vaatya bhatthi

sestaao, Spain mein blaast farnes. vaastavik bhatti kendreeya girdaravark ke andar hai.

vaatya bhatthi ya blaast farnes (Blast furnace) ek prakaar ki dhaatu-vaigyaanik bhatti (metalarjikl farnes) hai jiska istemaal aam taur par lohe jaisi audyogik dhaatuon ka nirmaan karne hetu dhaatuon ko pighlaane ke liye kiya jaata hai.

vaatya bhatthi mein bhatthi ke oopar se lagaataar indhan aur ayask ki aapoorti ki jaati hai jabki chamber ke nichle tal mein hava (kabhi-kabhi okseejan ki paryaapt maatra waali hava) bhari jaati hai taaki padaarthon ke neeche ki taraf aane ke dauraan poore farnes mein raasaayanik pratikriya ho sake. antim utpaad ke roop mein aam taur par neeche ki taraf se pighli hui dhaatu aur dhaatumal tatha farnes ke oopar se dhuaan yukt gaisein niklati hain.

vaatya bhatthi ko aam taur par chimni ke nikaas maarg mein garm gaison ke sanvahan ke maadhyam se svaabhaavik roop se chooshan yukt air farneson (jaise rivrbaretari farnes) ke saath niroopit kiya jaata hai. is vyaapak paribhaasha ke anusaar lohe ki bloomari, tin ke bloing house aur seese ko galaane waali milon ko blaast farnes ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki is shabd ka istemaal aam taur par unhi kaarkhaanon tak seemit hai jahaan lauh ayask ko pighlaakar kachche lohe (pig aayaran) ka utpaadan kiya jaata hai, jo vaanijyik lauh evam ispaat ke utpaadan mein istemaal ki jaane waali ek madhyavarti saamagri hai.

anukram

itihaas

blaast farnes cheen mein lagbhag paanchaveen sadi E.poo. se aur pashchim mein uchch madhya yugeen kaal se maujood hain. pandrahaveen sadi ke antim daur mein ve vauloniya (Belgium) ke naamur ke aaspaas ke ilaakon se failate hue 1491 mein inglaind mein dikhaai dene lage. inmein indhan ke roop mein hamesha chaarakol (lakdi ka koyala) ka istemaal kiya jaata tha. 1709 mein chaarakol ki jagah kok (patthar ka koyala) ke safal upayog ka shreya vyaapak roop se Abraham daarbi ko diya jaata hai. aage chalakar 1828 mein James byoomont neelasan ke peteint waali blaast ke poorvataapan ki prakriya dvaara is prakriya ki kushalata ko aur badha diya gaya.

blaast farnes ko bloomari se is drushti se alag maana jaata hai ki, blaast farnes ka uddeshya pighli hui dhaatu ka nirmaan karna hai jise farnes se nal ke maadhyam se nikaala ja sake jabki bloomari ka uddeshya ise pighlane se bachaana hai taaki kaarban lohe mein ghul na jaae. bloomari mein bhi krutrim roop se dhaunkani ka istemaal karke hava bhari jaati hai lekin "blaast farnes" shabd aam taur par un farneson ke liye aarakshit hai jahaaain lohe (ya kisi anya dhaatu) ko ayask se parishkrut kiya jaata hai.

cheen

panachakkiyon dvaara sanchaalit farnes ka ek udaaharan; naung shoo se, cheen ke yuaan raajavansh ke dauraan vaang jen, 1313 E., ke dvaara.

sabse puraane prachalit blaast farneson ka nirmaan pehli sadi E.poo. mein cheen ke haan raajavansh mein hua tha. haalaanki paanchaveen sadi E.poo. tak cheen mein kaafi had tak Caste aayaran (dhalava loha) se bane kheti ke aujaaron aur hathiyaaron ka istemaal kiya jaata tha[1] jabki teesari sadi E.poo. mein lohe ko galaane vaale upakaran ko chalaane ke liye do sau se jyaada logon ke ek ausat kaaryabal ki jaroorat padi.[1] in praarambhik bhattiyon ki deevaarein mitti ki bani hoti theen aur flaks ke roop mein faasforas yukt khanij padaarthon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai.[2] cheeni blaast farnes ki prabhaavakaarita ko is avadhi ke dauraan engineer du shi (lagbhag 31 E.) ne badha diya jinhonne dhalava lohe ka nirmaan karne ke liye pistan-dhaunkani mein panachakkiyon ki shakti ka istemaal kiya.[3]

baain taraf ka chitr dhalavaan lohe se sakht lohe ke utpaadan ki prakriya ka udaaharan hai; jabki daain taraf ka chitr blaast farnes mein kaam karne vaale logon ko darshaata hai; tiaangong kaaivoo vishvakosh, 1637 se.

haalaanki kaafi lambe samay tak yahi maana jaata raha ki cheeniyon ne blaast farnes ko viksit kiya tha aur lohe ke nirmaan ki apni pehli vidhi ke roop mein dhalava lohe ka nirmaan kiya tha lekin donaald vaiganar (uparokt sandarbh adhyayan ka lekhak) ne abhi haal hi mein aaranbhik kaarya ke kuchh bayaanon ko nishprabhaavi karne wala ek patra[4] prakaashit kiya hai; nae patra mein bhi dhalava lohe ki pehli shilp krutiyon ka samay chauthi aur paanchaveen sadi E.poo. bataaya gaya hai lekin ismein aaranbhik bloomari farnes ke istemaal ka bhi saboot diya gaya hai jo paravarti longashaan sanskruti (2000 E.poo.) ke cheeni kaansya yug ke aaranbhik daur mein pashchim se aaya tha. unke anusaar aaranbhik blaast farnes aur dhalava lohe ka nirmaan kaanse ko pighlaane ke liye istemaal ki jaane waali bhattiyon se hua tha. haalaanki jaahir hai ki state of kin dvaara cheen ke ekeekaran ke dauraan sainya safalta ke liye loha jaroori tha. gyaarahaveen sadi tak song raajavansh ke samay mein cheeni lauh udyog mein lohe aur ispaat ke nirmaan mein chaarakol ki jagah bitumins koyale ke istemaal ke roop mein ek ullekhaneeya sansaadhan parivartan dekha gaya jisse hajaaron ekad wala vanapradesh nasht hone se bach gaya. aisa shaayad chauthi sadi E. mein hua hoga.[5][6]

praacheen vishv ke anya sthaan

cheen ke alaava kaheen aur blaast farnes ke istemaal ka koi (pukhta) saboot naheen hai. iski jagah bloomariyon mein pratyaksh kami (direct reduction) karke lohe ka nirmaan kiya jaata tha. blaast farnes ke roop mein inka varnan uchit naheen hai, haalaanki unhein sambodhit karne mein kabhi-kabhi galati se is shabd ka istemaal kar diya jaata hai.

Europe mein yoonaani, selt, roman aur kaarthejiniyn sabhi isi prakriya ka istemaal karte the. fraans mein aise kai udaaharan aur Tunisia mein aise kai padaarth mile hain jinse pata chalta hai ki helenistik yug mein enteeok ke saath-saath vahaan bhi inka istemaal hota tha. andh yug mein iske istemaal ke baare mein bahut kam jaankaari hone ke baavajood shaayad us yug mein bhi is prakriya ka istemaal kiya jaata tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] isi tarah pashchim Africa mein bloomari jaisi bhattiyon mein dhaatu ko galaane aur aujaaron ka dhalaai ka kaam 500 E.poo. tak Africa ki nok sanskruti mein dikhaai deti hai.[7] poorv Africa mein bloomari jaisi bhattiyon ke aaranbhik record nyoobiya aur eksam mein gale hue lohe aur kaarban ki khoj hain jinki samayaavadhi 1,000 aur 500 E.poo. ke beech ka samay hai.[8][9] kaha jaata hai ki khaas taur par meru mein praacheen kaal mein blaast farnes the jinse nyoobiyaavaasiyon/kushiton ke dhaatu ke aujaaron ka nirmaan hota tha aur unki arthavyavastha ke liye adhishesh ka nirmaan hota tha.

madhyakaaleen Europe

aathaveen sadi mein Spain ke kaitaaloniya mein ek behtar bloomari ka avishkaar kiya gaya tha jise kaitalan forj naam diya gaya tha. praakrutik hava ke jhonke ka istemaal karne ke bajaay dhaunkaniyon ke maadhyam se hava bhari jaati thi jiske parinaamasvaroop behtar gunavatta vaale lohe ka nirmaan hota tha aur usaki utpaadan kshamata bhi badh gayi thi. dhaunkaniyon ki sahaayata se hava bharne ke kaam ko kold blaast ke naam se jaana jaata hai aur isse bloomari ki indhan kshamata ke saath-saath utpaadan kshamata mein bhi vruddhi hoti hai. kaitalan forj ko praakrutik praaroop vaale bloomariyon se bhi bada banaaya ja sakta hai.

aadhunik prayogaatmak puraatatv vidya aur itihaas ke pun:adhiniym se pata chala hai ki kaitalan forj aur vaastavik blaast farnes mein sirf ek chhota sa antar hai jahaaain lohe ko drav charan mein dhalava lohe ke roop mein praapt kiya jaata hai. aam taur par lohe ko taral roop mein praapt karna vaastav mein avaanchhit hai aur taapamaan ko jaanboojhkar lohe ke galanaank bindu se neeche rakha jaata hai kyonki thos bloom ko hataane ke kaam yaantrik roop se thakaaoo hone aur iske liye nirantar prakriya ke bajaay batch prakriya ki jaroorat padne ke baavajood yeh lagbhag shuddh loha hota hai aur is par turant kaam kiya ja sakta hai. doosari or, dhalava loha kaarban aur lohe ka galanakraantik mishran hai aur isse ispaat ya gadha hua loha banaane ke liye ise kaarbanamukt karna padta hai jo madhya yug mein bahut jyaada thakaaoo kaam tha.

pashchim ke sabse puraane jaane maane blaast farneson ko Switzerland ke darsatel mein, Germany ke maarkish saueralaind mein aur sveedan ke laipafaaitan mein banaaya jaata tha jahaaain yeh complex 1150 aur 1350 ke beech sakriya tha.[10] jarnaboaas naamak sveedish County ke noraaskog mein bhi usase bhi pehle shaayad 1100 ke aaspaas blaast farneson ke hone ke nishaan mile hain.[11] cheeni bhattiyon ki tarah ye aaranbhik blaast farnes bhi aajkal istemaal hone vaale blaast farneson ki tulana mein bahut aksham the. laipafaaitan complex ke lohe ka istemaal dhale hue lohe ke gole banaane ke liye kiya jaata tha jinhein osmond ke naam se jaana jaata tha aur inka vyaapaar antarraashtreeya star par hota tha jiska ek sambhaavit sandarbh 1203 se novagorod ki sandhi mein aur aise kai sandarbh 1250 ke dashak se 1320 ke dashak tak ki angreji rivaajon ke vivran mein milte hain. terahaveen se pandrahaveen sadi ki anya bhattiyon ke nishaan vestafaaliya mein mile hain.[12]

kuchh takaneeki gyaan ki unnati ko sistarasiyn bhikshuon ke saamaanya adhyaaya ke parinaam ke roop mein sanchaarit kiya jaata tha. ismein blaast farnes shaamil ho sakta hai kyonki sistarasiyn kushal dhaatu vijnyaaaniyon ke roop mein mashahoor hain.[13] jeen gimpel ke anusaar unki uchch stareeya audyogik praudyogiki ne nai takaneekon ke prasaar mein madad ki: "har math mein ek model factory thi jo aksar church ki tarah bade aur kuchh feet ki doori par sthit hote the aur iske farsh par sthit vibhinn udyogon ki machinery ko jal shakti se chalaaya jaata tha." loha nikaalne ke liye forj ke saath-saath bhikshuon ko daan ke roop mein aksar lauh ayask bhi diya jaata tha aur atirikt samay ke bheetar unhein bechne ke liye pesh kar diya jaata tha. sistarasiyn terahaveen sadi ke madhya se satrahaveen sadi[14] tak fraans ke shaimpen mein agrani lauh utpaadak ban gaye jo ek krushi urvarak ke roop mein apni bhattiyon se nikalne vaale fausfet yukt dhaatumal ka bhi istemaal karte the.[15]

puraatatvavid abhi bhi sistarasiyn praudyogiki ke vistaar ki khoj mein lage hue hain.[16] rivaulks ebbi ke ek aautasteshan aur Britain mein ab tak pehchaan ki gayi ekamaatr madhyayugeen blaast farnes laaskil mein utpann dhaatumal mein lohe ka parimaan kam tha.[17] us samay ki anya bhattiyon se nikalne vaale dhaatumal (laava) mein kaafi parimaan mein loha paaya jaata tha jabki aisa maana jaata hai ki laaskil mein kaafi kushalataapoorvak dhalava lohe ka nirmaan kiya jaata hoga.[17][18][19] haalaanki iski samayaavadhi abhi tak spasht naheen hai lekin sanbhavat: 1530 ke dashak ke antim daur mein henari ashtam dvaara mathon ke vightan tak iska vajood naheen raha hoga kyonki 1541 mein rootalaind ke arl ke saath "smaaiths" se sambandhit ek samjhaute (theek uske baad) mein bloom ka jikr hai.[20] fir bhi jin maadhyamon se madhyayugeen Europe mein blaast farnes ka prasaar hua tha un maadhyamon ko abhi tak nirdhaarit naheen kiya ja saka hai.

aaranbhik aadhunik blaast farnes: utpatti aur prasaar

France aur England mein istemaal ki jaane waali in bhattiyon ke pratyaksh poorvaj naamur kshetr mein the jahaan ab vauloniya (Belgium) hai. vahaan se unka prasaar sabse pehle normandi ki poorvi seema par pace di bre mein hua aur vahaan se saseks ke veeld mein hua jahaaain baksated ki sabse pehli bhatti (jise kveenastauk kaha jaata tha) ka nirmaan lagbhag 1491 mein hua tha jiske baad 1496 mein aishadaaun faurest ke nyoobrij mein ek aur bhatti ka nirmaan hua tha. lagbhag 1530 tak unki sankhya kam thi lekin agale dashakon mein veeld mein kai bhattiyon ka nirmaan kiya gaya jahaaain lauh udyog lagbhag 1590 tak apni charam seema par pahuainch gaya tha. in bhattiyon se jyaadaatar dhalava lohe ko lohe ki patti (baar aayaran) ke nirmaan ke liye faainari forj mein le jaaya jaata tha.[21]

veeld ke baahar pehli british bhattiyaan 1550 ke dashak mein dikhaai dene lagi aur us sadi ki shesh avadhi aur agale dashakon mein kai aur bhattiyon ka nirmaan kiya gaya. udyog ka utpaadan shaayad 1620 mein apni charam seema par pahuainch gaya aur uske baad athaarahaveen sadi ke aarambh tak ismein thodi si giraavat dekhi gayi. iska spasht kaaran yeh tha ki kuchh adhik doorasth british sthaanon mein lohe ka nirmaan karne ki tulana mein sveedan evam kaheen aur se loha mangaana adhik sasta padta tha. udyog ke liye kam laagat par upalabdh chaarakol ki khapat shaayad utani hi teji se ho rahi thi jitni teji se ped badhte the.[22] 1711 mein kumbriya mein nirmit baikabairo blaast farnes ko pratham kushal udaaharan ke roop mein varnit kiya jaata hai.[kaun?]

roos mein sabse pehle blaast farnes ko tula ke paas 1637 mein khola gaya tha aur use gorodishch varks kaha jaata tha. yahaaain se blaast farnes ka prasaar madhya roos mein aur uske baad ant mein yooraals tak hua.[23]

bunyoro saamraajya aur nyoro logon jaise dhaatu kaarya karne waali kuchh bantoo sabhyataaon ke saath madhyayugeen pashchim Africa mein nirmit blaast farnes ki bhi khoj aur darj ki gayi hai.[24]

19veen sadi ke blaast farnes aur anya lauh nirmaan prakriyaaon ka niroopan

kok blaast farnes

1709 mein inglaind ke shropashaayar ke kolabrukadel mein Abraham daarbi ne blaast farnes mein indhan ke roop mein chaarakol ke bajaay kok ka istemaal karna shuroo kiya. kok lohe ka istemaal shuroo mein dhalaai ke kaam ke liye, bartan banaane aur dhalava lohe ke anya saamaanon ka nirmaan karne ke liye kiya jaata tha. dhalaai ka kaam is udyog ki ek maamooli shaakha thi lekin daarbi ke bete ne niktavarti haursahe mein ek nai bhatti ka nirmaan kiya aur faainari forj ke maalikon ko baar lohe ka nirmaan karne ke liye kok pig lohe ki aapoorti karne lage. is samay tak kok pig lohe ka nirmaan karna chaarakol pig lohe ki tulana mein adhik sasta tha. lauh udyog mein koyale se praapt indhan ka istemaal british audyogik kraanti ka pramukh kaarak tha.[25][26][27] daarbi ke puraane blaast farnes ki puraataatvik khudaai ki gayi hai aur ise aayaranabrij gorj myoojiym ke ek hisse kolabrukadel mein yathaavat dekha ja sakta hai. farnes se utpann Caste lohe ka istemaal 1779 mein duniya ki sabse pehli lohe ki pul ki dharani ka nirmaan karne ke liye kiya gaya tha. lohe ki yeh pul kolabrukadel mein sevarn nadi par sthit hai aur aaj bhi is par paidalayaatriyon ka aana-jaana laga rahata hai.

ek aur mahatvapoorn vikaas haut blaast ka badlaav tha jise 1828 mein Scotland ke vilsanataaun aayaranavarks ke James byoomont neelasan ne peteint karavaaya tha. isse utpaadan laagat aur kam ho gayi. kuchh dashakon ke bheetar bhatti jitni badi "stov" ke istemaal ki prakriya chaaloo hui jise iske aage sthaapit kiya jaata tha jismein bhatti ki apashisht gas (kaarban yukt) ko pravaahit karke jalaaya jaata tha. iske parinaamasvaroop utpann garmi ka istemaal bhatti mein bhar hui hava ko pehle se garm karne ke liye kiya jaata tha.[28]

ek aur atirikt mahatvapoorn vikaas blaast farnes mein kachche enthraasaait koyale ka istemaal tha jiska sabse pehla safal prayaas 1837 mein south vels ke naaiseedaveen aayaranavarks mein George kren dvaara kiya gaya tha.[29] ise 1839 mein peinsilveniya ke kaitaasaukuaa ki lehaai kren aayaran company dvaara America mein laaya gaya tha.

aadhunik bhattiyaan

blaast farnes aadhunik lauh utpaadan ka ek mahatvapoorn hissa bana hua hai. aadhunik bhattiyaan bahut jyaada kushal hoti hain jinmein blaast hava ko pehle se garm karne ke liye kaaupar stov bhi shaamil hai aur bhatti se nikalne waali garm gaison se garmi praapt karne ke liye ismein rikvari system lagi hoti hain. udyog ki pratiyogita ke falasvaroop atyadhik utpaadan ko bal milta hai. sabse badi blaast bhattiyon ka aayatan lagbhag 5580 ghan mi (m3) (190,000 ghan foot)[30] hota hai aur lauh utpaadan kshamata lagbhag 88,000 tan (88,000 short tan) prati saptaah hoti hai.

yeh athaarahaveen sadi ki praaroopik bhattiyon ki ek bahut badi vruddhi hai jinki ausat lauh utpaadan kshamata lagbhag 360 tan (400 short tan) prati varsh thi. blaast bhattiyon ke bhinn roopon jaise sveedish ilektrik blaast farnes, ko un deshon mein viksit kiya gaya hai jahaan koi svadeshi koyala sansaadhan naheen hai.

aadhunik prakriya

instaaleshana1 mein rakha gaya blaast farnes.lauh ayask + laaimaston sintara2.koka3. elivetar 4.feedastauk inaleta5.koka6 ki parat. ayask aur laaimaston 7 ke sintar pelets ki parat. haut blaast (1200 degree C ke aaspaas)8.laava 9 ka pruthakatv.pighle pig aayaran ka dohan 10.laava pauta11.pig aayaran ke liye taarapeedo car 12.thos padaarthon ke alag hone ke liye dhool chakravaat 13.haut blaast ke liye kaaupar stov 14.smok aautalet (kaarban kaipchar end storej (seeseees) tank ki disha mein moda ja sakta hai) 15: kaaupar stov ke liye hava ki aapoorti karta hai (air pre-heetars) 16.paaudarayukt koyalaa17.kok ovana18.koka19. blaast farnes gas daaunakamar
blaast farnes rekhaachitr 1.kaaupar stov se haut blaast 2.melting kshetr (bosh) 3. feras oksaaid (barrel) ka nyooneekaran kshetr 4.ferik oksaaid (dher) ka nyooneekaran kshetr 5.pre-heeting kshetr (gala)6.ayask, laaimaston aur kok ki aapoorti 7.igjaust gaisej 8.ayask, kok aur laaimaston ka column 9.laava ka pruthakatv 10.pighle pig aayaran ka dohan 11.apashisht gaison ka sangrah

aadhunik bhattiyaan kaaryakushalata ko badhaane waali sahaayak suvidhaaon ki ek vyooh rachana jaise ayask bhandaaran yaard se susajjit hain jahaaain baarjon ko khaali kiya jaata hai. kachche maal ko ayask pulon ya rel hoparon aur ayask sthaanaantaran kaaron ki sahaayata se staukahaaus complex mein sthaanaantarit kiya jaata hai. rel-maaunted skel car ya computer niyantrit vet hopar vaanchhit garm dhaatu aur dhaatumal rasaayan ka nirmaan karne ke liye vibhinn kachche padaarthon ki maapataul gyaat karte hain. kachche maal ko ghirniyon ya vaahak belton dvaara chaalit ek skip car ke maadhyam se blaast farnes ke oopar le jaaya jaata hai.[31]

blaast farnes mein kachche maal ko chaarj karne ke liye kai tarah ke tareekon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. kuchh blaast farneson mein ek "double bail" pranaali ka istemaal kiya jaata hai jahaaain blaast farnes mein kachche maal ke pravesh ko niyantrit karne ke liye do "belon" ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. in donon belon ka uddeshya blaast farnes mein garm gaison ke nuksaan ko kam karna hai. sabse pehle kachche maal ko oopari ya chhoti ghanti mein khaali kiya jaata hai. uske baad adhik sahi dhang se chaarj ka vitran karne ke liye bail ko ek poorv nirdhaarit parimaan mein ghumaaya jaata hai. uske baad bade bail mein chaarj ko khaali karne ke liye chhoti bail ko khola jaata hai. uske baad blaast farnes ko band karne ke liye chhote bail ko band kar diya jaata hai jabki bada bail blaast farnes mein chaarj ko vitrit karta hai.[32][33] ek adhik haal ki design mein "bail rahit" pranaali ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. in pranaaliyon mein pratyek kachche maal ke liye ekaadhik hoparon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai jise tab vaalv ke maadhyam se blaast farnes mein mukt kar diya jaata hai.[32] milaae jaane vaale pratyek ghatak ke parimaan ko niyantrit karne mein skip ya vaahak system ki tulana mein ye vaalv adhik sahi saabit hote hain jisse farnes ki kaaryakushalata badh jaati hai. inmein se kuchh bail rahit pranaaliyon mein chaarj ko sthaapit karne ke sthaan ko theek se niyantrit karne ke liye shoot (fislani) ka istemaal bhi kiya jaata hai.[34]

loha banaane waali blaast bhatti khud durdamya inton waali ek lambi chimni jaisi sanrachana ke roop mein bani hoti hai. kok, choonaapatthar flaks aur lauh ayask (aayaran oksaaid) ko ek sateek bharan kram mein farnes ke oopari bhaag mein chaarj kiya jaata hai jisse bhatti ke bheetar gas ke pravaah aur raasaayanik pratikriya ko niyantrit karne mein madad milti hai. chaar "apatekon" (udgrahanon) se garm aur gande gas ko bhatti ke gumbad se nikalne mein madad milti hai jabki "bleedar vaalv" gas ke dabaav mein hone waali achaanak vruddhi se bhatti ke oopari bhaag ki raksha karta hai. plag-in kar dene ke baad bleedar vaalvon ko ek bleedar kleenar se saaf karna padta hai. gas mein maujood mote kon "dast kaichar" mein fans jaate hain aur nishkaasit karne ke liye unhein ek relarod car ya truck mein daal diya jaata hai jabki gas khud saaf gas ke taapamaan ko kam karne ke liye ek veinchuri skrabar aur ek gas koolar se hokar gujarati hai.[31]

bhatti ke nichle aadhe bhaag ke "kaastahaaus" mein basal pipe, tooyar aur taral lohe aur dhaatumal ki dhalaai ka upakaran hota hai. "nalachhidr" ko durdamya mitti ke plag ke maadhyam se kholne ke baad lohe aur dhaatumal ko alag karne waali ek "skimr" opening ke maadhyam se ek naand mein taral loha aur dhaatumal nikalne lagta hai. aadhunik aur badi blaast bhattiyon mein adhik se adhik chaar nalachhidr aur do kaastahaaus ho sakte hain.[31] nal ke maadhyam se kachche lohe aur dhaatumal ke nikalne ke baad nalachhidr ko fir se durdamya mitti se band kar diya jaata hai.

tooyar ka istemaal haut blaast ko kaaryaanvit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai jiska istemaal blaast bhatti ki kaaryakushalata ko badhaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. garm blaast ko aadhaar ke paas tooyar ke naam paani se thanda kiye jaane vaale taambe ki tontiyon ke maadhyam se bhatti mein le jaaya jaata hai. stov ki design aur sthiti ke aadhaar par garm blaast ka taapamaan 900 degree celcius se 1300 degree celcius (1600 degree faarenahaait se 2300 degree faarenahaait) tak ho sakta hai. unke taapamaan sahane ki kshamata 2000 degree celcius se 2300 degree celcius (3600 degree faarenahaait se 4200 degree faarenahaait) tak ho sakti hai. utpaadakata mein vruddhi karne ke liye aavashyak atirikt urja mukt karne ke liye tooyar star par bhatti mein kok ke saath tel, alakatara, praakrutik gas, paaudarayukt koyala aur okseejan daala ja sakta hai.[31]

rasaayan vidya

trinek aayaran aur steel varks ke blaast farnes

pighle hue lohe ka utpaadan karne waali mukhya raasaayanik pratikriya is prakaar hai:

Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2[35]

is pratikriya ko ekaadhik charanon mein baanta ja sakta hai jinmein se pehle charan ke roop mein bhatti mein pravaahit pehle se garm blaast hava kok ke roop mein kaarban ke saath pratikriya karti hai jiske parinaamasvaroop kaarban mono oksaaid aur garmi ka utpaadan hota hai:

2 C(s) + O2(g) → 2 CO(g)[36]

garm kaarban mono oksaaid lauh ayask ko kam karne wala kaarak hai aur yeh aayaran oksaaid ke saath pratikriya karke pighle hue lohe aur kaarban daai oksaaid ka nirmaan karta hai. bhatti ke vibhinn bhaagon ke taapamaan ke aadhaar par (nichla bhaag sabse jyaada garm hota hai) lohe ko kai charanon mein parivrtit kiya jaata hai. bhatti ke sabse oopari bhaag mein jahaaain taapamaan aam taur par 200 degree celcius aur 700 degree celcius ke beech hota hai, aayaran (III) oksaaid ko aayaran (II) aayaran (III) oksaaid, Fe3O4 mein badal diya jaata hai.

3 Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) → 2 Fe3O4(s) + CO2(g)[36]

lagbhag 850 degree celcius taapamaan par bhatti mein thoda aur neeche ki tarah aayaran (II) aayaran (III) ko aayaran (II) oksaaid mein badal diya jaata hai:

Fe3O4(s) + CO(g) → 3 FeO(s) + CO2(g)[36]

taaji bhojya saamagri ke roop mein bhatti se hokar gujarane waali hava mein maujood naaitrojan, garm kaarban daaioksaaid aur apratikriya waali kaarban monooksaaid pratikriya kshetr mein pravesh karti hai. jab ye gaisein neeche ki taraf jaati hain to pratikool-vartamaan gaisein feed chaarj ko garm karne ke saath-saath choonaapatthar ko kailshiym oksaaid aur kaarban daai oksaai mein badal deti hain:

CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)[36]

jab aayaran (II) oksaaid 1200 degree celcius tak ke uchchatar taapamaan vaale kshetr mein pravesh karti hai to yeh aage chalakar lauh dhaatu mein parint ho jaata hai:

FeO(s) + CO(g) → Fe(s) + CO2(g)[36]

is prakriya mein nirmit kaarban daai oksaaid kok ki sahaayata se fir se kaarban mono oksaaid mein parint ho jaata hai.

C(s) → CO2(g) → 2 CO(g)[36]

bhatti ke gaiseeya vaataavaran ko niyantrit karne waali mukhya pratikriya ko baudauaard pratikriya kaha jaata hai:

C + O2 → CO2[35]
CO2 + C → 2CO[35]

bhatti ke madhya kshetron mein choona patthar ke apaghatan ki prakriya nimnalikhit pratikriya ke anusaar aage badhti hai:

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2[31]

apaghatan dvaara nirmit kailsiym oksaaid lohe mein maujood vibhinn amleeya ashuddhiyon (ullekhaneeya roop se silika) ke saath pratikriya karke ek faiyaalitik dhaatumal ka nirmaan karti hai jo anivaarya roop se kailshiym siliket, CaSiO3 hai:[35]

SiO2 + CaO → CaSiO3[37]

blaast farnes dvaara nirmit "pig aayaran" mein apekshaakrut roop se lagbhag 4 se 5 pratishat kaarban saamagri hoti hai jisse yeh bahut bhangur ban jaata hai aur iska istemaal seemit aur tatkaal vaanijyik prayojan ke liye kiya jaata hai. kuchh pig aayaran ka istemaal Caste aayaran banaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. kaarban saamagri ko kam karne ke liye aur aujaaron aur nirmaan saamagriyon ke liye istemaal kiye jaane vaale vibhinn stareeya ispaat ke nirmaan karne ke liye blaast farneson dvaara nirmit jyaadaatar pig aayaran ko atirikt prakriya se gujarana padta hai.

haalaanki blaast bhattiyon ki kaaryakushalata mein lagaataar vikaas ho raha hai lekin fir bhi blaast bhatti ke andar hone waali raasaayanik prakriya mein koi badlaav naheen hua hai. American aayaran end steel instityoot ke anusaar: "sahasraabdi tak blaast bhattiyon ka vajood rahega kyonki badi aur kaaryakushal bhattiyon mein anya lauh nirmaan praudyogikiyon ki tulana mein kam kharch par garm dhaatu ka nirmaan kiya ja sakta hai."[31] blaast bhattiyon ki sabse badi khaamiyon mein se ek khaami yeh hai ki inmein anivaarya roop se kaarban daai oksaaid ka nirmaan hota hai kyonki kaarban dvaara aayaran oksaaid ko parivrtit karke loha praapt kiya jaata hai aur iska koi kifaayati vikalp naheen hai - ispaat nirmaan duniya mein kaarban daai oksaaid (CO2) utsarjan ke aparihaarya audyogik yogadaanakartaaon mein se ek hai (greenahaaus gas dekhein).

blaast bhatti ke greenahaaus gas utsarjan dvaara sthaapit chunauti ko yooelaseeoes (ultra lo CO2 steelameking) ek chaaloo Europeeya kaaryam mein sambodhit kiya ja raha hai.[38] kam se kam 50% tak vishisht utsarjan (CO2 prati tan ispaat) mein katauti karne ke liye kai nae prakriya maargon ka prastaav rakha gaya hai aur unki baareeki se jaanch ki gayi hai. kuchh CO2 ko haasil karne ke baad use bhandaarit (kaipchar end fardar storej/seeseees) karne par jor dete hain jabki anya haaidrojan, bijli aur baayomaas ke jariye lohe aur ispaat ke utpaadan ko kaarban rahit karne ka sujhaav dete hain.[39] filhaal khud blaast bhatti prakriya mein seeseees ko shaamil karne waali aur top-gas reesaaikling blaast farnes naamak ek praudyogiki ka vikaas kiya ja raha hai aur iske saath hi saath vaanijyik prayojan waali ek blaast bhatti ke nirmaan ki yojana ban rahi hai. utsarjan ko kaafi had tak kam karne ke liye nirdhaarit ghatnaakram ki tarah jaise iyoo dvaara is praudyogiki ko 2010 ke dashak ke ant tak poori tarah se pradarshit kiya jaana chaahiye. vyaapak pariniyojan 2020 se shuroo ho sakta hai.

ston vool ka nirmaan

ston vool ya rock vool ek span mineral faaibar hai jiska istemaal ek insuleshan utpaad ke roop mein haaidroponik mein kiya jaata hai. ise khanij chattaan ko daalkar blaast bhatti mein banaaya jaata hai jismein bahut kam maatra mein dhaatu oksaaid hoti hai. parinaami dhaatumal ko nikaalkar aur ghumaakar usase rock vool utpaad banaaya jaata hai.[40] ismein bahut kam maatra mein avaanchhit aur apashisht utsarji dhaatuon ka bhi nirmaan hota hai.

sangrahaalaya sthal ke roop mein band blaast bhattiyaan

lambe samay tak, band padi blaast bhattiyon ko aam taur par dhvast kar diya jaata tha aur unki jagah ek nai tatha behtar bhatti ka nirmaan kiya jaata tha, ya bhatti kshetr ke aage ke istemaal ke liye iske sampoorn kshetr ko dhvast kar diya jaata tha. haal ke dashakon mein, kai deshon ko apne audyogik itihaas ke roop mein blaast bhattiyon ke moolya ka ehsaas hua hai. dhvast karne ke bajaay parityakt istpaat kaarkhaanon ko sangrahaalayon mein badal diya gaya hai ya unhein bahu-uddeshyeeya paarkon ke roop mein ekeekrut kar diya gaya hai. Germany mein sabse jyaada sankhya mein aitihaasik blaast bhattiyon ko sanrakshit kiya gaya hai aur iske alaava Spain, fraans, check ganaraajya, Japan, lakjamabarg, Poland, maiksiko, roos aur sanyukt raajya America mein bhi aisi saaitein maujood hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • besik okseejan farnes
  • blaast farnes jasta galaane ki prakriya
  • lohe ka nishkarshan
  • jaleeya vaashp, "steem blaast" dvaara utpaadit
  • fineks (FINEX)
  • flodin prakriya
  • England mein lauh tatha steel kaarya, jismein sabhi prakaar ke lauh kaarya samaahit hain
  • laaskil

sandarbh

  1. a aa ebre, pi. 30.
  2. aarli aayaran in chaayana, Korea, end Japan, donaald bi. vaiganar, March 1993
  3. Needham, Joseph (1986), Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 4: Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering, Taipei: Cambridge University Press, pa॰ 370, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521058031.
  4. di arliyest yooj of aayaran in China, donaald bi.vaiganar, 1999
  5. donaald bi.vaiganar, 'chaaineej blaast farnesej fraum di 10th too di 14th century' historikl metalarji 37(1) (2003), 25-37; orijnali published in vest asian science, technology, end medisin 18 (2001), 41-74.
  6. ebre, pi. 158.
  7. dankan E.Miller aur N.J.vaan der marv, 'arli metal varking in sab sahaaran Africa' journal of afreekan history 35 (1994) 1-36; minje stuiver aur N.J.vaan der marv, 'rediyokaarban kronolauji of di aayaran ej in sab-sahaaran Africa' nruvijnyaaan vartamaan 1968. tilekot 1975 (neeche dekhein)
  8. A history of sab-sahaaran Africa
  9. di nyubiyn paast
  10. aarkiyolaujeekl investigeshans on di bigning of blaast farnes- technology in sentral Europe
  11. A. vetaraholam, 'blaast farnes stadeej in nora bargaslaag' (Öaarebro universitet 1999, Jäarn och Samhäalle) aaiesabeeen 91-7668-204-8
  12. N. bjokeinstaam, 'di blaast farnes inyoorop dyooring di middle ejej: part of A new system for prodyoosing raut aayaran' in ji. maagnusan, di importens of aayaranameking: teknolaujeekl inoveshan end social change I (jarnakontoret, staukahom 1995), 143-53 end adar pepes in di sem vaulyoom.
  13. Woods, pi.34.
  14. gimpel, pi. 67.
  15. Woods, pi.35.
  16. Woods, pi.36.
  17. a aa Woods, pi.37.
  18. aar.dablyoo. vernan, ji. maikadonaald end A. shmit, 'N intregeted jiyolaujeekl end enaalitikl epresiyl of arli aayaran-varking: tri case stadeej' historikl metalarji 32(2) (1998), peepi. 72-5, 79
  19. David darbeeshir, 'henari "staamp out industrial rivaulyooshan"', di daily teleegraaf (21 June 2002); Woods dvaara uddhrut.
  20. Schubert, H. R. (1957), History of the British iron and steel industry from c. 450 BC to AD 1775, Routledge & Kegan Paul, pa॰ 395–397.
  21. bi. evati end si. vhitik (pi.kaumbas ke saath), 'laurdaship of kaintarabari, aayaran-faaunding eight basted, end di kauntineintal aintesadants of kainan-faaunding in di veeld' saseks aarkiyolaujeekl kalekshans 140 (2002 ke liye 2004), peepi. 71 - 81.
  22. pi.dabloo. King, 'di production end kanjapshan of aayaran in arli modern England end vels' ikaunomik history review LVIII, 1-33; ji. haimarasle, 'di taarakol aayaran industry end its fyool 1540-1750' aarthik history review ser. II, XXVI (1973), peepi. 593–613.
  23. Yakovlev, V. B. (August 1957), "Development of Wrought Iron Production", Metallurgist (New York: Springer) 1 (8): 545, doi:10.1007/BF00732452, ISSN 0026-0894, http://www.springerlink.com/content/hx515m2689563420/, abhigman tithi: 2008-01-13.
  24. aayaran gender, end power - bye yoogeniya dablyoo. harabart
  25. Raistrick, Arthur (1953), Dynasty of Iron Founders: The Darbys and Coalbrookedale, York: Longmans, Green.
  26. haaid
  27. Trinder, Barrie Stuart; Trinder, Barrie (2000), The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire, Chichester: Phillimore, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1860771335.
  28. birch, peepi. 181-9
  29. haaid, pi. 159.
  30. Made in Ukraine, http://www.madeinua.info/view.aspx?type=ja&lang=2&jaid=261, abhigman tithi: 2008-05-20.
  31. a aa i E u oo eaaiesaaai
  32. a aa McNeil, Ian (1990), An encyclopaedia of the history of technology, Taylor & Francis, pa॰ 163, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0415013062, http://books.google.com/?id=WW4Q-vMA6IMC.
  33. Strassburger, Julius H. (1969), Blast furnace: Theory and Practice, Taylor & Francis, pa॰ 564, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0677104200, http://books.google.com/?id=xLsOAAAAQAAJ.
  34. Whitfield, Peter, Design and Operation of a Gimbal Top Charging System, http://www2.sea.siemens.com/NR/rdonlyres/FFA8AF1C-1791-46E8-AA09-917BB28D8701/0/038.pdf, abhigman tithi: 2008-06-22.
  35. a aa i E "Blast Furnace". Science Aid. http://www.scienceaid.co.uk/chemistry/industrial/blastfurnace.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-30.
  36. a aa i E u oo Rayner-Canham & Overton (2006), Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, Fourth Edition, New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, pa॰ 534–535, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780716776956.
  37. dau॰ ke.E. li, too science se (baayolauji kaimistri fijiks)
  38. www.ulcos.org
  39. aaiseeaaiti-review de metaalyoogari, September aur October ke ank, 2009
  40. vauts is ston vool?

sandarbhagranth

  • Birch, Alan (2005), The Economic History of the British Iron and Steel Industry, 1784-1879, Routledge, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0415382483
  • Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2005), East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0618133844.
  • Gimpel, Jean (1976), The Medieval Machine: The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0030146364.
  • Hyde, Charles K. (1977), Technological Change and the British iron industry, 1700-1870, Princeton: Princeton University Press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0691052468.
  • Woods, Thomas (2005), How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization, Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publ., aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-89526-038-7.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahya kadiyaan