vaayu pradooshan

vaayu pradooshan rasaayanon, sookshm padaarth, ya jaivik padaarth ke vaataavaran mein, maanav ki bhoomika hai, jo maanav ko ya anya jeev jantuon ko ya paryaavaran ko nuksaan pahuainchaata hai.[1]

vaayu pradooshan ke kaaran mautein[2] aur shvaas rog (respiratory disease).[3] vaayu pradooshan ki pehchaan jyaadaatar pramukh sthaayi sroton (major stationary source) se ki jaati hai, par utsarjan ka sabse bada srot (source of emissions) mobile, otomobaails hai.[4]kaarban daaioksaaid jaisi gaisein, jo global vaarming ke liye sahaayak hai, ko haal hi mein praapt maanyata ke roop mein mausam vaigyaanik pradooshak ke roop mein jaante hain, jabki ve jaante hain, ki kaarban daaioksaaid prakaash sanshleshan ke dvaara ped-paudhon ko jeevan pradaan karta hai.

yeh vaataavaran ek jatil, gatisheel praakrutik vaayu tantr hai jo pruthvi gruh par jeevan ke liye aavashyak hai. vaayu pradooshan ke kaaran samataapamandal se hue ojon rikteekaran ko bahut pehle se maanav svaasthya ke saath saath pruthvi ke paarasthitiki tantr ke liye khatre ke roop mein pahachaana gaya hai.

anukram

pradooshak

floo gas desulfurization ke praarambh (flue gas desulfurization) hone ke pehle Mexico mein is power plant se hone vaale utsarjan mein bahut adhik maatra mein salfaradaaioksaaid hota tha.

vaayu mein bahut se tattv hote hain jo paudhon aur pashuon (maanav samet) ka svaasthya khraab kar sakte hain ya najar khraab kar sakte hain yeh praakrutik prakriyaaon tatha maanav gatividhiyon donon se utpann hote hain. vaayu mein praakrutik roop se naheen paae jaane vaale tatv ya adhik saandrata ke saath ya saamaanya se alag tatvon ko pradooshak kaha jaata hai.

pradooshakon ko praathamik ya dviteeyak ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai. praathamik pradooshak ve tatv hain jo seedhe ek prakriya se utsarjit hue hain jaise jvaalaamukhi visfot se raakh, motor gaadi se kaarban mono oksaaid gas, kaarkhaanon se nikalne waali salfar daaioksaaid gas.

dviteeyak pradooshak seedhe utsarjit naheen hote hain. balki jab praathamik pradooshak aapas mein kriya ya pratikriya karte hain jab ve vaayu mein bante hain. dviteeyak pradooshak ka ek mahatvapoorn udaaharan hai jameeni star ki ojon- bahut se dviteeyak pradooshakon mein ek jo prakaash-rasaayanik dhoom kohara banaati hai.

dhyaan rakhein ki kuchh pradooshak praathamik aur dviteeyak donon ho sakte hain, yaani ve seedhe bhi utsarjit ho sakte hain aur anya praathamik pradooshakon se ban sakte hain.

maanav gatividhiyon se utpann pramukh praathamik pradooshakon mein shaamil hain:

dviteeyak pradooshakon mein shaamil hai:

  • fotokemikl dhoom kohara (smog) mein rahane vaale vaayujanik praathamik pradooshakon aur yaugikon se jaise naaitrojan daaioksaaid se bana sookshm vaataavaran
  • jameeni star par ojon (Ground level ozone) NOx aur VOCs se banti hai.
  • isi prakaar peroksaaistaayal naaitret (Peroxyacetyl nitrate)(PAN) NOx tatha VOCs se banta hai.

sookshm vaayu pradooshakon mein shaamil hai:

  • ek badi sankhya mein khatarnaak sookshm vaayu pradooshak. inmein se kuchh sanyukt raajya amareeka mein svachh vaayu adhiniyam (Clean Air Act) aur Europe mein vaayu dhaanchaagat nirdesh ke tahat niyamit kiye gaye hain.
  • sthaayi jaivik pradooshakon (persistent organic pollutant) ke prakaar jo vishesh padaarth se jude ho sakte hain.

srot

stretaford, Texas ki or aane waali dhool bhari aandhi (Stratford, Texas)

.

dakshin jaurjiya ke (controlled burn) ek khet mein vasant ropan ke liye niyantrit dahan ka upayog.
sooryaast ke samay Shanghai ka puksi kshetr ab tak sooraj apne kshitij ke neeche tak naheen dooba hai balki yeh dhoom kohara (smog) ki rekha tak pahuainch gaya hai.

vaayu pradooshan ke srot vibhinn sthaan, gatividhi ya ghatak soochit karte hain jo vaataavaran mein pradooshakon ko mukt karne ke liye jimmedaar hai. in sroton ko do pramukh shreniyon mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai jo hain:

vibhinn prakaar ke indhan ke dahan se sambaddh maanavajanit srot (maanav gatividhi) (fuel)

praakrutik srot

utsarjan ke ghatak

vaayu pradooshak utsarjan ghatak ve pratinidhik maan hain jo us pradooshak ke utsarjan se sambandhit pradooshak ke utsarjan gatividhi ki avadhi ki ek ikaai se vibhaajit kar vyakt kiya jaata hai (jaise jale hue prati megaagraam koyale se utsarjit sookshm utsarjan).is prakaar ke ghatak vaayu pradooshan ke vibhinn sroton se utsarjit utsarjan ka anumaan lagaane mein suvidha pradaan karte hain. adhiktar maamalon mein, ye ghatak sveekaarya gunavatta ke upalabdh aankadon ke ausat hai aur aamtaur par deergh avadhi ausat maane jaate hai.

sanyukt raajya America paryaavaran suraksha paryaavaran agency (United States Environmental Protection Agency) ne audyogik srot ke liye vaayu pradooshakon ke utsarjan ghatakon ka ek sankalan prakaashit kiya hai[5]. Europeeya paryaavaran agency ki tarah United kingadam, Australia, Canada aur anya deshon ne bhi is tarah ke sankalan prakaashit kiye hain (European Environment Agency)[6][7]. [8][9] [10]

aantarik havaai gunavatta (IAQ)

nikaasi ki kami se bheetar vaayu pradushan ho jaata hai jahaaain log apna jyaadaatar samay vyateet karte hain.redaun (aar N) gas, ek kaarsinojen (carcinogen), hai jo pruthvi se kuchh sthaanon se niklati hai aur gharon mein bhar jaati hai. bhavan saamagri jaise kaaleen (carpet) aur plaayavud (plywood) se faarmaladihaaid (formaldehyde) (H2CO) gas utsarjit hoti hain .peint aur vilaayak sookhane par vaashpasheel jaivik yogik (volatile organic compounds) (VOCs) chhodte hain. seese (Lead) ka peint dhool (dust) mein badal sakta hai aur saaains ke dvaara shareer ke bheetar ja sakta hai. vaanchhit vaayu pradushan air freshanar (air freshener), dhoop (incense) aur anya sugandhit vastuon se utpann kiya jaata hai. niyantrit lakdi (wood) aag mein choolha (stove) aur s aag jalaane ki jagah (fireplace) par hone wala dhuaa bheetar aur baahar hava mein ullekhaneeya maatr mein dhumrapaan ke tatv jod sakta hai. bina uchit veinteeleshan ke keetanaashakon aur raasaayanik spray se aantarik pradooshan ke ghaatak parinaam ho sakte hain.

doshapoorn chimni (Carbon monoxide) aur nikaasi ke kaaran ya bheetar chaarakol (charcoal) ko jalne se anek baar kaarban monooksaaid (CO) vishaaktata aur ghaatak parinaam ho jaata hain. khraab tareeke se sanyojit pilot prakaash se bhi kaarban monooksaaid ki teevr vishaaktata ho sakti (pilot light) hai. sabhi gharelu nalasaaji (plumbing) mein seevar gas aurhaaidrojan salfaaid (hydrogen sulfide) ko risne se rokane ke liye jaal lagaaye jaate hain. vastr shushk safaai ke baad tetraakloroitheleen (tetrachloroethylene), ya anya shushk safaai ke druvya utsarjit karatein hain (dry cleaning).

haalaaainki iske istemaal par anek deshon mein rok laga di gayi hai parantu pichhle samay mein iske audyogik aur gharelu vaataavaran mein iske vyaapak istemaal ke kaaran anek sthaanon mein bahut khatarnaak saamaan chhod diya hai. esbestosis (Asbestosis) fefado (lung) ke ootakon (inflammatory) ki svasthya sthiti ko gambhir roop se prabhaavit karne wala tatv hai. yeh lambe samay tak esbestosis waali saamagri ke sampark mein rahane ke kaaran ho jaata hai. peediton ko gambhir dyspnea (dyspnea) (saans ki kami) aur vibhinn prakaar ke fefdon ke keinsar (lung cancer) hone ka khatra ho sakta hai.

kyonki gair-takaneeki saahitya mein iski spasht vyaakhya naheen hai, isliye sambandhit rogon ke anek svaroopon ke beech antar spasht karna hoga. vishv svaasthya sangathan (dablyooechao) ke anusaar, inhe esabestosis (asbestosis), fefadon ke Cancer aur mesothelioma (mesothelioma)(aam taur par ek bahut hi durlabh Cancer) ke roop mein paribhaashit kar sakte hain, jab ye adhik vyaapak ho jaate hain tab ye adhiktar esabestas se sambandhit hi rahate hain.

vaayu pradooshan ke jaivik srot bheetar bhi paae jaate hain kyonki gas aur vaayujanit tatv hote hain. paalatoo jaanavar (Pet) roosi, logon ki sookshm tvacha aur baalon se dhool, (mite) bistar, furniture aur kamre ke frsh par bichhe kaaleen se enjaaim aur maikro meter -aakaar ke fekal beet utpann hote hain, rahavaasi methane (methane) utsarjit karte hain, deevaaron mein fafoond jam jaati hai (mold) jo chhidron mein maayakotauksin (mycotoxins) banti hai, vaataanukoolan yantron (air conditioning) se legineriyes rog (Legionnaires' disease) aur fafoond ho sakti hai aur ghareloo paudhon (houseplant) se aur aaspaas ke bageechon (gardens) se dhool (pollen), fafoond aur Parag utpann ho sakta hai. bheetar hava ke pravaah ki kami ke kaaran ye vaayujanit pradooshak usase kaheen adhik jama ho jaate hain jitne ve saamaanya sthiti mein prakruti mein rahate hain.

svaasthya prabhaav

MOPITT satellite computer image of carbon monoxide in March 2010.

vishv svaasthya sangathan ke anusaar har saal 2-4 lakh logon ki maut ka kaaran seedhe seedhe vaayu pradooshan hai jabki iname se 1-5 lakh log aatanrik vaayu pradooshan se maare jaate hain (indoor air pollution).[3]Birmingham vishvavidyaalaya (University of Birmingham) ka ek adhyayan dikhaata hai ki nimoniya (pneumonia) se hone waali mautein aur motor gaadi se hone vaale vaayu pradooshan se hone waali mauton mein pakka sambandh hai. [11] duniya bhar mein har saal motor gaadi (automobile) se hone waali mauton ki tulana mein vaayu pradooshan se hone waali mautein adhik hai. 2005 mein prakaashit yeh bataata hai ki har saal 310,000 yooropiyn vaayu pradooshan se mar jaate hain. vaayu pradushan ke pratyaksh kaaran se judi mauton mein shaamil hai asthama (asthma), bronkaaitis (bronchitis), vaatasfeeti (emphysema), fefadon aur hrudaya rog aur saans ki elarji.US EPA (US EPA) ka aakalan hai ki diesel engine ki takaneek mein (ek prastaavit parivartan) America mein har saal 12,000 asamaya mauton, 15,000 asamaya hadaya aaghaat, asthama se peedit 6,000 (heart attack) bachchon ki asamaya peeda (emergency room), 8900 shvaas rog se peedit logon ko (asthma) davaakhaane mein bharati hone se rok sakta hai.

Bhaarat mein sabse bhayankar naagrik pradooshan aapada 1984 mein Bhopal aapada thi (Bhopal Disaster).[12]sanyukt raajya amareeka ki union kaarbaaid factory kaarkhaane se risne waali audyogik vaashp se 2000 se adhik log maare gaye aur 150,000 se 600,000 doosare log ghaayal ho gaye jinme se 6,000 log baad mein maare gaye. England ko apna sabse bura nuksaan jab hua tab 4 December 1952 (Great Smog of 1952) ko landan mein bhaari dhoom kohara ki ghatna hui. chhah din mein 4000 se adhik log maare gaye aur baad ke maheenon ke bheetar 8000 aur logon ki mrutyu ho gayi. 1979 mein poorv soviyt sangh mein svardarlovsk (anthrax) ke paas ek (biological warfare) jaivik yuddh kaarkhaane se anthraaks (USSR) ke risaav se yeh (Sverdlovsk) maana jaata hai ko saikadon logon ki mrutyu ho gayi. America mein vaayu pradooshan ki sabse bheeshan ghatna donora, penasilveniya (Donora, Pennsylvania) mein 1948 ke October ke antim dinon mein hui jisme 20 log mare gaye aur 7,000 log ghaayal ho gaye[13].

vaayu pradooshan se hone vaale svasthya prabhaav jaivik rasaayan aur shaareerik parivartan se lekar shvaas mein pareshaani, gharagharaahat, khaansi aur vidyamaan shvaas tatha hrudaya ki pareshaani ho sakti hai. in prabhaavon ka parinaam davaaon ke upayog mein vruddhi hoti hai, chikitsak ke paas ya aapaatkaaleen kaksh mein jyaada jaana, jyaada aspataal mein bharati hona aur asaamayik mrutyu ke roop mein aata hai. vaayu ki khraab gunavatta ke prabhaav dooragaami hai parantu yeh saiddhaantik roop se shareer ki shvaas pranaali aur hradaya vyavastha ko prabhaavit karta hai. vaayu pradushan ki vyaktigat pratikriya us pradooshak par, usaki maatra par, vyakti ke svaasthaya ki sthiti aur anuvaanshiki par nirbhar karti hai jisse vah vyakti sampark mein rahata hai.

puteeya tantumayata par prabhaav

Washington vishvavidyaalaya dvaara 1999 se 2000 ke beech kiye ek adhyayan ke anusaar (University of Washington) sookshm vaataavaran, vaayu pradooshan mein rahane vaale mareejon ko fefadon ke sankraman ka jokhim adhik hai.[14]vishisht pradooshak eruginosa ya bi sipesiya aur iske saath iski saamaajik aarthik sthiti ke liye inki maatra ke adhyayan ke poorv rogiyon ki jaaainch ki gayi thi. bhaag lene vaale pratibhaagi sanyukt raajya America ke hokar ek paryaavaran suraksha agency ke nikat sampark mein the (Environmental Protection Agency). adhyayan ke dauraan 117 mautein vaayu pradooshan se sambandhit thi. ek pravrutti yeh dekhi gayi ki bade mahaanagaron mein rahane vaale rogi jinhein chikitsa sahaayata aasaani se upalabdh hai, bhi bade shaharon mein hone vaale atyadhik utsarjan ke kaaran pradooshakon ke uchch star se peedit the. sistik fibrosis ke mareejon mein jo pehle se hi fefadon ke sankraman se peedit hain, mein motor gaadi, tambaakhoo ke dhoomrapaan aur bheetari ooshma upakaranon ke anuchit istemaal se hone vaale utsarjan se fefadon ke kaaryon mein kami aa sakti hai.[15]

COPD par prabhaav

fefade mein lagaataar rukaavat ki beemaari (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)(COPD) mein shaamil hain chirkaalik braunkaaitis (chronic bronchitis), vaatasfeeti (emphysema) aur kuchh prakaar ke asthama jaise rog. (asthma).[16]1952 ki vikraal dhoom kohara (Great Smog of 1952) ke dauraan haulaind aur reed, do shodhakartaaon ne landan ke 293 purush daak karmachaari tatha graameen kshetr ke 488 purush daak karmachaari par ek shodh kaarya sampann kiya. shahari karmachaariyon mein FEV1 pradooshak ki maatra mahatvapoorn tareeke se kam thi haalaaainki unke fefadon ki kshamata car ke dhueain aur dhoomrapaan jaise shahari pradooshan ki vajah se kam pai gayi.[17] yeh maana jaata hai ki shahari ilaakon mein rahane se puteeya tantumayata (cystic fibrosis), jaise gambhir svaasthya jokhim jyaada dekhne mein aate hain. adhyayan bataate hain ki shahari kshetron mein mareej balagam ki adhikta, fefadon ki kshamata kam hona aur gambhir khaansi tatha vaatasfeeti .[18] se adhik peedit rahate hain.

bachchon par prabhaav

duniya bhar ke atyadhik vaayu pradooshan vaale shaharon mein aisi sambhaavana hai ki unamein rahane vaale bachchon mein kam janm dar ke atirikt asthama (asthma), nimoniya (pneumonia) aur doosari shvaas sambandhi pareshaaniyaaain viksit ho sakti hain. yuvaaon ke svaasthya ke prati suraksha upaayon ko sunishchit karne ke liye nai Delhi, Bhaarat (New Delhi, India) jaise shaharon mein basein ab sanpeedit praakrutik gas ka upayog praarambh kiya gaya hai.[19][[vishv svaasthya sangathan]who] dvaara kiye gaye anusandhaan bataate hain ki kam aarthik sansaadhan vaale deshon mein jahaaain sookshm tatvon ki maatra bahut jyaada hai, bahut jyaada gareebi hai aur janasankhya ki uchch dar hai. in deshon ke udaaharan mein shaamil hain misr, soodaan, mangoliya aur Indonesia.svachh vaayu adhiniyam (Clean Air Act) 1970 mein paarit kiya gaya tha, lekin 2002 mein kam se kam 146 million ameriki aise kshetron mein rahate the jo 1997 ke raashtreeya parivesh vaayu gunavatta maanakon mein se ek "pradooshak maanadand" ko bhi poora naheen karte the.[20] un pradooshakon mein shaamil hain, ojon, sookshm tatv, salfar daaioksaaid, naaitrojan daaioksaaid, kaarban monooksaaid aur seesa kyonki bachche jyaadaatar samay baahar gujaarte hain isliye ve vaayu pradooshan ke khataron ke prati adhik samvedansheel hai.

katauti ke prayaas

vaayu pradooshan ko kam karne ke liye vibhinn pradooshan niyantran takaneek tatha shahari yojana (urban planning) rananeeti upalabdh hai.

motor gaadi se hone vaale pradooshan ko kam karne ke liye kiye jaane vaale prayaason mein shaamil hai praathamik niyaamak (anek deshon mein anumat niyaamak hain), nae sroton ke liye vistaar niyaamak (jaise krooj (cruise) aur parivhan jahaaj, krushi upakaran aur gas se chalne vaale chhote upakaran jaise laan trimr, cheinsa (chainsaw) aur snomobaail (snowmobiles)) badi hui indhan kshamata (jaise sankar vaahan (hybrid vehicle) ka istemaal, svash indhan mein roopaantaran (jaise bayoethnol (bioethanol), baayodeejal ya vidyut gaadiyon mein roopaantaran)

niyantran upakaran

udyog ya parivhan upakaranon ke antargat saamaanyat: pradooshan niyantran upakaranon ke roop mein nimnalikhit madon ka prayog kiya jaata hai. ve ya to dooshanakaari tatv ko nasht kar sakte hain ya inhein vaataavaran mein utsarjit karne ke pehle ek nikaas streem se hata diya jaata hai.

vidhik niyam

kairo mein dhoom kohara

saamaanya taur par, vaayu gunavatta maanak do tarah ke hote hain. maanakon ki pratham shreni (jaise American raashtreeya parivesh vaayu gunavatta maanak (National Ambient Air Quality Standards)) vishisht pradooshakon ke liye adhiktam saandrata nirdhaarit karta hai.) paryaavaran agencyan niyam adhiniymit karti hai jinse apeksha hoti hai ki inse lakshit star praapt honge. doosari shreni (jaise ki uttar America ka vaayu gunavatta soochakaank (Air Quality Index)) jo vibhinn seemaaon ke saath ek paimaane ka roop le leta hai jise janta ko baahari gatividhi se sambaddh jokhimon se avagat karaane ke liya upayog mein laaya jaata hai. yeh paimaana vibhinn pradooshakon ke beech bhed kar bhi sakta hai aur naheen bhi kar sakta hai.

Canada

Canada mein aamtaur par hava ki gunavatta ka moolyaankan, paryaavaran ke liye jimmedaar praanteeya aur kshetreeya mantri, sangh ka ek antar sarkaari nikaaya, Canada ke paryaavaran mantriyon ki parishad (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment)(CCME) dvaara nirdhaarit maanakon ke anusaar kiya jaata hai. CCME ne Canada ko (Canada Wide Standards)(CWS) maanakon ke tahat rakha hai.[21][22] ye hain :

  • CWS ke liye PM2.5 = 30 μaag/m3 (24 ghanta ausat samay, varsh 2010 tak,98 pratishat parivesh ki vaarshik maap par aadhaarit,3 lagaataar saalon se adhik ausat)
  • CWS ke liye ojon = 65 ppb varsh (8 ghante ki ausat samay, varsh 2010 tak upalabdhi saalaana 4 sarvochch maap, ausat 3 se adhik saalon par aadhaarit hai.

dhyaan rakhein ki, in maanakon ko praapt na karne ka Canada mein koi mahatva naheen hai. iske alaava ye keval 100000 se adhik ki janasankhya vaale sthaanon par laagoo hote hain iske alaava raajya aur kshetr seeseeem E dvaara tay kiye maanakon se adhik kade maanak tay kar sakti hain

Europeeya sangh

kuchh vaayumandaleeya pradooshak raashtreeya utsarjan seema (NEC) ke liye 2001/81/EC (NECD) ke nirdeshon se niyamit hote hain.[23]N E si di ke sansodhan se jude taiyaari kaarya ke hisse,Europeeya aayog (European Commission)NECPI kaarya samooh se sahaayata (raashtreeya emishn seeling se -- neeti upakaran)[24]

United kingadam

Britain ke paryaavaran, khaadya aur graameen maamalon ke (DEFRA) vibhaag (UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) se tay vaayu gunavatta lakshya jyaadaatar sthaaneeya sarkaar ke pratinidhiyon par keindrit hai jo shaharon mein vaayu gunavatta prabandhan ke liye jimmedaar hai jahaaain vaayu gunavatta prabandhan sabse aavashyak haibriten ne ek hava ki gunavatta ka network sthaapit kiya hai jaha mukhya pradooshak[25] ke star nigraani kendron dvaara prakaashit hain[26]Oxford (Oxford), baath (Bath) aur landan[27] mein vaayu ki gunavatta khaaskar kharaab hai. kailar gas company (Calor Gas company) dvaara prardashit aur gaarjiyn samaachaar patra (the Guardian newspaper) mein prakaashit ek vivaadaaspad adhyayan[28] ne Oxford (Oxford) mein ek ausat din chalne ko 60 jalati hui cigarette peene ke baraabar maana hai.

aur adhik sateek tulana Britain ke vaayu gunavatta puraalekh se ekatr ki ja sakti hai[29] jo upayogakarta ko nagar pradooshak prabandhan mein raashtreeya vaayu gunavatta lakshyon ke khilaaf[30] 2000 mein DEFRA ke dvaara tay.


sthaaneeyakrut sheersh moolya praay: dekhe jaate hain par ausat moolya bhi maanaveeya svaasthya ke liye jaroori hain Britain ka raashtreeya vaayu gunavatta puraalekh Britain ke anek shaharon aur kasbon ke liye "vartamaan adhiktam "vaayu pradooshan maapan ke vaastavik samay ki jaaainch ka prastaav deta hai.[31] yeh srot ek vyaapak shreni ke nirantar adyatan data pradaan karta hai jinmein shaamil hain

  • ausat ojon ghanta (g μ / m³)
  • ghanta ausat daaioksaaid naaitrojan (g μ / m³)
  • adhiktam 15 minute ausat salfar daaioksaaid (g μ / m³)
  • 8 ghante ki ausat kaarban monooksaaid (mileegraam / m³)
  • 24 ghante ki ausat PM10 (g μ / m³ Grav Equiv)

DEFRA bataata hai ki vaayu pradooshan ka svaasthya par ek mahatvapoorn prabhaav hai aur saral soochakaank bainding[32] ko dainik chetaavani pranaali ke upayog ke liye banaaya hai jo BBC dvaara mausam seva ko vaayu pradooshan ke star[33] ke liye jaari kiya gaya hai deei ऍf aar ai ne shvasan aur hrudaya rog se peedit logon ke liye disha nirdesh prakaashit kiya hai[34]

sanyukt raajya America

grifith vedhashaala (Griffith Observatory) ko Hollywood ki pahaadiyon (Hollywood Hills) se

neeche dekhne par saamane ki pahaadi ke maidaan mein dopahar

ke baad vaayu pradooshan saaf saaf los anjels mein dikhta hai.

1960, 70 aur 90 mein sanyukt raajya America ki Congress (United States Congress) ne saaf vaayu adhiniyam (Clean Air Act) ki shrunkhala ko paarit kiya jisne vaayu pradooshan ke niyam ko majaboot kiya vyaktigat ameriki raajyon, kuchh Europeeya deshon aur Europeeya sangh ne in pahal ka paalan kiya svachh vaayu adhiniyam seema sankhyaatmak hava pradooshak ke buniyaadi samooh ke set ko nishchit karta hai aur reporting aur pravartan tantr ko pradaan karta hai

1999 mein sanyukt raajya America EPA (EPA) ne vaayu gunavatta soochakaank (AQI) (Air Quality Index) ke saath pradooshan ke maanak soochakaank (PSI) ko nae PM2.5 aur ojon maanakon se badal diya

in kaanoonon ka prabhaav bahut hi sakaaraatmak kiya gaya hai. 1970 se 2006 ke beech sanyukt raajya America mein naagrikon ko pradooshan ke utsarjan[35]ko kam karne se maja aaya

  • kaarban monooksaaid utsarjan 197 lakh tan se girkar 89 million tan ho gaya
  • naaitrojan oksaaid utsarjan 27 lakh tan se girkar 19 million tan ho gaya
  • salfar daaioksaaid utsarjan 31 million tan se girkar 15 million tan ho gaya
  • sookshm utsarjan 80 % tak gir gaya
  • seesa utsarjan 98 % se adhik gir gaya

October 2006 mein EPA (EPA) ko bheje ek patra mein, agency ke svatantr vaigyaanik salaahakaar ne chetaavani di ki ojon dhundh maanak "kaafi kam karne ki jaroorat hai" aur vartamaan kamjor maanak banaae rakhane ke "vaigyaanik auchitya naheen hai". vaigyaaniko ne saboot ke gahere poorn pareekshan ke pashchaat ekamat hokar yeh sujhaav diya ki dhund aur dhueain ki seema 60 se 70 peepeebi honi chaahiye.[36]

EPA (EPA) ne June 2007 mein 75 peepeebi ka naya seema prastaavit kiya yeh vaigyaanik sifaarish se kam hai lekin maujooda star mein sudhaar hai

pradooshanakaari udyogon ki pairokaari (kamjor) maanakon ko chaaloo rakhane ke liye prayaasarat hai paryaavaranavid aur lok svaasthya salaahakaar vaigyaanik sifaarishon ke anupaalan samarthan ke liye jute hue hain.

raashtreeya parivesh vaayu gunavatta maanak (National Ambient Air Quality Standards) pradooshan ke thresahold hote hain jo raajya aur sthaaneeya sarkaaron dvaara chalaaye gaye upachaar yojanaaon ko ep ke adheen laagoo karne ke liye dabaav daalati hai

maanav nirmit salfet, dhundh, audyogik dhuaaain, kaarban aur naaitrets ke dhool bhare udagaar prashaant mahaasaagar ko jalavaayu ko tej havaaon se Asiaee arthavyavasthaaon ko badalate hain loss enjils aursen Francisco (San Francisco) par lagbhag ek tihaai se adhik hava ka Asia mein seedhe pata lagaaya ja sakta haikaale kaarban sookshm pradooshan jo pashchim tat (West Coast)[37]par teen chauthaai kaale hisse se aata hai

saankhyiki

sabse pradooshit nagar

vishv ke adhikaansh pradooshit shaharon ko pradhaanamantri dvaara[38]
sookshm (Particulate)
padaarth
μaag/m³ (2004)
nagar
169 kaahira, misr (Cairo, Egypt)
sanrekhan = kendra 150 Delhi, Bhaarat
128 Kolkata, Bhaarat (Calcutta)
125 tiaanajin, cheen
123 choongacheeng, cheen (Chongqing, China)
109 Kanpur, Bhaarat
sanrekhan = kendra 109 Lucknow, Bhaarat
104 Jakarta, Indonesia
101 shenayaang, cheen (Shenyang, China)

vaayu pradooshan aamtaur par mahaanagareeya kshetr ghani aabaadi mein, vishesh roop se vikaasasheel deshon mein keindrit hai jahaaain paryaavaran ke niyam kamjor hain yahaan tak ki viksit deshon ki aabaadi vaale kshetron mein pradooshan ka star asvasth hai

kaarban daaioksaaid ke utsarjan

kul CO2 utsarjan

10 tan CO2 prati varsh :[39]

  • sanyukt raajya America : 2.790
  • cheen : 2.680
  • roos : 661
  • Bhaarat : 583
  • Japan : 400
  • Germany : 356
  • Australia : 226
  • dakshin Africa : 222
  • United kingadam : 212
  • dakshin Korea : 185
prati vyakti CO2 utsarjan

CO2 tan prati varsh prati vyakti :[39]

  • Australia : 10
  • sanyukt raajya America : 8,2
  • United kingadam : 3,2
  • cheen : 1,8
  • Bhaarat : 0, 5

vaayumandaleeya prakeernan

vaayu pradooshan ka vishleshan ke liye mool praudyogiki ganiteeya model ke prayog se nichle hisse pradooshak hava ke parivhan ke liye ki bhavishyavaani ka prayog is tareeke mein mukhya siddhaant hain:

kisi tvaranasheel gaaoosi vaayu pradooshan prakeernan chinh ke drushyeekaran ka upayog vaayumandaleeya prakeernan model ke roop mein kiya jaata hai

bindu shrut samasya sarvashreshth samjha jaata hai kyonki isame saral ganit ke adhyayan ko ek lambi avadhi ke samay ko shaamil kiya gaya hai vaapas deting ke baare mein varsh 1900 hai yeh gaaoosi (Gaussian) prakeernan ke liye model ke liye vaayu pradooshan ki bhavishyavaani ke liye bhavishyavaani (isopleths) pavan veg ke saath vichaar karne ko diya hai (ek upaaya ke vaayumandaleeya astavyastata (turbulence)).[40][41]is namoone ko vyaapak roop se maanya kiya gaya hai aur sabhi prakaar ke parivesheeya sthitiyon ke liye praayogik deta ke saath samaayojit kiya gaya hai.

sadak vaayumandaleeya prakeernan model (roadway air dispersion model)raashtreeya paryaavaran neeti adhiniyam (National Environmental Policy Act) aur America ke parivhan vibhaag (U.S. Department of Transportation) ki jaroorat ke liye 1950 ke ant mein aur 1960 ke shuroo mein viksit hua (tab raajamaarg sangheeya prashaasan ke naam se jaana gaya) raajamaargon par nai hava ki gunavatta, vishesh roop se shahari kshetron mein haikai anusandhaan samooh namoone vikaas mein sakriya rahe, jinmein se kuchh nimn the: leksingatan, maisaachyuets (Lexington, Massachusetts) ka envaayaranameintal research end technology (ERT) group, saneevel, kailifaurniya (Sunnyvale, California) ka ESL ink. Inc. group aur saikraameinto, kailifaurniya (Sacramento, California) ka kailifaurniya air risaurses board (California Air Resources Board) group.E S L samooh ke shodh sanyukt raajya America paryaavaran suraksha agency (United States Environmental Protection Agency) se salfar hekjaafloraaid (sulfur hexafluoride) anurekhak gas ke roop mein maanyata ke liye badhaava deta hai yeh kaaryakram ESL inc ke dvaara viksit line srot model mein safal tha. namoone ke puraane upayogon mein se kuchh maamale adaalat mein hain jinmein highway vaayu pradooshan shaamil the arlingtan, varjeeniya varjeeniya (Arlington, Virginia) anrtaraajyeeya 66 (Interstate 66) ka bhaag new jersey ka shulk maarg (New Jersey Turnpike) poorvi bransvik, new jersey (East Brunswick, New Jersey) ke vistaarit maarg project.


iaarati ESL samooh dvaara 1971 se 1974 ke beech kshetr srot maadhyam viksit kiye gaye par inhonne kul vaayu pradooshan utsarjan ke ek chhote se hisse ka hi samaadhaan kiya, isliye inke prayog aur aavashyakta itni naheen padi jitni rekha srot model ki thi, jisne 1970 ke dashak ke shuroo mein saikadon safal anuprayog kiye. isi prakaar prakaash-rasaayanik model 1970 aur 1960 ke dashak mein viksit kiye gaye, par unhein adhik vishisht kshetreeya jarooraton ke liye upayog kiya gaya, jaise loss enjils,kaileeforniya mein andarasteinding dhundh faurmeshan.

paryaavaraneeya prabhaav

greenahaaus prabhaav ek ghatna hai jisse greenahaaus gas (greenhouse gas) oopari vaataavaran (atmosphere) par ek sthiti ka nirmaan karta hai jisse taap ko badhaakar kshobhamandal (tropospheric) taap ko kam kar sakta hai yeh is gun ke saath anya gaison{ (other gases) sabse bada samagr baadhya (forcing) pruthvi par se aane vaale jal vaashp (water vapour) se saajha karta hai anya green house gaison mein shaamil hain methane (methane), haaidroflorokaarban (hydrofluorocarbon), paraflorokaarban (perfluorocarbon),kloroflorokaarban (chlorofluorocarbon), NOx (NOx) aur ojon. bahut se green house gaison, jinmein kaarban aur us se kuchh jeevaashm indhan (fossil fuel) shaamil hai

yeh prabhaav vaigyaaniko ke liye ek sadi se pata hai aur is avadhi ke dauraan praudyogiki mein vistaar aur gaharaai se sambandhit aankadon ko badhaane mein madad mili hai vartamaan mein, vaigyaanik green house gaison se praakrutik sroton ke liye enthropojenik prabhaav aur jalavaayu parivartan (climate change) ka adhyayan kar rahe hain

kai adhyayanon dvaara paryaavaraneeya kaarban daaioksaaid ke utpann hone vaale deerghagaami staron ki sambhaavana ki bhi jaaainch ki gayi hai jo samudri jal ki amleeyata mein alp vruddhi (increases in the acidity of ocean waters) aur samudreeya paryaavaran pranaali ke sambhaavit prabhaavon ka kaaran hote hain. yaddapi kaarbonik esid (carbonic acid) ek bahut hi kamjor aml hai aur iska istemaal prakaash sanshleshan ke dauraan jeevadhaari dvaara kiya jaata hai

yeh bhi dekhiye



sandarbh

  1. pradushan[1]se shuroo - paribhaasha maareeaam-vebastar online shabdakosh se
  2. vaayu pradooshan, hdaya rog evam aaghaat 5 January 2008, Amreeki hrudaya sangathan ki website se
  3. a aa anumaanit maute aur DALYs, paryaavaran ke chuninda jokhim tatvon ke kaaran, vishv svaasthya sangathan ke raajya sachiv dvaara
  4. National Research Council: Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies (2004). Air Quality Management in the United States. National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-08932-8.
  5. epi 42, bhaag 1
  6. England ke utsarjan ghatakon ke aankade
  7. http://reports.eea.eu.int/EMEPCORINAIR4/enyooropeeya paryaavaran agency 2005 utsarjan soochi maargadarshika
  8. raashtreeya greenahaaus gas soochi ke liye aaipeeseesi sanshodhit disha nirdesh 1996 (sandarbh pustika)
  9. Australiaee raashtreeya pradooshak soochi utsarjan aakalan takaneek maargadarshika[mrut kadiyaaain]
  10. Canada ki jeeechaji soochi vidhiyaan[mrut kadiyaaain]
  11. haulaind WW, reed deedi .kronik bronkaaitis ka shahari ghatak naukadaar .1965;I:445-448.
  12. Canada-mein-maanak
  13. sookshm vaataavaran (PM) aur ojon ke liya Canada mein prabhaavi maanak .
  14. Europeeya sansad ke parishad ke 2001/81/EC nirdesh aur vaayumandaleeya pradooshan ke liye 23 October 2001 ko raashtreeya utsarjan seeling par
  15. }} -->
  16. paryaavaran, ann evam graameen maamale vibhaag (DEFRA) :vaayu pradooshak
  17. LAQM vaayu gunavatta prabandhan kshetr
  18. London
  19. {http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/01292524 .00 H ti em L Oxford hava 60 dinon ke aadat }[mrut kadiyaaain](gaarjiyn (The Guardian) akhbaar mein ek lekh
  20. Britain vaayu gunavatta puraalekh
  21. Britain ke raashtreeya vaayu gunavatta uddeshya
  22. vartamaan vaayu pradooshan buletin
  23. vaayu pradooshan vistaar aur anukramanika
  24. BBC mausam seva[mrut kadiyaaain]
  25. vaayu pradooshan - aapke svaasthya ke liye iska kya matlab hai[mrut kadiyaaain]
  26. vaal street journal lekh, 23 May 2006
  27. ameriki fefade sangh 2 June 2007 [mrut kadiyaaain]
  28. vaal street journal lekh mein, 20 July 2007
  29. vishv bank ki saankhyiki
  30. a aa in aankadon ke srot vaishvik vikaas ke liye kendra (Center for Global Development) se utpann detaabes kaarban jaaainch ki kaaryavaahi hai. CARMA, bhaugolik kshetr
  31. www.crcpress.com[mrut kadiyaaain]
  32. www.air - dispersion.com

baahari sampark

vaayu ki gunavatta vigyaan aur saamaanya jaankaari


vaayu ki gunavatta modelling
maanav svaasthya par prabhaav