vaastukala ka itihaas

vaastukala kisi sthaan ko maanav ke liye vaasayogya banaane ki kala hai. at: kaalaantar mein yeh chaahe jitni jatil ho gayi ho, iska aarambh mausam ki ugrata, vanya pashuon ke bhaya aur shatruon ke aakraman se bachane ke praarambhik upaayon mein hi hua hoga. maanav sabhyata ke itihaas ka bhi kuchh aisa hi aarambh hai. iseeliye vidvaanon ne ise maanav sabhyata ka "yojak masaala" kaha hai.

anukram

takaneeki vikaas evam vaastu ka vikaas

1. jhoola-khanbhe, rassiyaaain aur khooainte (tanbuon mein), jinka vikaas abhi abhi 1,900 E. mein hi hua, jab taar ke rasse aur ispaat ki janjeerein upalabdh hui.

2. khanbhe aur saradal (k) patthar ke tatha (kh) lakdi ke. inmein bhi vishesh antar haal mein hi pada, jab ispaat aur prabalit kankreet ka prayog hua.

3. gol daat - kisi deevaar mein banaaya hua chhed, ya chattaan athva kathor mitti mein kaata hua raasta. yeh gufaaon mein pai jaati hai.

4. gadhi daat - fanni ke aakaar ke pattharon se banaai hui hoti hai. iski majabooti kshaitij thel rokane ki kshamata par nirbhar rahati hai.

5. toda ya kaurnis - patthar ya lakdi ka yeh nikla hua bhaag seemit hi hota tha. ab yeh ispaat, prabalit kankreet aur kainchiyaaain lagaakar bahut badhaaya ja sakta hai.

6. tode nikaalkar shikhar banaane se keval oordhvaadhar daab padti hai, kshaitij thel bilkul naheen padta. hindu mandiron ke shikhar aise hi hote the.

7. tode nikaalate hue gol chhallon se gunbad banaane se bhi keval oordhvaadhar daab padti hai. pashchimi Asia mein yeh paddhati prachalit thi aur yeh muslim shaili ki daat ke siddhaant ka aadhaar bani.

8. isi prakaar lakadiyon ke dhaaainche par, ya uske bina hi mitti ya kankreet ke chhallon dvaara bhi, gunbad banaae ja sakte hain; athva saaainche ko chamade ya sarapat se dhakakar oopar se mitti chadhaai ja sakti hai. ye vidhiyaaain desheeya sanrachana mein praaya: prayukt hoti theen.

9. jahaaain veint milta tha, vahaaain is prakaar ka dhaaaincha viksit hua, is aakruti ka anusaran Bhaarat mein aur anyatr bhi patthar mein kiya gaya aur todevaale gunbad bane.

aadikaaleen vaastu

aadikaal mein shikaariyon aur machhuon ne pahaadi gufaaon mein sharan li hogi. ye gufaaeain hi shaayad maanav nivaas ke praacheenatam roop rahe honge. kisaan vrukshon ke jhuramuton mein rahate aur sarakande, ghaas aadi ke jhonpade banaate rahe honge. apne pashuon ke saath ghoomanevaale charavaahe chamade ke kholon mein rahate rahe honge aur unhein baanson ya latthon se ooaincha karke dere banaate rahe honge. inheen gufaaon aur deron mein baad ke vaastuvikaas ke beej milte hain. misr ke puraane makaanon ke namoone saakshi hain ki anagadh dvaaron chattaani deevaaron aur chhaton waali praakrutik gufaaon se hi patthar ki deevaarein uthaane aur un par patiyon ki chhat rakhane ka vichaar utpann hua. jhuramuton ke anuroop jhonpade bane, jinki deevaarein paraspar sataakar gaadi hui shaakhaaon se aur chhat ghaas se banaai gayi. is prakaar ke ekamanjile aur dumanjile jhonpade ab bhi aadivaasi banaate hain. chamade ke dere bhi arab ke baddoo aur anya ghumantoo jaatiyaaain kaam mein laati hain.

praagaitihaasik avashesh, jinka vaastukeeya ki apeksha puraataatvik mahatva hi adhik hai, praaya: ekaashmak (jaise kustuntuniya, uttari France, England, saivaaya, ya Bhaarat mein), stoop (jo shaayad misr ke piraamid ya vels, skaatalaind aur Ireland ke chhattaakuteer jaise hi bane) tatha Switzerland, Italy, ya Ireland mein mile sarovaranivaason ke roop mein hain. baad mein dheere-dheere inka vikaas hota gaya.

praachya aur paashchaatya vaastu

viksit vaastu ko do sthool vargon mein baaainta ja sakta hai : ek to praachya, jaise bhaarateeya, cheeni aur Japani vaastu, jo praaya: svatantr shailiyaaain hain aur jinka vaastuvikaas mein vishesh prabhaav naheen pada; aur doosra paashchaatya vaastu, jiska aarambh misr aur Syria mein hua aur charam vikaas Europe mein. praacheen Amreeki aur islaami vaastu bhi svatantr shailiyaaain hain yadyapi islaami vaastu ka amit prabhaav Spain tak pada. misr aur pashchimi Asia ka prabhaav yoonaan par aur falat: saari paashchaatya shailiyon par pada, isliye ve paashchaatya vaastu ke antargat hi aa sakte hain.

praachya kala mein anek aisi baatein hain jinke abhyast Europeeya log naheen hain, isliye ve unhein apriya aur viroop lagti hain. kintu prayog hi dheere-dheere prakruti ban jaata hai. isliye poorvi aur pashchimi vaastu mein anivaaryat: kuchh bhed hai, jo vishuddh praachya vaastu mein vishisht dhaarmik krutyon aur saamaajik prathaaon ke prabhaav ke roop mein udvyakt hota hai. poorv mein alankaran yojanaaeain hi pramukh rahi hain jabki Europe mein nirmaan sambandhi samasyaaon ka drudhtaapoorvak saamana karte hue unke kramik samaadhaan dvaara vaastu viksit hua.

vaastukala ke aitihaasik vikaas ke pratyek pramukh charan ke mool mein koi na koi vichaaradhaara spasht jhalakati hai. yoonaani vaastu mein parishkrut poornata thi, roman imaaratein apne vaigyaanik nirmaan ke liye prasiddh hain, fraanseesi gauthi vaastu ugr kriyaasheelata ka dyotak hai, itaalavi punaruddhaar mein us yug ka paanditya jhalakata hai aur bhaarateeya vaastu ka pramukh gun hai usaka aadhyaatmik vishay. ismein sandeh naheen, ki janta ki tatkaaleen dhaarmik chetna moort roop mein vyakt karna hi bhaarateeya vaastu ka mool uddeshya raha hai, arthaat janabhaavana hi int patthar mein moort hui hai.

bhaarateeya vaastu

praacheen vaastu

bhaarateeya vaastu ki visheshata yahaaain ki deevaaron ke utkrusht aur prachur alankaran mein hai. bhittichitron aur moortiyon ki yojana, jismein alankaran ke atirikt apne vishay ke gambhir bhaav bhi vyakt hote hain, bhavan ko baahar se kabhi kabhi poornataya lapet leti hai. inmein vaastu ka jeevan se sambandh kya, vaastav mein aadhyaatmik jeevan hi ankit hai. nyoonaadhik ubhaar mein utkeern apne alaukik krutyon mein lage hue desh bhar ke devi devata, tatha yugon puraana pauraanik gaathaaeain, moortikla ko prateek banaakar darshakon ke sammukh atyant rochak kathaaon aur manohar chitron ki ek pustak si khol deti hain.

madhyakaaleen muslim vaastu

vaastukala par musalmaanon ke aakraman ka jitna prabhaav Bhaarat mein pada utana anyatr kaheen naheen, kyonki jis sabhyata se muslim sabhyata ki takkar hui, kisi se usaka itna virodh naheen tha jitna bhaarateeya sabhyata se. chir pratishthit bhaarateeya saamaajik aur dhaarmik pravruttiyon ki tulana mein muslim sabhyata bilkul nai to thi hi, uske maulik siddhaat bhi bhinn the. donon ka sangharsh yathaarthavaad ka aadarshavaad se, vaastavikta ka svapnadarshita se aur vyakt ka avyakt se sangharsh tha, jiska pramaan masjid aur mandir ke bhed mein spasht hai. masjidein khuli hui hoti hain, unka kendra sudoor makka ki disha mein hota hai; jabki mandir rahasya ka ghar hota hai, jiska kendra anek deevaaron evam galiyaaron se ghira hua beech ka devasthaan ya garbhagruh hota hai. majisd ki deevaarein praaya: saadi ya pavitra aayaton se utkeern hoti hain, unamein maanav aakrutiyon ka chitran nishiddh hota hai; jabki mandiron ki deevaaron mein moortikla aur maanavakruti chitran uchchatam shikhar par pahuaincha, par likhaai ka naam na tha. pattharon ke sahal rangon mein hi is chitran dvaara mandiron ki sajeevata I; jabki masjidon mein rangabirange pattharon, sangamarmar aur chitr vichitr palastar ke dvaara deevaarein mukhar ki gayi.

bruhattar Bhaarat ka vaastu

dekhein - ankoravaat mandir

bhaarateeya kala ke utkrusht namoone Bhaarat ke baahar Sri Lanka, Nepal, barama, syaam, jaava, baali, hindacheen aur kanbodiya mein bhi milte hain. Nepal ke shanbhunaath, bodhanaath, maamanaath mandir, lanka mein anuraadhaapur ka stoop aur lankaatilk mandir, barama ke bauddh math aur pagoda, kanbodiya mein ankor ke mandir, syaam mein bainkaak ke mandir, jaava mein praanbanaam ka Bihar, kalaasan mandir aur borobandar stoop aadi hindu aur bauddh vaastu ke vyapak prasaar ke pramaan hain. jaava mein bhaarateeya sanskruti ke pravesh ke kuchh pramaan 4 vi shati isavi ke milte hain. vahaaain ke anek smaarakon se pata lagta hai ki madhya jaava mein 625 se 928 E. tak vaastukala ka svarnakaal aur poorvi jaava mein 928 se 1478 E. tak rajatakaal tha.

beesaveen shati ka vaastu

san 1911 E. mein british raajya unnati ke shikhar par tha. usi samay Delhi darbaar mein ghoshana ki gayi aur saamraajya ki rajdhani ke anuroop ek nai Delhi mein aur saare Bhaarat ke jila sadar sthaanon tak mein, sundar imaaratein banvaai, jinmein anek kaaryaalaya bhavan, girje aur isaai kabristaan kala ki drushti se mahatvapoorn hain. sarkaari prayaas se nai Delhi mein Rajbhavan (ab raashtrapati bhavan), sachivaalaya bhavan, sansad bhavan jaisi bhavya imaaratein bani, jinmein paashchaatya kala ke saath hindu, bauddh aur muslim kala ka sukhad sammishran dikhaai deta hai.

cheeni vaastu

cheeni vaastu mein bauddh aur muslim prabhaav spasht hain. Bhaarat ke toranon ki bhaaainti patthar ya lakdi ke dwaar cheeni vaastu ki visheshata hain. ek doosari ke oopar anek chhatein banaakar ooainchi imaaraton mein bhi chaudaai ka aabhaas paida kiya jaata hai. yadyapi patthar bhi vahain milta hai, fir bhi imaaraton mein lakdi aur int ka prayog hi praaya: hua hai, kyonki misravaalon ki bhaaainti sthaayitv unka lakshya na tha. peeking mein mahaamakar mandir (1420) aur greeshm praasaad ka nidraamagn buddh mandir tatha 17 daaton wala sangamarmar ka pul, kaintan mein ho'nan mandir (918), naanakin mein pagoda (1412) kala ki drushti se ullekhaneeya hai. 1400 meal lambi praacheer to vishvavikhyaat hi hai.

Japani vaastu

yadyapi Japani vaastu ka mool cheen mein hai, fir bhi nakkaashi aur alankaran ki baareeki iski apni visheshata hai. anek bauddh mandir aur pagoda desh bhar mein faile hain. kyooto mein mikaado ka mahal aur kinkaakooji tatha jinkaakooji ke udyaanamandap aur nagoya mein shukin ro saraaya ullekhaneeya hain.

paashchaatya vaastu

Bhaarat ki sindhu ghaati sabhyata ke baad, praacheenata mein misr, yoonaan aur rom ka naam liya jaata hai. paashchaatya vastukala mein ye hi teen desh agrani rahe. saade aur aavartak misri vaastu ke baad yoonaan ki ati viksit mandir-nirmaan-kala mein aur fir use baad roman saamraajya ki vividh saarvajanik nirmaan ke liye aavashyak jatil paddhatiyon mein, vaastu ke kramik vikaas ka itihaas milta hai. misr mein ghar asthaayi nivaas samajhe jaate the aur kabrein sthaayi. isi vichaaradhaara ke poshan samraaton ke liye nirmit ati vishaal, bhaari bharakam piraamidon aur rahasyapoorn mandiron mein milta hai. ise vipreet yoonaani mandir janta ke liye bane aur prastarakala mein sundarata I. saahitya, sangeet aur kala ki unnati ke saath saath rangamanch, kreedaangan aur mallashaalaaeain bhi viksi hui. sangamarmar ke prayog se krutiyon mein safaai aur baareeki I. saundaryapriya yoonaaniyon ne bhaarateeya vaastukon ki bhaanti hi, kintu bahut pehle hi, svatantr roop se, stambhon ki dorik, aayonik aur korinthiyn naamak vishisht shailiyaaain viksit ki theen. kintu jab 146 E.poo. mein yoonaan Raman saamraajya ka ang ho gaya, tab usaka svatantr prabhutv bhi samaapt ho ga. haaain, usaka prabhaav roman kala mein ant tak avashya bana raha.

roman vaastu mein saamraajya ki shaan shaukat jhalakati hai. bhavya mandiron ke atirikt sadkon, vijyadvaaron, pulon aadi anek janopayogi nirmaan kaaryon mein roman shaili ka samaavesh hua. is prakaar roman vaastu saare Europe mein faila aur Europeeya vaastu ka aadhaar bana. roman saamraajya ke patan ke saath hi is mahaanadya sabhyata aur utkrusht vaastukala ka adhyaaya bhi samaapt ho gaya. kintu jidda se jo isaai dharm saamraajya bhar mein fail chuka tha, usaka prabhutv badhta raha. kuchh kaal pashchaat 8veen shati E. mein bade bade girjaaghar bane, jinmein "romanesk" naam se uttarakaaleen roman vaastu ka punarutthaan hua. girjon ka janajeevan mein mahatvapoorn sthaan raha aur inheen ke atanrgat shiksha sansthaaeain, pustakaalaya, sangrahaalaya aur chitrashaalaaeain sthaapit huin. girjon ki ya kala gauthik shaili kahalaai, jo madhyayugeen sabhyata ka darpan kaheen ja sakti hai. mahatvapoorn nirmaanasiddhaanton ke anusaar us samay tak ki Europeeya vaastukala ki mukhya teen shailiyaaain, 1. stambh aur dharanonvaali yoonaani shaili, 2. stambh aur ardhavrutt daatavaali roman ya mishrit shaili aur 3. nokadaar daatonvaali gauthik ya chaapeeya shaili, itihaasaprasiddh hain.

vaastushailiyon ke vikaas mein fir kuchh viraam aaya. isi beech punaruddhaar shaili ka path prashst karanevaali paristhitiyaaain utpann hui. baarood ke aavishkaar se samar paddhatiyaaain aur falat: kilon ke vinyaas badal gaye. nai duniya ki khoj ho chuki thi. san 1453 E. mein kustuntuniya ke patan ke baad Europe mein yoonaaniyon ke aapravaas ka bhi prabhaav pada. falat: Italy ke hi samruddh aur vyaapaarik nagar floreins mein ek pratidvandvi shaili ka janm hua. nae girjaagharon aur raajamahalon mein gauthik yug ki nukeeli daatein, pratichhedi meharaavein aur oordhvaadhar lakshan naheen, balki chirpratishthit roman shaili ke ardhavruttaakaar gunbad hi parishkrut roopon mein apanaae gaye. punaruddhaar ka yeh aandolan Italy se France, Germany, Spain, Netherland aur England tak faila. haaain, kaalakshep ke saath England mein yeh dheere dheere hi faila, jisse vahaaain donon shailiyon ka mishran dikhaai deta hai.

aadhunik Europeeya vaastu

unneesaveen shati mein paramparaagat vaastushailiyon mein, mukhyataya vaastukon ki vyaktigat ruchi ke kaaran, anek parivartan hue aur ek "shaili sangharsh" hi upasthit ho gaya. kintu vaastukala aaj bhi saamayik vichaaradhaara ka pratinidhitv karti hai. yeh sangrahaalayon, paathashaaon, pustakaalayon, pathan keindron, chikitsaalayo, taranataalon, snaanaagaaron, vidyaalayon, chitrashaalaaon evam kalaabhavanon tatha vaigyaanik evam jan-kalyaan-sansthaanon ke nirmaan se spasht hai. beesaveen shati mein punaruddhaar shaili saarvajanik bhavanon aur maargon aadi ke liye, tatha gauthik shaili girjaagharon aur shikshaalayon ke liye, vishesh roop se prayukt hoti hai. nivaasabhavan saadi aur upayogitaalakshi shaili mein hi pasand kiye jaate hain.

Amreeki vaastu

Amreeki vaastu ke vikaas mein teen charan spasht hain. pehla hai upanivesheeya kaal (1775-83), praaranbhi upaniveshon ki sthaapana se kraanti tak. ismein Europeeya vaastu se milta julata hi nirmaan hua hai. doosra hai aadhunik kaal (jise upaniveshottar, raashtreeya, ya ganatantreeya kaal bhi kehte hain) kraanti se Chicago pradarshani (1893) tak. ismein raajadhaaniyon ke upayukt mahatvaakaankshaasoochak aur smaarakeeya bhavan bane. 19 veen shati ki Europe ki "yoonaani chetna" bhi vahaaain pahuainchi. teesara arvaacheen kaal (1893 se ab tak) hai, jismein Europeeya "shaileesangharsh" ki bhaaainti hi yahaaain bhi koi ek do shailiyaaain yug ka pratinidhitv karti hui naheen kahi ja sakateen. saamaajik sthiti aur shramasevi upakaranon se prabhaavit nivaason mein upayegitaalakshi shaili spasht hai, jab ki girjaagharon mein vahi gauthik shaili samaadrut hai. haaain kuchh na kuchh maulikta ka samaavesh sabhi jagah avashya dekhne mein aata hai. yeh bhi ullekhaneeya hai ki keval do teen shataabdiyon mein hi jitna drut parivartan yahaaain hua hai, utana sansar mein anyatr kaheen naheen. aajkal gaganachunbi bahumanjili imaaratein amareeka ki visheshata hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain