vaasko the gaama

vaasko the gaama
Vasco-da-gama-2.jpg
janm 1460-1469
saains, alentejo, Portugal
mrutyu December 24, 1524 (aayu lagbhag 54-64)
kochchi
vyavasaaya anveshak, sainya nausena commander
jeevanasaathi Katrina the ataayade

daum vaasko the gaama (purtagaali: Vasco da Gama) (lagbhag 1460 ya 1469 - 24 December, 1524) ek purtagaali anveshak, Europeeya khoj yug ke sabse safal khojakartaaon mein se ek aur Europe se Bhaarat seedhi yaatra karne vaale jahaajon ka commander tha, jo kep of gud hope, Africa ke dakshini kone se hote hue Bhaarat pahuaincha. vah jahaaj dvaara teen baar Bhaarat aaya. usaki janm ki sahi tithi to agyaat hai lekin yeh kaha jaata hai ki vah 1490 ke dashak mein sign, Portugal mein ek yoddha tha.

vaasko ko Bhaarat ka (samudri raaston dvaara) anveshak ke alaave arab saagar ka mahatvapoorn nausenaani aur isaai dharm ke rakshak ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai. usaki pratham aur baad ki yaatraaon ke dauraan likhe gaye ghatna kram ko solahaveen sadi ke Africa aur Kerala ke janajeevan ka mahatvapoorn dastaavej maana jaata hai.

anukram

aaranbhik jeevan

vaasko the gaama ka janm anumaanat: 1460 mein[1] ya 1469[2] mein saains, Portugal ke dakshin-pashchimi tat ke nikat hua tha. inka ghar nossa senhora das salaas ke girijaaghar ke nikat sthit tha. tatkaaleen saains jo ab alentejo tat ke kuchh bandaragaahon mein se ek hai, tab kuchh safed puti, laal chhat waali machhuaaron ki jhonpadiyon ka samooh bhar tha. vaasko the gaama ke pita estevaao the gaama, 1460 mein Duke of viseyu, daum farnaindo ke yahaan ek night the.[3] daum farnaindo ne saains ka naagar-raajyapaal niyukt kiya hua tha. ve tab saains ke kuchh saabun kaarkhaanon se kar vasoolate the. estevaao the gaama ka vivaah dona isaabel saudre se hua tha.[4] vaasko the gaama ke parivaar ki aaranbhik jaankaari adhik gyaat naheen hai.

purtagaali itihaasakaar teksiyera the araagaao bataate hain, ki evora shahar mein vaasko the gaama ki shiksha hui, jahaan unhonne shaayad ganit evam nauvahan ka gyaan arjit kiya hoga. yeh bhi gyaat hai ki gaama ko khagolashaastr ka bhi gyaan tha, jo unhonne sanbhavat: khagolajnya Abraham jkyooto se liya hoga.[5]1492 mein Portugal ke raaja John dviteeya ne gaama ko setubal bandargaah, lisban ke dakshin mein bheja. unhein vahaan se fraanseesi jahaajon ko pakad kar laana tha. yeh kaarya vaasko ne kaushal evam tatparata ke saath poorn kiya.

vaasko the gaama.

prushthabhoomi

pandrahaveen sadi ki shuruaat mein pashchim speni raajya Portugal ke raaja John ke bete bade ho rahe the aur us samay tak jerushalam samet samooche madhya-poorv par muslim shaasakon ka kabja ho gaya tha. poorv (cheen, Bhaarat aur poorvi afreeka) se aane vaale resham, masaalon aur aabhooshanon par arab aur anya muslim vyaapaariyon ka kabja tha - jo manachaahe daamon par ise Europe mein bechate the. san 1412 ki garmiyon mein John ke teen beton - Edward (umr 20 varsh), Peter tatha henari (18 varsh) ne vichaar kiya ki unhein Rajkumar aur night (yaani saamant) ke ubaate kaam se adhik kuchh romaanchak tatha chunauti bhara kaam saunpa jaana chaahiye. unhonne apne pita se ye kaha. John ka ek sevak abhi syuta (uttari afreeki tat) se muslim kaidiyon ke badle dhan lekar lauta tha. pichhle saat sau saalon mein islaam ke shaasan mein aane ke baad agar syuta ko purtagaali aakraman se paraast kiya jaaya to yeh nishchit roop se ek chunaiti bhara kaam hota. syuta na sirf ek vyast pattan baajaar tha, balki us samay morakko, pichhle 30 saalon se araajakata mein fansa tha. kaafi na-nukur karne aur raani filipa ke aagrah ke baad John ne aakraman ki ek yojana taiyaar ki[6]. hauleind par aakraman ki taiyaari ke mukhaute lagaakar syuta par aakraman kar diya. July 1415 mein syuta ko fatah kar liya gaya. henari, Edward aur Peter teenon ne is yuddh mein senaani ka kaam kiya. lekin aarthik roop se kuchh khaas haasil naheen hua - musalmaanon ne syuta ke badle taanjayar se vyaapaar karna chaaloo kiya aur syuta ke pattan khaali rahe.

us samay Europe mein kai bhraantiyaaain prachalit thi. unamein se ek ye thi ki afreeka mein, kaheen andar dakshin mein, ek sone ki nadi bahti hai. par vahaaain pahuainchane ka matlab hai sahaara marusthal mein maujood muslim arab aur barbar sena ko haraana. henari ke vichaar mein ye karna sambhav aur jaroori tha - aakhirkar saat sau saal pehle uttari Africa par isaaiyon (Spain, roman ya greek) ka kabja tha. usane apne pita se tainjiyr par aakraman ki yojana ka anurodh kiya lekin John ko aisa sambhav naheen laga. tainjiyr door tha aur adhik surakshit. jaan ki mrutyu ke baad henari ka bhaai Edward (sabse bade) ka raajyaabhishek 1433 mein hua.

kaafi anurodh ke baad henari ko tainjayar par aakraman ki anumati mil gayi. lekin nausenikon ke samay par na pahuainchane ke baavajood henari, bachi-khuchi 7000 ki sena lekar tainjiyr 1437 mein pahuainch gaya. jaisa ki pratyaashit tha - use haar ka muainh dekhna pada. uske senaapatiyon ne vaapas nikalne ki keemat syuta ko morakkan haathon mein saunpane ki baat ki. henari ko ye manjoor naheen tha - vo apne bhaai fardinaand ko bandhak ke roop mein rakh aaya. fardinaand jail mein mar gaya.

isi beech istaanbul par usmaani turkon ka adhikaar May 1453 mein ho gaya. turk sunni muslim the aur is tarah yooropiyon ke poorv ke vyaapaar ka raasta sampoorn roop se muslim haathon mein chala gaya. venis aur istaanbul ke baajaaron mein cheejon ke bhaav badhne lage. iske baad speni aur purtaagali (aur itaalavi) shaasakon ko poorv ke raaston ki saamudrik jaankaari ki ichha aur jaag uthi.

poorv ke raaste - aaranbhik prayaas

1487 mein baartolomeyo diyaas ka yaatra maarg

terahaveen sadi mein Marco polo mangolon ke saamraajya hote hue cheen tak pahuainch gaya tha. usane lautane ke baad apne jail ke saathi ko bataaya ki Hindustan poorv mein hai. san 1419 mein venis ke nikolo the konti ne arabi aur faarasi seekhi aur apne ko muslim vyaapaari bhesh mein chhipa kar Bhaarat ki khoj mein nikal pada. usane 25 saalon tak poorv ki yaatra ki, Bhaarat pahuaincha aur kai mahatvapoorn jaanaakaariyaaain di - jinmein Bhaarat ke pattanon par cheen se bade jahaajon ka aane ki ghatna ekdam apratyaashit thi. san 1471 mein antat: tainjiyr par purtagaali adhikaar ho gaya lekin henari san 1474 mein mar gaya. Portugal ke ab raaja John ne Diego keo ko afreeki taton par yaatra karne ke liye bheja. keo ne 1482 mein kaango ki safal yaatra ki aur vahaaain ek shila sthaapit ki. san 1484 mein jab vo lauta to usaka bahut svaagat hua aur use Nobel (saamant) ki padavi di gayi. ek baar pun: apne lakshya ki khoj mein nikle Diego ne san 1486 mein Diego ne naameebiya tak ki yaatra ki - yeh Africa ke dakshini bindu se sirf 800 kilometer uttar mein tha. lekin, lautate samay vo kaango mein prestar John ko dhoondhane nikla aur fir usaka koi pata naheen chala.

Europe mein prachalit bhraantiyon mein se ek ye bhi thi ki poorv mein kaheen ek prestar John naam ka raaja rahata hai jo isaai hai aur apaar sapatti ka maalik hai. purtaagaaliyon ko bharosa tha ki ye raaja Bhaarat (ya poorvi Africa) ka raaja hai. iska pata lagaane ke liye purtagaaliyon ke raaja John ne do guptacharon ko poorv ki jameeni yaatra par bheja. lekin jerushalam pahuainchane ke baad unhein maaloom hua ki arabi seekhe bina aage badhna sambhav naheen hai - ve laut gaye. iske baad May 1487 mein pero da kovilha aur afonso the peva ko gupt yaatra par bheja. ve misr mein sikandariya aur kaahira pahuainch gaye. unamein se pero adan, laal saagar hote hue kaaleekat (Bhaarat) pahuainch gaya. vyaapaar aur maargon ko usane nireekshan kiya aur kaahira laut gaya. vahaaain use do purtagaali yahoodiyon se mulaakaat hui jo raaja John ne bheja tha. jaankaariyon ka aadaan pradaan hua aur kovilha dakshin ki or ithiyopiya chala gaya. vahaaain se vo lautana chaahata tha lekin uske vishv-gyaan ko dekhkar raaja sikandar ne apna salaahakaar niyukt kiya aur baad mein Portugal bhejane ka vaada kiya. lekin vo jaldi mar gaya aur uske bete ne usaki ye kaamna poori naheen ki. kovilha vaheen par bas gaya. san 1526 ke kisi purtagaali mission ne baad mein paaya ki kovilha ithiyopiya mein tandurust, safal aur svasth avastha mein tha - usane vaheen shaadi kar li aur 74 varsh ki aayu mein mara.

san 1487 ke August maheene mein hi purtagaali raaja ne bartolomeyo diyaas (ya diyaaj) naam ke naavik ko Africa ka chakkar lagaane ke liye bheja. vo pehla yooropiyn naavik tha jo dakshintam Africa ke tat - uttamaasha antareep - ke paar pahuncha. lekin bhayankar samudri toofaan se paraast hokar vaapas laut gaya. lekin uske pashchim se poorab ki taraf ja sakane se yeh saabit ho gaya ki Africa ka dakshini kona hai aur duniya yaheen khtm naheen ho jaati.



isi beech raaja mainuel ne Bhaarat ke liye ek chaar naukaaon vaale dal ka vichaar rakha. is dal ka kaptaan gaama ko chuna gaya. kai log isse chakit the - kyonki aaspaas ki ladaaiyon ke alaave gaama ko kisi bade saamudrik chunauti ka anubhav naheen tha. lekin anushaasit aur raaja ke vishvast hone ke kaaran use niyukt kar liya gaya.

pratham yaatra

8 July, 1497 ke din[3] chaar jahaaj lisban se chal pade aur usaki pehli Bhaarat yaatra aarambh hui.

  • saao gaibriyel - iske naavikon mein se pramukh the: mukhya chaalak pero the aleinkar, jo bartolomeu diyaas ke saath uttamaasha antareep tak aur fir kaango tak gaya tha. uske alaave gonjaalo alavaares jo Diego keo ki deesari yaatra par saath tha aur Diego diyaas jo bartelomeo diyaas ka bhaai tha kiraani ki bhoomika mein tha. ye rafel se thoda bada tha aur vaasko the gaama isi jahaaj par tha.
  • saao rafel - chaalak tha joaao de koenbra. iske alaave joaao de sa kiraani ki bhoomika mein. is jahaaj ka kaptaan gaama ka bhaai paaolo the gaama tha.
  • beriyo - sanchaalak tha pero de eskobaar jo Diego keo ke saath kaango gaya tha aur
  • agyaat naam ka ek bhandaaran jahaaj jiska sanchaalan afonso gonjaalves kar raha tha.[7]

lagbhag 170 logon ke is bede ke anya mahatvapoorn naamon mein maartim afonso aur frnaao maartins ka naam tha. afonso kaango mein raha tha aur afreeki boliyon ko jaanta tha jabki frnaao morakko ke kaaraavaas mein rahane ke kaaran arabi sajhata tha. das se baarah abhiyukt bhi is jahaaji bede mein raaja dvaara rakhe gaye the (purtagaali mein Degredados, yaani nishkaasit) jinko khtaranaak sthalon par jaankaari aur khoji kaamon ko poora karne ka kaam diya gaya tha. pratyaashit roop se jahaaj par koi mahila savaar naheen thi.

atalaantik

gaama ka naupath - afreeki tat par

chalne ke ek saptaah baad, 15 July ko vo keneri tak pahuainche aur uske baad chhaae dhundh ki vajah se jahaaj alag ho gaye. kep varde mein unki mulaakaat honi tay thi lekin paaolo the gaama ko koi aur jahaaj vahaaain najar naheen aaya. haanlaanki berio aur bhandaaran jahaaj kuchh ghanto ke bheetar aa gaye. gaama ka jahaaj agale chaar dinon tak naheen mila. milne ke baad vo vahaaain ek saptaah tak ruke aur fir 3 August ko ravaana hue. abhi tak ke sabhi purtagaali yaatraaon mein naavikon ke jahaaj Africa ke tat ke nikch se gujre the - baartelomeyo diyaas ke bhi. lekin ek toofaani hava, jo khule atalaantik mein bahti hai naavikon ko uttamaasha antareep tak teji se dhakel deti hai -aisa vaasko the gaama ne sun rakha tha. uske apne naavikon ko poorv ki or mud kar Africa ke teere chalne ki bajaay khule samudra mein dakshin ki or chalne ko kaha. kai dinon tak khule samudra mein chalne aur koi jameen ya aasha na dekhne ke baad 1 November vo jameen ke nikat aae. ye uttamaasha se koi 150 kilometer pehle raha hoga. logon mein khushi ki lahar daud gayi. jahaaj ki marammati aur apne nakshe dekhne ke baad logon ne vishraam kiya. jahaaj par maujood vruttaantakaar ne likha ki logon ki chamadi ka rang bhoora hai, ve seal, vhel ya hiran ka maans aur vanaspati ki jadi khaate hai. ve chamade ke vastr pahanate hain aur unke saath kutte hamesha chalte hain. vahaaain se vo 16 November ko chale.

uttamaasha antareep

bartelemeo diyaas ke diye nakshe se tat rekha bulkul mel naheen kha rahi thi, lekin be chalte rahe aur 22 November ko uttamaasha antareep pahuainche. vahaaain par diyaas dvaara sthaaneeya logon ke saath hue jhadpon ki khabar unhein mil chuki thi, lekin unke saath bhi vahaaain par jhadap ho gayi. jahaajon ka marammat ke baad 7 December ko vo vahaaain se chale. 16 December ko vo us nadi ke muhaane par pahuainche jahaaain se bartelomeu diyaas ke naavikon ne use vaapas jaane par majaboor kiya tha. unako vahaaain diyaas dvaara sthaapit kraus dikha. iske baad ke raaston par aaj tak koi naheen pahuaincha tha - isliye pehle se bane maanachitr bekaar ho gaye aur unhein naya maanachitr banaana pada. tat ke sahaare ve uttar chale. choonki vah christmas ke aaspaas ka samay tha, the gaama ke karmeedal ne ek tat ka naam, jisse hokar ve gujar rahe the, "naitaal" rakha. iska purtagaali mein arth hai "christmas" aur us sthaan ka yeh naam aaj tak istemaal mein hai (kvaajulu-nataal).

svahili tat

January tak ve log aaj ke mojaambeek tak pahuainch gaye the, jo poorvi afreeka ka ek tateeya kshetr hai[8] jispar arab logon ne hind mahaasaagar ke vyaapaar network ke ek bhaag ke roop mein niyantran kar rakha tha. unka peechha ek krodhit bheed ne kiya jinhein ye pata chal gaya ki ve log musalmaan naheen hain aur ve vahaaain se keeniya ki or chal pade.[9] keeniya ke mombaasa mein bhi usaka virodh hua. pahuainchane ke baad use bataaya gaya ki mombaasa shahar mein kai isaai rahate hain. jahaaj ko tat se door rakhane ke baad kuchh naavik shahar ke daure par gaye jahaaain unhein gore (peele) isaaiyon se mulaakaat hui. baad mein pata chala ki mojaambik se khabar milne ke baad vahaaain ke sultaan ne unhein fansaane ke liye ek yojana taiyaar kar rakhi thi. gaama vahaaain se bhaag nikla - par use Bhaarat pahuainchane ke liye dishaaon ke jaankaar naavikon ya nideshakon ki jarurat thi. usane ek chhoti naav par aa rahe chaar logon ko pakad liya. ek boodhe musalmaan vyaapaari ne bataaya ki paas ke tat maalindi mein bhaarateeya naavik rahate hain. koi chaara na dekh vaasko maalindi pahuaincha. bhaarateeyon ko deshakar use laga ki ye isaai hai - Krishna ke uchchaaran ko vo kraaist samajh rahe the. maalindi (3°a13′a25″aS 40°a7′a47.8″aE / 3.22361°aS 40.129944°aE / -3.22361; 40.129944) mein, the gaama ne ek bhaarateeya maargadarshak ko kaam par rakha, jisne aage ke maarg par purtagaaliyon ki aguvaai ki aur unhein 20 May, 1498 ke din kaaleekat (iska malayaali naam kojeekod hai), Kerala le aaya, jo Bhaarat ke dakshin pashchimi tat par sthit hai.


kaaleekat

vaasko the gaama kaaleekat par 20 May, 1498 ko pahuncha

vahaaain ke raaja (samudiri, purtagaali ise jaamorin kehne lage) ne unhein kaaleekat ke pattan par aane ka nyauta diya lekin gaama ke raah mein itni baadhaaeain aain theen ki use laga ki ye bhi dushman hi honge. lekin vo milne ke liye vali (arabi mein shaasak) se mila aur fir sangeet ke saath kaaleekat mein jaamorin (saamudiri) ne gaama ka svaagat kiya. vahaaain par raaj-darbaar mein aane se pehle use ek mandir mila jahaaain andar mein use ek devi ki moorti mila. purtaagaliyon ko laga ki ye mariym ki moorti hai aur use bharosa ho gaya ki jmorin ek isaai shaasak hai. vo moorti shaayad mariymma devi ki thi jise vo isaamaseeh ki maaain mariym samajh rahe the. vruttakaar jo gaama ke saath us dal mein shaamul tha jinko jaamorin ne svaagat kiya tha, likha - "is desh ke log bhoore hain, chhote kad ke aur pehle dekhne se irshyaalu aur matalabi lagte hain. mard kamar ke upar kuchh naheen pahanate (shaayad dhoti, ya veshti). kuchh baal bade rakhate hain jabki kai sar mundava lete hain. mahilaaeain saamaanyataya sundar naheen dikhti hain. " farnaao maartins ne jaamorin se mulaakaat mein gaama ka arabi anuvaad kiya.

darbaar mein muslim salaahakaaron ne use vyaapaar ki baat karne mein kai adchane paida ki. unhonne gaama ke laae upahaar ki khilli udaai aur use raaja se milaane mein deri ki. iske alaave uske paas raaja (saamudiri) ke liye uchit koi upahaar bhi naheen tha. aise kaaranon se use jmorin se ladaai ho gayi. jaamorin ke muslim mantriyon ne usase (alag mein) vyaapaar ka kar maanga. jaamorin ne uske dvaara aagrah kiye gaye stambh (sanbhavat: kraus ya mariym ki moorti) ko bhi khada karavaane se mana kar diya. sulah aur fir ladaai chalti rahi. raaja ke muslim mantriyon ne uske dal se kai logon ko agava kar liya. lekin samudra me unke jahaaj par aae graahakon ko gaama ne bandi bana liya. ant mein use jaane ki anumati mili aur August ke ant mein vo ravaana hua - raaja ne usako malayalam mein likha prashasti patra bhi diya jismein Portugal ke raaja John ke naam sandesh tha ki vausko yahaaain aaya tha.

lekin agale hi din koi 70 arabi jahaaj vahaaain aakraman ke liye aate dikhe. iske javaab mein usane goli-baari ki. kuchh bhaarateeya bandhakon ke saath September 1498 mein vaapas Portugal ke liye laut gaya. January mein vo svaahili tat par dubaara pahuaincha. jahaaj par koi 500 din gujr gaye the - log thak aur beemaar ho chale the. pashchim afreeki tat par ghar se koi 2 saptaah ki doori par rahane ke samay usaka bhaai -aur dal ke teen jahaajon mein se ek ka kaptaan, paulo the gaama - beemaar pad gaya aur maara gaya. usane baaki jahaajon ko lisban laut jaane ka aadesh diya aur bhaai ko dafnaane ke baad apne dal se peechhe lisban pahuaincha. vahaaain usaka bhayankar svaagat hua.

doosari yaatra

Bhaarat mein gaama ki yaatra

gaama ne vaapas aakar apna vruttaant raaja mainuel ko sunaaya. apne poorvaagrahon ke vipreet use Bhaarat ke isaai alag lage aur ve Portugal ko pehchaan na sake - jisse use acharaj hua. Bhaarat mein (maalaabaar tat par) muslimon ki upasthiti se bhi use duvidha hui. Africa mein har jagah muslim shaasan aur arab saagar mein muslim (moor aur arab) vyaapaariyon ki taadaad ko dekhkar usako apne "isaai kartavya" ki yaad I aur usane do saalon ke andar do aur mission bheje.

January 1500 isvi ka samay bahut hi shubhankar laga, par mission bhejane mein 2 maheenon ki deri ho gayi. March 1500 mein pedro aalvaarej kaabraal ki aguaai mein 13 jahaaj lisban se chale. unka lakshya Africa aur Bhaarat mein vyaapaar ke aadhaar (factory aur upanivesh) lagaane ke alaave jaamorin ko muslim vyaapaariyon ko bhaga dene ka aagrah bhi tha. lekin kai jahaaj uttamaasha antareep par pahuainchane ke gaama ke bataae dakshin-pashchim aur fir poorv jaane ke chhoto raaste par jaane ke kram mein kho gaye. kaabraal kaaleekat pahuaincha - nae jaamorin ne Europeeya jahaajon ka vyaapaar sveekaar kiya aur suraksha ka aashvaasan diya. lekin us saal ke liye arab vyaapaari pattan mein pahuainch chuke the. kebraal ne arab jahaaj ko pakad liya - ye kehkar ki ye jaamorin ke saath hui vyaapaar sandhi ka ullanghan hai. iske javaab mein unhonne purtagaali factory ke sabhi 70 logon ko maar diya. lekin kaabraal ki yaatra poorn asafalata naheen thi - usane aate vakt sofaala aur kilva ke raajaaon se sampark sthaapit kiya. vo Bhaarat mein kunnoor bhi gaya aur kuchh jahaaj jo 'kho gaye the" - dakshin America pahuainch gaye the.

isse pehle ke kabraal laut paata, mainuel pratham ne hoaao the nova ke netrutv mein 4 jahaajon ke saath nikla. kaabral ke chhode ek sandesh ko Africa ke tat par ek puraane joote mein tanga paaya aur kaaleekat pahuaincha. vahaaain pahuainchakar usane kai muslim jahaajon par aakraman kiya. kunnoor mein ek factory lagaar vaapas Portugal laut gaya.


is prakaar Portugal ke jahaajon ne agale 20 saalon ke liye usane kaaleekat ke shaasakon se dushmani mol le li. san 1502 mein vaasko ko dubaara bheja gaya. usaki agali yaatra 1502 mein hui, jab use ye gyaat hua ki kaaleekat ke logon ne peechhe chhoot gaye sabhi purtagaaliyon ko maar daala hai.[10] apni yaatra ke maarg mein padne vaale sabhi bhaarateeya aur arab jahaajo ko usane dhvast kar diya aur kaaleekat par niyantran karne ke liye aage badh chala aur usane bahut si daulat par adhikaar kar liya. isse Portugal ka raaja usase bahut prasann hua. vo kocheen, kunnur aur Goa bhi gaya. kocheen ke dakshin mein use sadiyon se rah rahe isaaiyon (sant Thomas, san 54 se) ka pata chala. gaama ne kuchh purtagaaliyon ko vaheen chhod diya aur us nagar ke shaasak ne use bhi apna sab kuchh vaheen chhod kar chale jaane ke liye kaha, par vah vahaaain se bach nikla .


usaki doosari yaatra purtagaali raaja ke mission ke hisaab se bahut safal raha kyonki usane arab vyaapaariyon ke kadi ladaai ki - jaamorin ko vyaapaar ke liye majaboor kiya aur Bhaarat mein rah rahe isaaiyon ka pata lagaaya.

baad ki yaatra

san 1524 mein vah apni antim Bhaarat yaatra par nikla. us samay Portugal ki Bhaarat mein upanivesh basti ke vaaisarauya (raajyapaal) ke roop mein aaya, par vahaaain pahuainchane ke kuchh samay baad usaki mrutyu ho gayi.

mahatva

purtagaali Rajkumar aur anveshak henari ke baad vaasto the gaama sabse mahatvapoorn saamudrik khojakartaaon mein tha. teen mahaadeshon aur do mahaasaagaron ko paar karne ke baad bhi arab saagar mein arab vyaapaariyon aur afreeki saamraajyon se ladne aur fir Bhaarat aakar apne saath laae purtagaali raaj-sandesh tatha usaki hifaajat ke liye raaja (jaamorin) se yuddh aur safalta uske drudh-nishchaya ko dikhaati hai. vaasko ko vaapas pahuainchane ke baad Portugal mein ek safal sainik ki tarah navaaja gaya. apne samakaaleen kolambas ke mukaabale usaki lambi yaatra mein bhi bagaavat naheen hui aur thakane ke baad bhi apne lakshya par jame raha.

vaasko the gaama ke Bhaarat pahuainchane par arab aur moor vyaapaariyon ke masaale ke vyaapaar ko bahut dhakka laga. is vyaapaar ko hathiyaane ke liye vaasko the gaama ne na sirf khatarnaak aur parishrami yaatra ki, balki kai yuddh bhi lada. apne behtar bandookon (ya chhote topon) ki madad se vo adhikaansh ladaaiyon mein safal raha. isse adan (arab)-horamuj (Iran)-kaaleekat jal-vyaapaar maarg toot ya kamzor pad gaya. usaki safalta ko dekhte hue Portugal ke raaja mainuel ne Bhaarat aur poorv ke kai mission chalaae. albukark, jo usaki taasari yaatra se pehle Portugal se bheja gaya tha, ne arab saagar mein arabon ke vyaapaar aur saamudrik sena aur sampatti ko tahas-nahas kar diya aur khoji Malaysia (malaaka) aur fir cheen (guaangajaau, purtagaaliyon ka rakha naam - kaintan) tak pahuainch gaye. solahaveen sadi ke at tak arabi bhaasha ki jagah tooti-footi purtagaali vyaapaar ki bhaasha ban gayi.

is samay Portugal ek saamudrik shakti ban gaya. Bhaarat mein jahaaain vo ek baar pahuaincha tha usaka naam uske sammaan mein vaasko-di-gaama (Goa mein) rakha gaya hai. chaaaind ke ek gadhdhe ka aur Portugal mein kai sadakon ka naam vaasko ke naam par rakha gaya hai. 2011 mein bani moolat: malayalam film urumi mein usako ek khalanaayak ki tarah dikhaaya gaya hai, nirdeshak - santosh shivn.

sandarbh

  1. Sourcebook: vaasko the gaama: raaund too Africa too indiya, 1497 – 1498 E] abhigman 27 June 2007
  2. [ Vasco da Gama] abhigman 27 June 2007
  3. a aa aimes, glain J (2008). the globe enkampaassd. pa॰ 27. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0131933884. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ames" defined multiple times with different content
  4. subrahmanyam 1997, pru.61
  5. subrahmanyam 1997, pru.62
  6. nijel klif (2011). The Last Crusade - The Epic Voyage of Vasco da Gama. pa॰ 50-58. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9781848870192.
  7. the gaama'za raaund afreeka too indiya. abhigman 16 November 2006
  8. farnaandej-aarmesto, felip (2006). paathafaaindars: a global history of eksploreshan. dablyoo dablyoo naurtan end company. pp. 177-178. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-393-06259-7.
  9. vaasko the gaama seeks si root too indiya www.oldnewspublishing.com. abhigman 8 July 2006
  10. farnaandej-aarmesto, felip (2006). paathafaaindars: a global history of eksploreshan. dablyoo dablyoo naurtan end company. pp. 178-179. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-393-06259-7.

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