vaayumandal

antariksh se pruthvi ka drushya vaayumandal neela dikh raha hai.

pruthvi ko gherati hui jitne sthaan mein vaayu rahati hai use vaayumandal kehte hain. vaayumandal ke atirikt pruthvi ka sthalamandal thos padaarthon se bana aur jalamandal jal se bane hain. vaayumandal kitni door tak faila hua hai, iska theek theek pata hamein naheen hai, par yeh nishchit hai ki pruthvi ke chaturdik kai sau meelon tak yeh faila hua hai. vaayumandal ke nichle bhaag ko (jo praaya: chaar se aath meal tak faila hua hai) kshobhamandal, uske oopar ke bhaag ko samataapamandal aur uske aur oopar ke bhaag ko aayanamandal kehte hain. kshobhamandal aur samataapamandal ke beech ke beech ke bhaag ko "shaantamandal" aur samataapamandal aur aayanamandal ke beech ko straitopauj kehte hain. saadhaaranataya oopar ke tal bilkul shaant rahate hain.

praaniyon aur paadapon ke jeevanaposhan ke liye vaayu atyaavashyak hai. pruthveetal ke apakshaya par bhi iska gahra prabhaav padta hai. naana prakaar ki bhautik aur raasaayanik kriyaaeain vaayumandal ki vaayu ke kaaran hi sampann hoti hain. vaayumandal ke anek drushya, jaise indradhanush, bijli ka chamakana aur kadkana, uttar dhruveeya jyoti, dakshin dhruveeya jyoti, prabhaamandal, kireet, mareechika ityaadi prakaash ya vidyut ke kaaran utpann hote hain.

vaayumandal ka ghanatv ek sa naheen rahata. samudratal par vaayu ka dabaav itna hota hai ki vah paare ke stambh ko 29.92 inch ya 76 seinteemeetar uthaata hai. prati varg inch yeh 15.5 pound dabaav ke baraabar hota hai. oopar uthane se dabaav mein kami hoti jaati hai. taap ya sthaan ke parivartan se bhi dabaav mein antar aa jaata hai.

soorya ki laghutarang vikirn oorja se pruthvi garam hoti hai. pruthvi se deerghatarang bhaumik oorja ka vikirn vaayumandal mein avashoshit hota hai. isse vaayumandal ka taap - 68 degree se. se 55 degree sein. ke beech hi rahata hai. 60 meal ke oopar paraabaingani prakaash se aakseejan anu aayanon mein parint ho jaate hain aur parmaanu ilektraunon mein. isi se is mandal ko aayan mandal kehte hain. raatri mein ye aayan ya ilektraun fir paraspar milkar anu ya parmaanu mein parint ho jaate hain jisse raatri ke prakaash ke varnapat mein hari aur laal rekhaaeain dikhaai padti hain.

anukram

vaayumandal sangathan

vaayumandal ki vaayu gaison ka mishran hai. ooainchaai mein gaison ki aapekshik maatra mein parivartan paaya jaata hai. pruthveetal par ki sookhi vaayu ka ausat sangathan is prakaar hai-

gas pratishat aayatan
naaitrojan 78.09
okseejan 20.95
aargan 0.93
kaarban daaiaaksaaid 0.03
niyon 0.0018
haaidrojan 0.001
heeliym 0.000524
kriptan 0.0001
jenaan 0.000008
ojon 0.000001

vaayumandaleeya aardrata

vaayumandaleeya aardrata vaayu mein upasthit jalavaashp ke oopar nirbhar karti hai. yeh jalavaashp vaayumandal ke nichle staron mein rahata hai. iski maatra sabhi sthaanon mein tatha sadaiv ek si naheen rahati. samayaanusaar usamein antar hote rahate hain. yeh jalavaashp nadi, taalaab, jheel, saagar aadi ke jal ke vaashpeekaran se banta hai.

vaayumandaleeya aardrata mein do baaton par dhyaan dena chaahiye:

  1. param aadrrata - kisi vishesh taap par vaayu ke ikaai aayatan mein vidyamaan bhaap ki maatra ko kehte hain aur
  2. aapekshik aadrrata - prati shat mein vyakt vah sambandh hai jo us vaayu mein vidyamaan bhaap ki maatra mein aur usi taap par usi aayatan ki santrupt vaayu ki bhaap maatra mein hota hai.

vaayumandaleeya aadrrata ko mukhyat: do prakaar ke maapiyon se maapate hain:

  1. raasaayanik aadrrataamaapi
  2. bhautik aadrrataamaapi

vaayumandaleeya taap ka moolasrot soorya hai. vaayu ko soorya ki apeksha pruthvi ke sansparsh se adhik ooshma milti hai, kyonki usapar dhooliknon ka prabhaav padta hai. ye dhoolikn, jo ooshma ke kuchaalak hote hain bhooprushth par evam uske nikat adhik hote hain aur vaayumandal mein ooainchaai ke anusaar kam hote jaate hain. at: praarambh mein soorya ki kirnein dharaatal ko garam karti hain. fir vahi ooshma sanchaalan dvaara kramash: vaayumandal ke nichle star se oopari star ki or failat jaati hai. iske atirikt garam hokar vaayu oopar uthi hai, rikt sthaan ki poorti apekshaakrut thandhi vaayu karti hai; fir vah bhi garam hokar oopar uthati hai. falat: sanvaahan dhaaraaeain utpann ho jaati hain. at: ooshma ke oopar failane mein sanchaalan aur sanvaahan kaam karte hain. dharaatal se vaayumandal mein oopar jaane par taap kramash: pratyek 320f ki ooainchaai par 1roo faadru ghatata jaata hai.

vaayumandaleeya dabaav

vaayumandaleeya dabaav athva vaayudaab kisi sthaan ke ikaai kshetrafal par vaayumandal ke stambh ka bhaar hota hai. kisi bhi samatal par vaayumandal dabaav uske oopar ki vaayu ka bhaar hota hai. yeh dabaav bhooprushth ke nikat ooainchaai ke saath sheeghrata se, tatha vaayumandal mein adhik oonchaai par dheere dheere, ghatata hai. parantu kisi bhi sthaan par vaayu ki ooainchaai ke saapeksh sthir naheen rahata hai. mausam aur rituon ke parivartan ke saath ismein antar hote rahate hain.

vaayumandaleeya dabaav vibhinn bairomeetaron dvaara naapa jaata hai. saagar tal par vaayumandaleeya dabaav 14.7 pound prati varg inch, athva bairomeetar ka dabaav 760 mimi paaraastambh ka daab. inka arth ek hi hai. iske aadhaar par maanachitr par ise samadaab rekhaaon dvaara pradarshit kiya jaata hai. inheen par vaayu-bhaar-petiyaaain, havaaon ki disha, veg, disha parivartan aadi nirbhar karte hain.

vaayumandal

vaayumandal pruthvi ke chaaron or saikado kimi ki motaai mein lapetne vaale gaiseeya aavaran ko kehte hain. vaayumandal vibhinn gaison ka mishran hai jo pruthvi ko chaaro or se ghere hue hai. nichle staron mein vaayumandal ka sanghatan apekshaakrut ek samaan rahata hai. vaayumandal garmi ko rokakar rakhane mein ek vishaal 'kaanch ghar' ka kaam karta hai, jo laghu tarangon aur vikirn ko pruthvi ke dharaatal par aane deta hai, parantu pruthvi se viksit hone waali tarangon ko baahar jaane se rokata hai. is prakaar vaayumandal pruthvi par sam taapamaan banaae rakhata hai. vaayumandal mein jalavaashp evam gaison ke atirikt sookshm thos kanon ki upasthiti bhi gyaat ki gayi hai.

vaayumandal ka sanghatan

vaayumandal ka sanghatan ghatak aayatan ke anusaar pratishat

naaitrojan 78.08 okseejan 20.9 aargan 0.93 kaarban daaioksaaid 0.03 nion 0.0018 heeliym 0.0005 ojon 0.00006 haaidrojan 0.00005 methane alp maatra kriptan alp maatra jenaun alp maatra

shuddh aur shushk vaayu mein naaitrojan 78 pratishat, okseejan, 21 pratishat, aargan 0.93 pratishat kaarban daai oksaaid 0.03 pratishat tatha haaidrojan, heeliym, ojon, nion, jenaan, aadi alp maatra mein upasthit rahati hain. nam vaayumandal mein jal vaashp ki maatra 5 pratishat tak hoti hai. vaayumandeeya jal vaashp ki praapti saagaron, jalaashayon, vanaspatiyon tatha mrudaaon ke jal se hoti hai. jal vaashp ki maatra bhoomadhya rekha se dhruvon ki or ghatati jaati hai. jal vaashp ke kaaran hi baadal, kohara, paala, varsha, os, him, ola, himpaat hota hai. vaayumandal mein ojon parat ki pruthvi aur us par rahane vaale jeevon ke liye badi hi mahattvapoorn bhoomika hai. yeh parat soorya se aane waali uchch aavrutti ki paraabaingani prakaash ki 93-99% maatra avashoshit kar leti hai, jo pruthvi par jeevan ke liye haanikaarak hai. ojon ki parat ki khoj 1913 mein fraaains ke bhautikvid faibari Charles aur henari buson ne ki thi.

vaayumandal paratein

vaayumandal ka ghanatv oonchaai ke saath-saath ghatata jaata hai. vaayumandal ko 5 vibhinn paraton mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai.

kshobhamandal samataapamandal madhyamandal taapamandal baahyamandal

kshobhamandal

kshobhamandal vaayumandal ki sabse nichli parat hai. yeh mandal jaiv mandaleeya paaristhitiki tantr ke liye sarvaadhik mahattvapoorn hai kyonki mausam sambandhi saari ghatnaaen isi mein ghatit hoti hain. prati 165 meter ki oonchaai par vaayu ka taapamaan 1 degree celcius ki ausat dar se ghatata hai. ise saamaanya taap patan dar kehte hai. iski ooainchaai dhruvo par 8 ki॰mee॰ tatha vishuvat rekha par lagbhag 18 ki॰mee॰ hoti hai.

samataapamandal

iski motaai 50 kimi se 55 kimi tak hai. is mandal mein taapamaan sthir rahata hai tatha iske baad oonchaai ke saath badhta jaata hai. samataap mandal baadal tatha mausam sambandhi ghatnaaon se mukt rahata hai. is mandal ke nichle bhaag mein jet vaayuyaan ke udaan bharne ke liye aadarsh dashaaen hain. iski oopari seema ko 'straitopaaj' kehte hain. is mandal ke nichle bhaag mein ojon gas bahutaayaat mein paayi jaati hai. is ojon bahul mandal ko ojon mandal kehte hain. ojon gas sauryik vikirn ki haanikaarak paraabaingani kirnon ko sokh leti hai aur unhein bhootal tak naheen pahunchane deti hai tatha pruthvi ko adhik garm hone se bachaati hain.yahaaain se oopar jaane par taapamaan mein badhotari hoti hai

madhyamandal

taapamandal

is mandal mein oonchaai ke saath taap mein teji se vruddhi hoti hai. taapamandal ko pun: do upamandalon 'aayan mandal' tatha 'aayatan mandal' mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. aayan mandal, taapamandal ka nichla bhaag hai jismein vidyut aaveshit kan hote hain jinhein aayan kehte hain. ye kan radio tarangon ko bhooprushth par paraavartit karte hain aur betaar sanchaar ko sambhav banaate hain. taapamandal ke oopari bhaag aayatan mandal ki koi suspasht oopari seema naheen hai. iske baad antariksh ka vistaar hai.

aayanamandal

aaayan mandal mein suऱaaya ke atyadhik taap ke kaaran gaisein apne aayanon mein tut jaate hain

baahyamandal

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh