaay kilopaaskals [1] mein hota hai, jabki paryaavaran Canada ki dabaav ki maanak ikaai vahi [2] [3] hai. mausam code mein teen ankon ki aavashyakta hoti hai; dashamlav bindu tatha ek ya do sabse mahatvapoorn ank chhod diye jaate hain; 1013.2 mileebaar ya 101.32 kPa ko 132 ke roop mein prasaarit kiya jaata hai; 1000.0 mileebaar ya 100.00 kPa ko 000 ke roop mein prasaarit kiya jaata hai; 998.7 mileebaar ya 99.87 kPa ko 987 ke roop mein prasaarit kiya jaata hai, aadi. pruthvi par sarvochch samudri-satah dabaav saaiberiya mein hota hai, jahaan saaiberiyaai antarraashtreeya samudra mein aksar samudra tal dabaav 1050.0 mileebaar se adhik ho jaata hai. nyoonatam maapya samudri-satah dabaav ushnakatibandheeya chakravaaton aur bavandaron ke keindron mein paaya jaata hai.

oonchaai par vaayumandaleeya dabaav mein bhinnata

dabaav pruthvi ki satah se madhyamandal ke sheersh tak abaadh gati se badalta hai. haalaanki, mausam ke saath dabaav mein parivartan hota hai, naasa ne pruthvi ke sabhi bhaagon ke liye saal bhar ki sthitiyon ka ausat nikaala hai. nimnalikhit sambandhit ausat oonchaai ke saath hava ke dabaav (ek vaayumandal ke ek ansh ke roop mein) ki ek soochi hai. taalika vibhinn oonchaaiyon par par hava ke dabaav ka ek mota anumaan deti hai.

is plastic botal ko lagbhag 14,000 feet oonchaai par seal kiya gaya tha, jab ise samudra ki satah ki or laaya ja raha tha to vaayumandaleeya dabaav mein vruddhi (9000 foot hai aur 1000 foot par) se kuchali gayi.
ausat oonchaai
(meter) (foot)
1 0 0
3/4 2,750 9,022
1/2 5,486 18,000
1/3 8,376 27,480
1/10 16,132 52,926
1/100 30,901 101,381
1/1,000 48,467 159,013
1/10,000 69,464 227,899
1/100,000 86,282 283,076

sthaaneeya vaayumandaleeya dabaav mein bhinnata

19 October 2005 ko toofaan vilma - [18] aankhon mein

vaayumandaleeya dabaav pruthvi par vyaapak roop se bhinn hota hai aur ye parivartan mausam aur jalavaayu ke adhyayan ke liye mahatvapoorn hain. mausam par vaayu dabaav mein badlaavon ke prabhaavon ke liye dabaav pranaali dekhein.

vaayumandaleeya dabaav vaishvik vaayumandaleeya pravaahon ke kaaran bane dainik ya arddhadainik (din mein do baar) chakr ko darshaata hai. yeh prabhaav ushnakatibandheeya kshetron mein kuchh mileebaar ke aayaam ke saath sarvaadhik majaboot hota hai aur dhruveeya kshetron mein lagbhag shoonya. in badlaavon ke do aadhyaaropit chakr hote hain, ek dainik (24 ghante) chakr aur arddh dainik- (12 ghante) chakr.

vaayumandaleeya dabaav ke record

pruthvi par ab tak ka uchchatam vaayudaabamaapeeya dabaav 19 December 2001 ko mangoliya ke tonasonatseingel mein 1,085.7 hektopaaskal (32.06 inch paara) darj kiya gaya tha.[7] ab tak ka nimnatam gair bhramavaati vaayumandaleeya dabaav 870 hPa (25.69 inch) 12 October 1979 ko pashchimi prashaant mahaasaagar mein toofaan ke dauraan maapa gaya tha. yeh maap ek tohi vimaan dvaara liye gaye upakaraneeya prekshan par aadhaarit tha.[8] pruthvi ki satah par maapa gaya ab tak ka sabse kam vaayumandaleeya dabaav, samudra tal se samaayojit karne par, 850 hPa (25.10 inch) tha jo Manchester, dakshin dakota mein 24 June 2003 ko efa4 toofaan ke dauraan darj kiya gaya tha. yeh maap ek moolasthaani shlaaka ka upayog karke darj kiya gaya tha.[9]

paani ki oonchaai par aadhaarit vaayumandaleeya dabaav

vaayumandaleeya dabaav praay: ek paare vaale vaayudaabamaapi se maapa jaata hai aur vaayumandaleeya dabaav darshaane (aur maapane) ke liye paare ki lagbhag 760 mileemeetar (30 inch) oonchaai ka upayog kiya jaata hai. choonki, paara aisa padaarth naheen hai jo saamaanyat: maanav ke sampark mein aata hai, paani aksar ek vaayumandal ke dabaav ka anumaan lagaane ka ek adhik sahaj tareeka pradaan karta hai.

ek vaayumandal (100 kPa ya 14.7 psi) dabaav ki vah maatra hai jo paani ko lagbhag 10.3 mi (34 fut) utha deti hai. is prakaar, ek gotaakhor paani mein 10.3 meter neeche lagbhag 2 vaayumandal (1 atm vaayu ka aur 1 atm paani ka) ka dabaav anubhav karta hai. yahi vah adhiktam oonchaai hai jahaan tak paani ke ek stambh ko chooshan dvaara le jaaya ja sakta hai.

kam dabaav jaise ki praakrutik gas line ko kabhi kabhi paani ke inch se bhi nirdisht kiya jaata hai, aamtaur par dabloo.si. (jal stambh) ya dabloo.ji. (inch jal maapak) likha jaata hai. aavaaseeya upakaranon ka upayog karne waali ek vishisht gas ko adhiktam 14 dablyu.si jo ki lagbhag 35 hPa hai ke liye moolyaankit kiya jaata hai.

gair peshevar vaayudaabamaapi aam taur par nirdrav vaayudaabamaapi hote hain tatha tanaav maapak par aadhaarit hote hain. vaayudaabamaapi ke vivran ke liye dabaav maap dekhein.

paani ka kvathanaank

khaulata paani

paani lagbhag 100 °ase (212 °afai) maanak vaayumandaleeya dabaav par ubalata hai. kvathanaank vah taapamaan hai jis par paani ke chaaron or vaashpeeya dabaav tatha vaayumandaleeya dabaav samaan ho jaata hai.[10] is vajah se, paani ka kvathanaank kam dabaav mein kam ho jaata hai tatha uchch dabaav mein badh jaata hai. yahi kaaran hai ki samudra tal se 3,500 fut (1,100 mi) adhik unchaai par pakaane keliye Pak vidhiyon mein samaayojan ki aavashyakta hoti hai.[11] oonchaai ka mote taur par lagbhag anumaan us taapamaan ko maap kar jis par paani ubalata hai, se praapt kiya ja sakta hai; is vidhi ka upayog 19veen sadi ke madhya mein, khojakartaaon dvaara kiya gaya tha.[12]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • vaataavaran (ikaai)
  • vaayudaabamaapi ka sootr
  • daab abhighaat shareer ke andar ya baahar tatha aas-paas ki gas ya taral ke dabaavon mein antar ke kaaran shareer ke ootakon ko hone waali vaastavik kshati hai.
  • antarraashtreeya maanak vaayumandal - akshaanshon ke madhya mein oonchaai ke saath, vaayumandal ke ushmagatik charon (daab, ghanatv, taapamaan aadi) mein laakshanik parivrtanon ki taalika.
  • enaaaraelaemaesaaaiesai (NRLMSISE)-00
  • vistrut baithak
  • uposhnakatibandheeya uchch kati bandh

sandarbh

  1. antarraashtreeya naagar vimaanan sangathan, aaiseeeo maanak vaayumandal ka mainual, dauk 7488-seedi, teesara sanskaran, 1993, ISBN 92-9194-004-6.
  2. opeeseeaaiti (OPCIT) aaiseeeo (ICAO) maanak vaayumandal
  3. IUPAC.org, prakaashan, maanak dabaav (20 KB peedeeef (PDF))
  4. Compressor.co.za, May 2003 nyoojletar
  5. jeepeee (GPA) maanak 2172-09, §a3.3
  6. namoona CYVR ka METAR nav Canada
  7. Christopher C. Burt (2004). Extreme Weather (1 san॰). Twin Age Ltd.. pa॰ 234. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0393326586.
  8. Chris Landsea (2010-04-21). "Subject: E1) Which is the most intense tropical cyclone on record?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/E1.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-11-23.
  9. Lee, Julian J.; T.P. Samaras, C.R. Young (October 2004). "Pressure Measurements at the ground in an F-4 tornado". Preprints of the 22nd Conference on Severe Local Storms. Hyannis, Massachusetts: American Meteorological Society. http://ams.confex.com/ams/11aram22sls/techprogram/paper_81700.htm.
  10. vaashp dabaav
  11. krisko - lekh aur yuktiyaan - Pak kala yuktiyaan - adhik oonchaai par Pak kala
  12. Berberan-Santos, M. N.; Bodunov, E. N.; Pogliani, L. (1997), "On the barometric formula", American Journal of Physics 65 (5): 404–412, doi:10.1119/1.18555

baahari links