vaanooaatoo

Republic of Vanuatu
Ripablik blong Vanuatu
Réapublique de Vanuatu (French)
dhvaj Coat of arms
raashtravaakya: "Long God yumi stanap" (We stand with God)
raashtragaan: Yumi, Yumi, Yumi ("We, We, We")
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
Port Vila
17°a45′aS 168°a18′aE / 17.75°aS 168.3°aE / -17.75; 168.3
raajabhaasha(eain) Bislama, English, French
nivaasi Ni-Vanuatu; Vanuatuan
sarkaar Parliamentary republic
- President Iolu Abil
- Prime Minister Sato Kilman
Independence from France and the UK
- Date 30 July 1980
kshetrafal
- kul 12,190 varg kilometer (161st)
4,710 varg meal
janasankhya
- 2009 janaganana 243,304[1]
- ghanatv 19.7/varg kimi (188th)
51/varg meal
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2009 praakkalan
- kul $1.141 billion$[2]
- prati vyakti $4,737$[2]
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2009 praakkalan
- kul $635 million$[2]
- prati vyakti $2,635$[2]
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Red Arrow Down.svg 0.616[3]
madhyam · 131vaaain
mudra Vanuatu vatu (VUV)
samay mandal UTC+11 (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+11)
yaataayaat chaalan disha right
doorabhaash koot 678
Internet teeeladi .vu

vaanooaatoo (bislaama mein /ˌaavanuaˈaatu/; angreji mein IPA: /ˌaavɑaaːaanuːaaˈaaɑaaːaatuː/ vah-noo-AH-too ya IPA: /ˌaavæaanˈaawɑaaːaatuː/ van-WAH-too), aadhikaarik taur par vaanooaatoo ganaraajya (fraanseesi: Réapublique de Vanuatu‎, bislaama ripblik blong vaanooaatoo), dakshin prashaant mahaasaagar mein sthit ek dweep raashtra hai. jvaalaamukhi mool ka yeh dveepasamooh uttari Australia ke lagbhag 1,750 kilometer (1,090 meal) poorv, new kailedoniya ke 500 kilometer (310 meal) poorvottar, fiji ke pashchim aur new gini ke nikat soloman dveepon ke dakshin-poorv mein sthit hai.

vaanooaatoo mein melaaneshiyaai log sabse pehle aakar base the. Europe ke logon ne 1605 mein kyooraus ke netrutv mein Spanish abhiyaan ke espiritoo sainto mein aane par in dveepon ka pata lagaaya tha. 1880 ke dashak mein France aur United kingadam ne desh ke kuchh hisson par apna daava kiya aur 1906 mein ve ek british-fraanseesi sahasvaamitv ke jariye new hebrids ke roop mein is dveepasamooh ke sanyukt prabandhan ke ek dhaaainche par sahamat hue. 1970 ke dashak mein ek svatantrata aandolan ne janm liya aur 1980 mein vaanooaatoo ganaraajya banaaya gaya.

anukram

itihaas

vaanooaatoo ka praagitihaas aspasht hai; puraataatvik saakshya aam taur par maanya is avadhaarana ka samarthan karte hain ki ostroneshiyaai bhaashaaen bolne vaale log lagbhag 4000 saal poorv sabse pehle in dveepon par aaye the. 1300-1100 beeseei (BCE) ke samay ke mitti ke bartanon ke tukade yahaaain paae gaye hain.[4]

vaanooaatoo dveepasamoohon ki khoj 1606 mein yooropiynon dvaara us samay ki gayi thi jab Spanish kraaun ke liye kaam kar rahe purtagaali anveshak pedro Fernandes di kyooraus espiritoo sainto par pahuainche the aur yeh sochakar ki ve tera ostrelis ya Australia aa pahuainche hain, unhonne ise la Australia Dale espiritoo sainto ya "the southern land of holi spirit" kaha tha. yooropiyn 1768 tak vaapas naheen laute the, jab Louis entoin di bugenavile ne fir se is dweep ki khoj ki thi. 1774 mein, captain cook ne in dveepon ko new haibrids naam diya, vah naam jo iski aajaadi tak kaayam raha.[4]

1825 mein vyaapaari Peter diln dvaara eromaingo dweep par chandan ki lakdi ki khoj se vahaaain aapravaasiyon ki bheed jutne lagi jo 1830 mein aapravaasiyon aur polineshiyn shramikon ke beech ek takaraav ke baad khtm hui. 1860 ke dashak mein Australia, fiji, new Spain aur samaana dveepasamooh mein baagaan maalikon ne majadooron ki jarooraton ko dekhte hue ek deerghakaalik karaaranaama aadhaarit (girmitiya) shram vyaapaar ko badhaava diya jise "blaikabarding" kaha gaya. shram vyaapaar ki charam seema par kai dweep samoohon ki vayask purush aabaadi mein aadhe se adhik logon ne doosare deshon mein jaakar kaam kiya. apoorn saakshya yeh sanket dete hain ki vaanooaatoo ki maujooda aabaadi sampark-poorv ke samay ki tulana mein kaafi kam ho gayi hai.[4]

19veen sadi mein hi Catholic aur protesteint donon mishnariyaaain in dweep samoohon par pahuainchi theen. kapaas ke baagaan taiyaar karne ke liye bhoomi ki talaash mein nae basane vaale log bhi yahaaain aaye the. jab antararaashtreeya star par kapaas ki keematein gir gayeen, baagaan maalik kaufi, koko, kele aur sabse safalataapoorvak naariyl ki kheti karne lage. praarambh mein, Australia se aane waali british vastuen bahutaayat mein aayeen lekin 1882 mein new haibrids ki kailidoniyn company ki sthaapana ne jaldi hi fraanseesi vastuon ke paksh mein ek santulan kaayam kar liya. sadi ke ant tak fraanseesi vastuon ne british vastuon ko do ke mukaabale ek se maat de di.[4]

dweep samooh mein fraanseesi aur british hiton ke ghaalamel ke kaaran donon shaktiyon mein se ek ya doosare ke liye is kshetr mein apna adhikaar kaayam karne ki yaachikaaen laai gayeen. haalaanki 1906 mein France aur United kingadam sanyukt roop se dweep samooh ka niyantran karne par sahamat ho gaye. british-French kondominiym kaha jaane wala sarkaar ka yeh ek anootha svaroop tha jismein alag-alag sarkaari pranaaliyaaain ek sanyukt adaalat mein ek saath aayi theen. melaaneshiynon ko donon hi shaktiyon ki naagarikta praapt karne se rok diya gaya tha.[4]

sarkaar ke is svaroop ke liye chunautiyaan 1940 ke dashak ke aarambh mein shuroo huin. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan amerikiyon ke aagaman ke saath unke anaupachaarik vyavahaar aur sambandhit samruddhi ne is dweep samooh mein raashtravaad ke udaya mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai thi. John fram naamak ek mithkeeya maseehaai vyaktitv mein vishvaas melaaneshiyaai mukti ka vaada karne vaale ek svadeshi kaargo sanpradaaya (audyogik vastuon ko jaadoo ke jariye praapt karne ki koshish ka ek aandolan) ka aadhaar bana tha. aaj, John fram ek dharm aur ek raajaneetik dal donon hai jiske sadasya sansad mein maujood hain.[4]

pehle raajaneetik dal ka gathan 1970 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein kiya gaya tha aur mool roop se ise new haibrids national party kaha gaya tha. father vaaltar lini iske sansthaapakon mein se ek the jo baad mein yahaaain ke pradhaanamantri bane. 1974 mein party ka naam badalkar vaanuakoo pati kar diya gaya jisne aajaadi ke liye kaafi jor lagaaya; 1980 mein sankshipt kokonat vaar[5][6] ke beech vaanooaatoo ganaraajya (ripblik of vaanooaatoo) ka gathan kar diya gaya.[4]

1990 ke dashak ke dauraan vaanooaatoo mein raajaneetik asthirta dekhi gayi jiska parinaam antat: ek adhik vikendreekrut sarkaar ke roop mein saamane aaya. ek ardhasainik samooh, vaanooaatoo mobile fors ne ek bhugataan sambandhi vivaad ki vajah se 1996 mein ek takhtaapalat ka prayaas kiya. vahaaain maiksime kaarlot koramain ki sarkaar par bhrashtaachaar ke aarop lagaae gaye the. 1997 ke baad se kai baar nae chunaavon ki maang ki gayi hai, sabse haal hi mein 2004 mein iski maang ki gayi.

2009 ke bhookamp

chitr:Earthquakes Near Vanuatu, October 9, showing plate boundaries.jpg
vaanooaatoo nikat bhookamp ke jhatke, 7-8 October 2009.gol aakaar teevrata ka sanket dete hain aur kaali line plate ki seemaaon ko ko darshaati hai.

7 aur 8 October 2009 ke beech halke se lekar teevr bhookamp ke kai jhatakon ne vaanooaatoo aur Santa krooj dveepon ke aaspaas ke kshetr ko prabhaavit kiya tha. bhookamp ka pehla jhatka 7 October 2009 ko 2203 UTC (UTC) par aaya tha aur iski teevrata 7.6 Mw maapi gayi thi. is poore kshetr ke 11 deshon ke liye ek sunaami chetaavani jaari ki gayi thi haalaanki ek halki sunaami taiyaar hone ke baad do ghanton ke andar hi ise radd kar diya gaya.[7][8]

vaanooaatoo ke bhookamp Australia plate aur prashaant plate ki seema par (ya iske nikat) aaye the aur ye jyaadaatar 35 kilometer (22 meal) ki gaharaai par the. yeh seema kshetr bhookampeeya drushti se duniya ke sabse sakriya kshetron mein shaamil hai.[9]

praarambhik bhookamp ko forashauk ke roop mein nirdisht kiya gaya tha kyonki iske baad usi kshetr mein 15 minute ke baad 7.8 ki teevrata ke jhatke aaye the. baad mein madhyam teevrata ke paravarti jhatke aaftarashauk aaye jinki teevrata 6.0 ya isse adhik thi jinhein neeche diya gaya hai (praarambhik jhatke ke baad 12 ghante ke andar 5.0 se 5.8 ki teevrata ke ek darjan jhatke aaye the). 7.0 ya isse adhik teevrata ke jhatakon ko halke neele rang mein aur 7.8 ki teevrata ke mukhya jhatke ko gahre neele rang mein dikhaaya gaya hai.

dinaank
varsh-maah-din
samay
UTC (UTC)
akshaansh deshaantar gaharaai teevrata/parimaan sandarbh (ref.)
07-10-2009 22:03:15 13.052° S 166.187° dablyoo 35 kimi (22 meal) 7.6 (Mw) [10]
07-10-2009 22:18:26 12.554° S 166.320° dablyoo 35 kimi (22 meal) 7.8 (Mw) [11]
07-10-2009 23:13:49 13.145° S 166.297° dablyoo 33 kimi (21 meal) 7.3 (Mw) [12]
08-10-2009 02:12:39 11.650° S 166.170° dablyoo 35 kimi (22 meal) 6.6 (Mw) [13]
08-10-2009 08:28:49 13.298° S 165.951° dablyoo 35 kimi (22 meal) 6.8 (Mw) [14]
08-10-2009 08:34:38 12.276° S 166.448° dablyoo 35 kimi (22 meal) 6.5 (Mw) [15]
08-10-2009 21:16:12 12.879° S 166.200° dablyoo 11 kimi (7 meal) 6.2 (Mw) [16]

2010 ke bhookamp

vaanooaatoo mein 2010 ke madhya mein bhookamp ke jhatke mahasoos kiye jaate rahe. inmein se sabse bade jhatakon mein shaamil the:

  • 28 May 2010, 4:14 praat: sthaaneeya samay: 7.4 teevrata ki maap ka ek bhookamp port vila ke pashchimottar mein 300 samudri meal par 22 meal ki gaharaai par aaya. iske kaaran tatkaal ek sunaami ki chetaavani jari kar di gayi, haalaanki baad mein ise radd kar diya gaya.[17]
  • 10 August 2010, 16:23 sthaaneeya samay: 7.3 ki teevrata ka ek bhookamp - moolat: 7.5-7.6 ka anumaan lagaaya gaya tha - yeh jhatka port vila se 22 meal (35 kilometer) pashchim-pashchimotar disha mein 22 meal (35 kilometer) ki gaharaai par aaya.[18] iske parinaam svaroop port vila mein telephone aur bijli band ho gayi aur paisifik sunaami vaarning center ne bataaya ki bhookamp ke kaaran us sthaan par 23-seinteemeetar sunaami viksit ho gayi thi.[19]

June,[20] July,[21][22] August,[23] aur September[24] mein 6.0 aur 7.0 ki teevrata ke kuchh aur jhatke bhi aaye the.

bhaugolik sthiti

tanna dweep par mount yaasur ka sindar plane.

vaanooaatoo lagbhag 82 apekshaakrut chhote, jvaalaamukheeya mool ke bhaugolik roop se nae dveepon ka ek dveepasamooh hai (jinmein se 65 dweep base hue hain), jiske sabse baahari dveepon ke beech uttar se dakshin ke beech ki doori lagbhag 800 meal (1,300 kimi) hai.[25] inmein se do dveepon (Matthew aur hantar) par new kailedoniya ka fraanseesi videsh vibhaag bhi apna daava karta hai. vaanooaatoo dweep samooh ke chaudah dveepon ki satah ka kshetrafal 100 varg ki॰mee॰ (39 varg meal) se adhik hai.100 varg kilometer (39 varg meal)

sabse bade se sabse chhote tak inke naam hain, espiritoo sainto (Espiritu Santo), maalaakula (Malakula), efaate (Efate), eromaingo (Erromango), embrim (Ambrym), tanna (tanna), peintekost (Pentecost), epi (epi), aanbe (Ambae) ya aaoba (Aoba), vanuaa laava (Vanua lava), gauaa (Gaua), maaevo (Maewo), maalo (Malo) aur enaatom (Anatom) ya eneetiym (Aneityum). desh ke sabse bade shahar efaate par sthit rajdhani port vila aur espiritoo sainto par sthit lugaanavile hain.[26] vaanooaatoo ka uchchatam bindu espiritoo sainto dweep par 1,879 meter (6,165 fut) par sthit mount taabavemaasana hai.

vaanooaatoo ka kul kshetr (mote taur par 12,274 varg kilometer (4,739 varg meal))[27] hai, jiska bhoomi kshetr bahut kam hai (mote taur par 4,700 varg kilometer (1,800 varg meal)); jyaadaatar dweep tej dhalaan vaale hain, jinki mitti asthir hai aur iname sthaai taaje meethe paani ki kaafi kami hai.[25] ek anumaan (2005) ke mutaabik keval 9% bhoomi ka krushi ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai (7% sthaayi fasalein, 2% krushi yogya bhoomi).[28] tat rekha aamtaur par chattaani hai jo kinaaron waali shailabhittiyon ki upasthiti aur mahaadveepeeya shelf na hone ke kaaran teji se saagar ki gaharaai mein sama jaati hai.[25]

vaanooaatoo mein lopevi sahit kai sakriya jvaalaamukhi maujood hain, saath hi yahaaain kai jalanimgn jvaalaamukhiyaan bhi hain. sadaiv upasthit rahane vaale bade visfot ke khatre ke saath-saath yahaaain jvaalaamukheeya gatividhi kaafi aam hai; haal hi mein November 2008 mein paas ke samudra ke bheetar 6.4 teevrata ka jvaalaamukhi visfot hua, jismein koi hataahat naheen hua, ek visfot 1945 mein bhi hua tha.[29] vaanooaatoo ki ek vishisht sthaleeya paaristhitiki kshetr ke roop mein maanyata hai, jise vaanooaatoo varsha vanon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. yeh ostreleshiya paaristhitiki mandal ka ek hissa hai, jismein new kailedoniya, soloman dweep, Australia, new gini aur New Zealand shaamil hain.

efaate dweep par ek jaladhaara.

vaanooaatoo ki badhti hui aabaadi (2008 mein 2.4 pratishat vaarshik anumaanit)[30] krushi, charaai, shikaar aur machhali pakadne ke sthaaneeya sansaadhanon par kaafi dabaav badha rahi hai.[25] ni-vaanooaatoo ke lagbhag 90 pratishat parivaar machhali pakadte hain aur machhali khaate hain, yeh gaavon ke najdeek matsya sansaadhanon par zabardast dabaav aur tat ke nikat ki kai matsya prajaatiyon ki teji se kami ka kaaran bana hai.[25] haalaanki saghan roop se vanaspati se aachhaadit jyaadaatar dweep bhi vanon ki kataai ke sanket de rahe hain.[25] unki kataai ki ja rahi hai (vishesh roop se uchch moolya ki imaarati lakdi ke liye), unhein bade paimaane par kaatkar aur jalaakar krushi ke antargat laaya ja raha hai, naariyl vrukshaaropan aur pashu faarm mein parivrtit kiya ja raha hai aur unamein mitti ke kataav aur bhoo-skhalan ke badhte hue saakshya dikhaai de rahe hain.[25]

taaja meetha paani teji se kam hota ja raha hai aur kai uchchabhoomi ke jalotsaaran kshetr van-rahit aur nasht ho rahe hain.[25] shahari kshetron aur bade gaavon ke aas-paas uchit apashisht niptaan aur jal evam vaayu pradooshan bhi din-b-din mushkil paida karne vaale mudde bante ja rahe hain.[25] iske atirikt, audyogik aur shahari kshetr mein rojagaar ke avsaron mein kami aur baajaaron tak agamyata, milkar graameen parivaaron ko jeevan nirvaah star ya aatm nirbharata ke daayare mein band kar sthaaneeya paaristhitiki tantr par jabaradast dabaav daal rahe hain.[25]

vanaspati aur jeev-jantu

apne ushnakatibandheeya jangalon ke baavajood, vaanooaatoo mein vanaspatiyon aur pashu prajaatiyon ki ek seemit sankhya hai. yahaaain kisi bhi tarah ke svadeshi bade stanapaayi naheen hain. yahaaain ki mool 19 sareesrup prajaatiyon mein flaavarapaut saanp bhi shaamil hain, jo keval efaate par hi paae jaate hain. yahaaain chamagaadad ki 11 prajaatiyaan (3 vishisht roop se vaanooaatoo ki hi hain) aur bhoomi evam jal pakshiyon ki 61 prajaatiyaan maujood hain. haalaanki chhote poleeneshiyaai choohe mool roop se yaheen ke hain lekin badi prajaatiyaaain yooropiynon ke saath yahaaain pahucheen, isi tarah paalatoo suar, kutte aur maveshi bhi yahaaain pahunche the. vaanooaatoo ke kuchh dveepon ki cheetiyon ki prajaatiyon ko E. O. Wilson dvaara soocheebaddh kiya gaya tha.[31]

samudri ghonghe ki 4000 se adhik prajaatiyon samet, yeh kshetr samudri jeev-jantuon ke maamale mein kaafi samruddh hai. konashel aur stonafish mein manushya ke liye ghaatak vish hota hai. vishaal poorvi afreeki sthaleeya ghongha 1970 ke dashak mein hi yahaaain aaya lekin iske baavajood abhi tak port vila kshetr se lugaanavile kshetr tak fail chuka hai.

vaanooaatoo ke maingrov mein sanbhavat: 3 ya 4 vayask khaare paani ke magaramachh rah rahe hain aur vartamaan mein inki koi prajanan sambandhi janasankhya naheen hai. yeh agyaat hai ki yahaaain magaramachhon ki kabhi praakrutik prajanan se utpann janasankhya thi ya naheen (aaj ke magaramachh un magaramachhon ke vanshaj hain jo is dweep par upaniveshakon dvaara laaye gaye the)[krupaya uddharan jodein] lekin is dweep samooh ki soloman dweep aur new gini (jahaaain magaramachh bahut aam hain) se najdeeki ko dekhte hue aisa nishchit roop se sambhav hai.

jalavaayu

yahaaain ki jalavaayu uposhnakatibandheeya hai jahaaain lagbhag nau maheene tej garm se garm barasaati mausam aur chakravaat ki sambhaavana rahati hai aur teen se chaar maheene dakshin-poorv se aane waali havaaon ki vishishtata ke saath apekshaakrut thande shushk mausam vaale hote hain.[25] jal ka taapamaan sardiyon mein 72 °afai (22 °ase) se garmiyon mein 82 °afai (28 °ase) tak hota hai.[25] April aur sitmbar ke beech thande rahane vaale din, October ki shuruaat se garm aur adhik aardr ho jaate hain.[25] dainik taapamaan 68 °afai (20 °ase) se 90 °afai (32 °ase) ke beech rahata hai.[25] May se October tak dakshinpoorvi vyaapaarik havaaen chalti hain.[25]

vaanooaatoo mein varsha ritu kaafi lambi hoti hai, jismein aam taur par lagbhag har maheene kaafi jyaada barasaat hoti hai.[25] sarvaadhik naam aur garm maheene December se April tak rahate hain, jo ki chakravaati mausam ka bhi nirmaan karte hain.[25] June se November tak ke maheene sabse shushk hote hain.[25] ausat varsha prati varsh lagbhag 2,360 mileemeetar (93 inch) hoti hai lekin uttari dveepon mein 4,000 mileemeetar (160 inch) tak bhi ho sakti hai.[28]

janasaankhyiki

vaanooaatoo ki janasaankhyiki, efaeo ka aankada, varsh 2005; nivaasiyon ki sankhya hajaaron mein.

vaanooaatoo ki aabaadi 221,506 hai.[26] purushon ki sankhya mahilaaon se adhik hai; 1999 mein vaanooaatoo saankhyiki kaaryaalaya ke anusaar vahaaain ki janasankhya mein 95,682 purush aur 90996 mahilaaen theen.[32] beesaveen sadi ke antim uttaraarddh ke dauraan baal mrutyu dar mein kami I hai, yeh 1967 mein prati 100,000 vyakti par 123 mauton se ghatkar 1999 mein 25 prati 100,000 vyakti ho gayi.[33] yahaaain ki aabaadi mukhya roop se graameen hai, haalaanki port vila aur lugaanavile ki janasankhya dasiyon hajaaron mein hai.

vaanooaatoo ke mool nivaasi ya ni-vaanooaatoo jyaadaatar (98.5%) melaaneshiyaai vansh parampara ke hain aur baaki aabaadi yooropiynon, eshiyaaiyon aur prashaant mahaasaagareeya logon ke mishran se bani hai. aitihaasik roop se teen dweep polineshiynon dvaara upaniveshit kiye gaye the. lagbhag 2000 ni-vaanooaatoo new kailedoniya mein rahate hain aur yaheen kaam karte hain. 2006 mein paryaavaranavidon ke samooh new economics foundation aur freinds of the arth ne haippi plainet index prakaashit kiya, jismein soochit kiye gaye prasannata ke staron, jeevan ki pratyaasha aur paaristhitiki padachinh ke aankadon ka vishleshan kiya gaya aur vaanooaatoo ko uchch jan kalyaan haasil karne mein paaristhitikeeya drushtikon se vishv ka sarvaadhik kaaryakushal desh aaainka gaya.[34]

vaanooaatoo ganaraajya ki raashtra-bhaasha bislaama hai. aadhikaarik bhaashaaen bislaama, angreji aur French hain. shiksha ki pramukh bhaashaaen angreji aur French hain.

bislaama ek mishrit bhaasha hai aur jo ab shahari kshetron mein kriol (kai bhaashaaon ko milkar bani bhaasha) ke roop mein hai, jo moolat: vishisht meleneshiyaai vyaakaran ko ek angreji bahul shabdaavali ke saath jodkar banti hai. keval yahi ek aisi bhaasha hai jo vaanooaatoo ki jyaadaatar aabaadi dvaara doosari bhaasha ke roop mein boli aur samajhi ja sakti hai. iske atirikt vaanooaatoo mein abhi bhi 113 deshaj bhaashaaen sakriya roop se boli jaati hain.[35] prati bhaasha keval 2000 ki sankhya mein bolne vaalon ke ausat ke saath yahaaain bhaashaaon ka prati vyakti ghanatv duniya ke sabhi deshon mein sarvaadhik hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] ye sabhi sthaaneeya svadeshi bhaashaaen ostroneshiyaai parivaar ki samudri shaakha se sambandhit hain.

dharm

isaai dharm vaanooaatoo mein pramukh dharm hai, jo kai sanpradaayon se milkar bana hai. presbiteriyn church, jiska paalan ek tihaai aabaadi karti hai, inmein sabse bada hai. roman Catholic aur englikn doosare prachalit sanpradaaya hain jinmein se pratyek janasankhya ke 15% par apna daava karta hai. anya sanpradaaya hain sevanth-de edveintist church, the church of kraaist, neel Thomas ministreej (enateeem) ke saath-saath kai anya dhaarmik samooh aur sanpradaaya.

dviteeya vishv yuddh mein dveepon mein senaaon ke aane aur unke dvaara apne saath laai gayi aadhunikta ke kaaran kai kaargo panth viksit hue. kai samaapt ho gaye lekin tanna par John fram panth abhi bhi vyaapak roop se maujood hai aur unke anuyaayi sansad mein hain. tanna par hi prince Phillip movement hai jo United kingadam ke prince Phillip par shraddha rakhata hai.[36] yaaohanaanen janajaati ke graameen ek praacheen katha mein vishvaas karte the jo ki parvat aatma ke ek peeli-tvacha vaale putr ke baare mein thi, jo ek shaktishaali mahila se vivaah karne ke liye samudron ke paar jaane ka saahas karta hai. Rajkumar Phillip, jo apni nai patni mahaaraani elijaabeth ke saath is dweep ki yaatra kar chuke hain is vivran par poori tarah sahi baithate hain aur isliye shraddheya hain aur yahaaain tak ki tanna dweep ke aas paas devata ki tarah maane jaate hain.[37][38]

sarkaar

prashaasanik vibhaag

vaanooaatoo ke praant.

1994 se vaanooaatoo ko chhah praanton mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya hai. sabhi praanton ke angreji naam unke mool dveepon ke praarambhik aksharon se liye gaye hain:

  • maalaampa (maalaakula, embrim, paama)
  • panaama (peintekaust, aanbe, mevo - French mein: penaama)
  • sanma (sainto, maalo)
  • shefa (shefards group, efaate - French mein: shefa)
  • taafiya (tanna, aniva, fyoochoona, eromaingo, eneetiym - French mein: taife)
  • torba (tores dweep, bankon ka dweep)

praant svaayatt ikaaiyaan hain jahaan unki apni lokapriya nirvaachit sthaaneeya sansad hai jinhein aadhikaarik taur par praanteeya parishdon (provinsiyl kaaunsil) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. ye sthaaneeya karon ko ikattha karne ka kaam karte hain aur paryatan, praanteeya bajat ya kuchh buniyaadi sevaaon ke praavadhaan jaise sthaaneeya maamalon mein upaniym banaate hain. inki adhyakshata sthaaneeya sansad ke sadasyon mein se niyukt Chairman karte hain aur lok seva aayog dvaara niyukt sachiv unke sahaayak ki bhoomika mein hote hain.

kaaryakaari shaakha ek praanteeya sarkaar se bani hoti hai jiski adhyakshata ek kaaryakaari adhikaari dvaara ki jaati hai jinki niyukti pradhaanamantri dvaara sthaaneeya sarkaar ke mantriyon ki salaah par ki jaati hai. praanteeya sarkaar aam taur par us party dvaara gathit ki jaati hai jiska praanteeya parishad mein bahumat hota hai aur raashtreeya sarkaar ki tarah, ni-vaanooaatoo sanskruti aur bhaasha mein pramukhon ki sthaaneeya parishad dvaara unako salaah di jaati hai. praanteeya adhyaksh samvaidhaanik roop se us nirvaachak college ka ek sadasya hota hai jo vaanooaatoo ka raashtrapati chunata hai.

badle mein praanton ko nagar paalikaaon (aam taur par ek vyaktigat dweep se bani) mein vibhaajit kar diya jaata hai jiska netrutv parishad ke sadasyon mein se nirvaachit ek parishad aur ek mahaapaur ke paas hota hai.

raajaneeti

vaanooaatoo ki sansad.
vaanooaatoo ka maanachitr.

vaanooaatoo ganaraajya ek sansadeeya lokatantr hai jiska apna ek likhit samvidhaan hai jo yeh ghoshana karta hai ki "ganatantr ke pramukh ko raashtrapati ke roop mein jaana jaaega aur vah raashtra ki ekta ka prateek hoga." vaanooaatoo ke raashtrapati, jinhein ek nirvaachak mandal ke do tihaai bahumat dvaara 5 saal ke kaaryakaal ke liye nirvaachit kiya jaata hai, unki shaktiyaan mukhya roop se aupachaarik hoti hain.[39] nirvaachak mandal sansad ke sadasyon aur kshetreeya parishdon ke adhyakshon se milkar bana hota hai. raashtrapati ko sakal kadaachaar ya akshamata ke kaaran nirvaachak mandal dvaara hataaya ja sakta hai.

pradhaanamantri, jo sarkaar ke pramukh hote hain, unhein sansad ki teen chauthaai koram ke bahumat se chuna jaata hai. badle mein pradhaanamantri mantriyon ki parishad ko niyukt karte hain, jinki sankhya sansadeeya pratinidhiyon ki sankhya ke ek chauthaai se adhik naheen ho sakti hai. pradhaanamantri aur mantriyon ki parishad kaaryakaari sarkaar ka gathan karte hain.

vaanooaatoo ki sansad ek sabha waali (yoonikaimaral) hai aur ismein 54 sadasya hain, jinhein har chaar saal par lokapriya maton ke jariye nirvaachit kiya jaata hai jab tak ki ise teen chauthaai koram ke bahumat se ya pradhaanamantri ki salaah par raashtrapati ke ek nirdesh ke jariye bhang na kar diya jaae. raashtreeya pramukhon ki parishad, jise maalvaatu maauri kaha jaata hai aur jise jila star ke pramukhon ki parishad dvaara chuna jaata hai, yeh ni-vaanooaatoo ki sanskruti aur bhaasha se sambandhit sabhi maamalon par sarkaar ko salaah deti hai.

raashtreeya adhikaariyon aur hastiyon ke alaava vaanooaatoo mein graameen star par uchch padon par logon ko rakha gaya hai. vibhinn star ke pramukh pramukhon pehle aur abhi bhi graameen star par pramukh hastiyaan hain. aisa bataaya gaya hai ki raajanetaaon ko bhi unhein upakrut karne ki jaroorat hoti hai.[40] koi vyakti anekon bhavya star ke bhoj (pratyek bhoj unhein aur ooaincha rasmi darja deta hai) ka aayojan kar ya vaikalpik roop se viraasat ke jariye (doosra vikalp keval polineshiyaai-praabhiv gaanvon mein apnaaya jaata hai) is tarah ki hasti banane mein saksham hota hai. uttari vaanooaatoo mein, bhojon ka darja nimaangki pranaali ke maadhyam se diya jaata hai.

vaanooaatoo mein sarkaar aur samaaj French aur angreji bhaashi panktiyon mein vibhaajit hai. haalaanki angreji aur French bhaashi logon ke beech matabhedon ke kaaran gathabandhan sarkaar ka gathan kai baar mushkilon bhara saabit hua hai.

sarvochch nyaayaalaya mein ek mukhya nyaayaadheesh aur teen anya nyaayaadheesh tak shaamil hote hain. is adaalat ke do ya isse adhik sadasya ek yaachika adaalat (court of appeal) ka gathan kar sakte hain. magistrate ki adaalatein jyaadaatar niyamit kaanooni maamalon ka niyantran karti hain. kaanooni pranaali british saamaanya kaanoon aur fraanseesi naagrik kaanoon par aadhaarit hai. samvidhaan gaanv ya dweep sambandhi adaalaton ki sthaapana ka bhi praavadhaan karta hai jinki adhyakshata paramparaagat kaanoon ke savaalon se nibatne vaale pramukhon dvaara ki ja sakti hai.

videshi sambandh aur sena

vaanooaatoo Asiaee vikaas bank vishv bank antararaashtreeya mudra kosh agency di kauraporeshan kalcharal eight tekaneek (Agence de Coopéaration Culturelle et Technique), la frainkofoni (la Francophonie) aur raashtron ke raashtramandal mein shaamil ho chuka hai.

1980 ke baad se Australia, United kingadam (UK), France aur New Zealand ne vaanooaatoo ko kaafi maatra mein vikaas sambandhi sahaayata pradaan ki hai. Britain dvaara prashaant kshetr par aage dhyaan keindrit naheen karne ke faisale ke baad Britain se vaanooaatoo ko milne waali pratyaksh sahaayata 2005 mein band kar di gayi thi. haalaanki haal hi mein nae daataaon jaise ki mileniym chaileinj account (MCA) aur cheeni lokataantrik ganatantr (people's ripblik of China) dvaara aur adhik maatra mein sahaayata pradaan ki gayi hai. 2005 mein MCA ne ghoshana ki thi ki vaanooaatoo sahaayata praapti ke liye chune gaye duniya ke pehle 15 deshon mein se ek tha - saarvajanik buniyaadi suvidhaaon ke pramukh angon ki vyavastha aur unnayan ke liye 65 million ameriki dollar (US$65) ki raashi pradaan ki gayi thi.

Australia, Europeeya sangh (vishesh roop se France aur Britain) aur New Zealand ke saath vaanooaatoo ka majaboot aarthik aur saanskrutik sambandh kaayam hai. Australia ab ise kaafi maatra mein baahari sahaayata pradaan karta hai jismein police bal shaamil hai, jiska ek arddhasainik ving bhi hai. vaanooaatoo ki sena ek chhoti, gatisheel (mobile), 300 svayansevakon ki vaahini, vaanooaatoo mobile fors (veeemaef) se milkar bani hai jo vaanooaatoo police fors (veepeeef) ka ek hissa hai. kul sainya kharch ke aankade upalabdh naheen hain.

arthavyavastha

port vila mein ek baajaar

arthavyavastha ke chaar mukhya aadhaar krushi, paryatan, apatateeya vitteeya sevaaen aur pashupaalan hain. yahaaain machhali pakadne se judi gatividhiyaan kaafi hoti hain, haalaanki yeh udyog desh mein adhik videshi mudra naheen la paata hai. pramukh niryaaton mein kopara, kaava, gomaans, koko aur imaarati lakdi shaamil hain aur aayaat mein machine aur upakaran, khaadya padaarth aur indhan sammilit hain.[41] iske vipreet khanan sambandhi gatividhiyaan kaafi kam hain. haalaanki mainganeej ka khanan 1978 mein ruk gaya, fir bhi khanan kiye ja chuke lekin niryaat na kiye gaye mainganeej ka niryaat karne ke liye 2006 mein ek samjhauta hua tha.[41] desh mein koi gyaat petrolium bhandaar naheen hai. ek chhota sa prakaash-udyog kshetr sthaaneeya baajaar ki jrooraton ko poora karta hai. kar raajasv mukhyat: aayaat shulk aur vastuon aur sevaaon par 12.5 pratishat vait (VAT) se aata hai. aarthik vikaas apekshaakrut kuchh hi vastuon ke niryaat par nirbharata, praakrutik aapadaaon ke jokhim aur sanghatak dveepon aur mukhya baajaaron ke beech lambi doori ke dvaara baadhit hai.

krushi ka prayog mukhya roop se upabhog ke liye aur saath hi niryaat ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai. yeh 65% aabaadi ko aajeevika pradaan karti hai. vishesh roop se kopara aur kaava ke utpaadan paryaapt raajasv paida karte hain. kai kisaan khaadya krushi ko chhod rahe hain aur kaava ki kheti ki kamaai se khaadya-padaarth khareedte hain.[40] kaava ka prayog kbeelon aur gaanvon ke beech anushthaanik aadaan-pradaanon ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai.[42] koko ki kheti videshi mudra arjit karne ke liye bhi ki jaati hai.[43] 2007 mein machhali pakadne mein sanlagn parivaaron ki sankhya 15,758 thi jinmein mukhyat: upabhog ke liye (99%) hote the aur ve machhaliyaaain pakadne ke liye ausatan saptaah mein teen baar samudra ki yaatra karte the.[44] yahaaain ki ooshn katibandheeya jalavaayu kela, lahasun, gobhi, moongafali, anaanaas, ganna, taaro (ek prakaar ka kand mool), shakarakand, tarabooj, patti vaale masaale, gaajar, mooli, baingan, vanila (hara aur upachaarit donon prakaar ka), kaali mirch, kheera sahit aur kai anya prakaar ke falon aur sabjiyon ki kheti mein madad karti hai.[45] 2007 mein krushi utpaadan ke vibhinn utpaadon ka moolya (million vaatu mein - jo vaanooaatoo ki sarkaari mudra hai) anumaanit kiya gaya: kaava (341 million vaatu), kopara (195), pashu (135), fasal udyaan (93), koko (59), vaaniki (56), matsya udyog (24), kaufi (12).[46]

desh ke liye behad jaroori videshi mudra paryatan ke maadhyam se aati hai. vaanooaatoo ko dakshin prashaant kshetr ki pravaal bhittiyon ki khoj karne ke ichhuk gotaakhoron ke liye chhutiyaaain bitaane vaale pramukh gantavyon mein se ek ke roop mein vyaapak maanyata praapt hai. ek anumaan ke mutaabik 2007 se 2008 ke beech paryatan mein 17% ki vruddhi ke saath yahaaain aane vaalon ki sankhya 196,134 pahuainch gayi thi.[47] 2008 mein samast aane vaale paryatakon ki kul sankhya mein 2000 ke maatr 57,000 yaatriyon ke mukaabale teevr vruddhi hui (inmein se 37,000 Australia se, 8,000 New Zealand se, 6000 new kailedoniya se, 3000 Europe se, 1000 uttari America se aur 1000 se Japan se aaye the. (not: aankadon ko niktatam hajaar tak poorn kar diya gaya hai).[48] vaanooaatoo mein kai reality TV kaaryakramon ka kaaryasthal hone ke kaaran paryatan ko kuchh had tak badhaava mila hai. reality TV shrankhala "sarvaaivar " ke navein season ko vaanooaatoo mein filmaaya gaya jiska sheershak tha Survivor: Vanuatu - aailainds of fire . do saal baad Australia ke celebrity sarvaaivar ko theek usi jagah filmaaya gaya jiska prayog iske ameriki sanskaran ne kiya tha. varsh 2002 ke madhya mein sarkaar ne paryatan ko badhaava dene ke prayaason ko tej kiya.

vitteeya sevaaen arthavyavastha ka ek mahatvapoorn hissa hain. vaanooaatoo kar chori karne vaalon ke liye aisa aashray sthal (tax haiven) hai ki 2008 tak yeh desh doosari sarkaaron ya kaanoon-pravartan agencyon ko khaaton ki jaankaari upalabdh naheen karta tha. mukhyat: Australia ke antararaashtreeya dabaav ne vaanooaatoo sarkaar ko paaradarshita badhaane ke antararaashtreeya maanadandon ka paalan karna shuroo karne ko baadhya kiya hai. vaanooaatoo mein koi aay kar, aay srot par kar katauti, poonjeegat laabh kar, uttaraadhikaar kar ya vinimay niyantran naheen hai. kar laabh aur anukool shram kaanoonon ki vajah se kai antararaashtreeya jahaaj-prabandhan companiyaan apne jahaajon ke dhvajeekaran ke liye vaanooaatoo ka jhanda chunati hain (vaanooaatoo antarraashtreeya samudri sangathan (international meritaaim organization) ka ek poorn sadasya hai aur apne antararaashtreeya karaaron ko laagoo karta hai). kai saare faail saajha karne vaale samooh, jaise sharaman netavarks ke kaja (KaZaA) network pradaataaon aur vinemaeks (WinMX) ke vikaasakon ne viniyman aur kaanooni chunautiyon se bachane ke liye vaanooaatoo mein nigmeekaran ka chayan kiya hai. videshi chintaaon ki pratikriya mein sarkaar ne apne apatateeya vitteeya kendron ke viniyman ko kade karne ka vaada kiya hai. vaanooaatoo mukhya roop se Australia aur New Zealand se videshi sahaayata praapt karta hai.

vaanijyik krushi, uttar efaate

gaaya-bail paalan se niryaat ke liye gomaans utpaadan ko badhaava milta hai. 2007 ke ek anumaan ke mutaabik beche gaye gaaya-bail ki kul keemat 135 million vaatu thi; gaaya-bail ko is kshetr mein sabse pehle british baagaan maalik James paidan dvaara Australia se laaya gaya tha.[49] pratyek ghar mein ausatan 5 sooar aur 16 murgiyaan hoti hain aur haalaanki gaaya-bail "sabse mahatvapoorn pashudhan" hain, sooar aur murgiyaan aajeevika sambandhi kheti ke liye mahatvapoorn hone saath-saath samaarohon aur paranparaaon mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaate hain (vishesh roop se sooar).[50] yahaaain 30 vyaavasaayik faarm (ekal svaamitv (37%), bhaageedaar (23%), nigam (17%) maujood hain jinse 2007 mein 533 million vaatu ka raajasv praapt hua aur inapar 329 million vaatu ka kharch hua.[51]

bhookamp is dweep raashtra par aarthik gatividhi ko nakaaraatmak roop se prabhaavit kar sakte hain. November 1999 mein ek gambhir bhookamp aur uske baad soonaami aane ke kaaran peintekost ke uttari dweep ko bhaari kshati hui thi, jismein hajaaron log beghar ho gaye the. January 2002 mein ek anya shaktishaali bhookamp ke kaaran rajdhani port vila aur aas-paas ke kshetron mein vyaapak kshati hui thi aur iske baad ek sunaami bhi aayi thi. 7.2 ki teevrata ke bhookamp ka ek jhatka 2 August 2007 ko bhi aaya tha.[52]

vaanooaatoo national staitistiks office (veeesaenao) (VNSO) ne 2008 mein apni 2007 krushi aadhaarit janaganana jaari ki thi. is adhyayan ke anusaar, krushi sambandhi niryaat sabhi tarah ke niryaat ka teen chauthaai (73%) hai; 80% aabaadi graameen kshetron mein rahati hai jahaan "krushi unki aajeevika ka mukhya srot hai"; aur in parivaaron mein se, lagbhag sabhi (99)% kheti, machhali paalan aur vaaniki mein sanlagn hain.[53] kul vaarshik ghareloo aay 1,803 million vaatu thi. is aay mein, unke parivaaron ke istemaal ke liye ki gayi kheti ka moolya 683 million vaatu, bikri ke liye kheti ka moolya 561 vaatu, praapt upahaar ka moolya 38 vaatu, hast shilp ka moolya 33 vaatu, matsya paalan (bikri ke liye) ka moolya 18 vaatu aanka gaya tha.[53] parivaaron dvaara sabse adhik khaadya-padaarthon par 300 million vaatu ka kharch kiya gaya tha jiske baad ghareloo upakaranon aur anya jarooraton (79 million vaatu), parivhan (59), shiksha evam sevaaen (56), aavaas (50), alkohal aur tambaakoo (39), vastr evam jooton (17) ka number aata hai.[54] niryaat ka moolya 3,038 million vaatu aanka gaya tha aur ismein kopara (485), kaava (442), koko (221), gomaans (taaja aur child) (180), lakdi (80), machhali (jinda machhali, ekveriym, shel, batan) (28) shaamil the.[55] 20,472 million vaatu ke kul aayaat mein audyogik saamagriyaan (4,261), khaadya evam peya (3,984), machinery (3,087), upabhokta vastuen (2,767), parivhan upakaran (2,125), indhan aur lyubrikaints (187) aur anya aayaat (4,060) shaamil the.[56] vahaan badi sankhya mein fasal udyaan maujood hain - 2007 mein 97,888 - kai samatal jameen par (62%), thode pahaadi dhlaan par (31%) aur yahaaain tak ki khadi dhlaan par (7%); vahaaain kam se kam ek fasal udyaan vaale parivaaron ki sankhya 33,570 thi aur inmein se 10,788 parivaar in fasalon ka kuchh hissa baarah maah ki avadhi ke dauraan bech dete hain.[57]

2000 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein arthavyavastha mein lagbhag 6% ki vruddhi hui thi.[58] yeh 1990 ke dashak se adhik thi jab GDP mein ausatan 3% ki vruddhi hui thi.

vaanooaatoo ki arthavyavastha ke baare mein Manila-sthit asian development bank ki ek report ne mishrit sameekshaaen di thi. ismein yeh ullekh kiya gaya tha ki arthavyavastha mein "vistaar" ho raha tha, jiske baare mein kaha gaya tha ki 2003 se 2007 tak arthavyavastha 5.9% ki ek prabhaavashaali dar se badhi thi aur "kuchh kshetron mein sarkaar ke sudhaaravaadi prayaason ke sandarbh mein sakaaraatmak sanketon" ki prasansa ki thi lekin ismein kuchh khaas baadhyakaari khaamiyon jaise ki "kharaab buniyaadi sevaaon" ka jikr kiya gaya tha. kyonki ek niji ekaadhikaar dvaara bijli utpann ki jaati hai, vikaasasheel deshon ke beech "bijli ki laagat prashaant kshetr ke sabse adhik mein se ek hain". report mein yeh bhi ullekh kiya gaya tha ki "kamjor prashaasan aur raajya dvaara anuchit dakhalaandaaji" ne utpaadakata ko kam kar diya tha.[58]

sanchaar

dweep samooh mein mobile phone seva teeveeel (TVL) aur dijeesel (Digicel) dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai. ek sarkaari network bhi nirmaanaadheen hai jiske jariye desh bhar mein sarkaari kaaryaalayon ko E-mel, telephone, Internet aur video kaunfreinsing suvidhaaen pradaan ki jaaengi.[59]

sanskruti

vaanooaatoo ke barnis pi. bishp myoojiym se liye gaye lakdi ke kate hue drum

vaanooaatoo ki sanskruti ne sthaaneeya kshetreeya bhinnataaon aur videshi prabhaav ke maadhyam se ek majaboot vividhta kaayam rakhi hai. vaanooaatoo ko teen pramukh saanskrutik kshetron mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai. uttar mein, samruddhi ki sthaapana koi doosaron ko kitna de sakta hai is aadhaar par ki jaati hai. vishesh roop se gol daanton vaale sooar poore vaanooaatoo mein samruddhi ka prateek maane jaate hain. madhya mein, adhik paramparaagat melaaneshiyaai saanskrutik paddhatiyon ka varchasv hai. dakshin mein, visheshaadhikaaron ke saath upaadhiyaaain dene se judi ek paddhati viksit hui hai.[35]

yuvakon ko purushatv mein pravisht karne ke liye vibhinn yauvanaaranbh samaarohon aur anushthaanon[60] se gujrana hota hai, jismein saamaanya roop se khtana shaamil hota hai.

adhikaansh gaanvon mein ek naakaamal ya gram sabhaaghar hota hai jo purushon ke milne ke kendra aur kaava peene ke sthaan ke roop mein kaam aata hai. gaanvon mein keval purush aur keval mahila vaale sthaan bhi hote hain. ye sthaan poore gaanv mein maujood hote hain; naakaamalon mein, maahavaari avadhi ke dauraan mahilaaon ko vishesh sthaan upalabdh karavaae jaate hain.

vaanooaatoo ka paaramparik sangeet abhi bhi vaanooaatoo ke graameen kshetron mein fal-fool raha hai. vaadya yantr mukhya roop se aaidiyofons (kampan dhvani vaale vaadya yantr) se bane hote hain: vibhinn aakaar aur maap ke dhol (drum), daraar vaale ghante (slit gong) aur anya cheejon ke alaava jhunajhune. 20veen sadi ke dauraan vaanooaatoo ke sabhi hisson mein vyaapak roop se lokapriya ho chuki ek anya sangeet shaili ko string band sangeet ke naam se jaana jaata hai. ismein gitaar, ukulele (gitaar jaisa vaadya yantr) aur lokapriya geeton ka mel hota hai.

abhi haal hi mein vaanooaatoo ke sangeet ne ek udyog ke roop mein 1990 ke dashak mein teji se vruddhi ki hai aur kai baindon ne ni-vaanooaatoo ki ek vishisht pehchaan banaai hai. vartamaan mein shaharon mein bajaai ja rahi aadhunik vyaavasaayik sangeet ki lokapriya shailiyon mein jook (zouk) sangeet aur regeeton (reggaeton) shaamil hain. regeeton, hip-haup ka ek parivrtit roop hai jismein Spanish bhaasha mein raip sangeet bajaaya jaata hai, yeh apni vishisht taal ke saath saath bajaaya jaata hai, isko vishesh roop se sthaaneeya night clubon mein prastut kiya jaata hai jahaaain adhikaansh paashchaatyavaasi aur paryatak, shrota ke roop mein maujood hote hain.

yahaaain kai pratishthit ni-vaanooaatoo (vaanooaatoo nivaasi) lekhak hain. mahila adhikaar kaaryakarta gres mera molisa ne ek varnanaatmak kavayitri ke roop mein antararaashtreeya prasiddhi haasil ki, jinka 2002 mein nidhan ho gaya.

vaanooaatoo mein cricket bahut lokapriya hai aur iski apni raashtreeya team bhi hai. yahaaain 8000 panjeekrut cricketer hain.[61] vaanooaatoo mein khelne vaale kuchh ragbi union hain. yahaaain khel mein shaamil logon ke ling ke aadhaar par khelon mein bhinnata hoti hain. vauleebaal ko 'ladkiyon ka khel' maana jaata hai aur purush football khelte hain.

vaanooaatoo ke vyanjanon (elan kakaae) mein machhali, kandamool jaise ki taaro aur yaam (shakarakand), fal aur sabjiyaan sammilit rahati hain.[25] dveepon ke adhiktar parivaar khaadya-padaarthon ko apne bageechon mein hi ugaate hain aur bhojan ki kami virle hi hoti hai.[25] papeeta, anaanaas, aam, kele aur shakarakand varsh ke adhikaansh samay prachur maatra mein upalabdh rahate hain.[25] kai vyanjanon ko susvaadu banaane ke liye naariyl ke doodh aur kreem ka istemaal kiya jaata hai.[25] adhikaansh vyanjan garm pattharon ka prayog karke ya ubaalakar aur bhaap se banaae jaate hain; bahut kam khaana tala jaata hai.[25]

svaasthya aur shiksha

vaanooaatoo ki jalavaayu sehatamand hai aur 80% se adhik aabaadi graameen ilaakon mein, door daraaj ke gaanvon mein nivaas karti hai jinke apne bageeche hain aur inka upayog ve apni khaadya aapoorti ke liye karte hain. bhaugolik drushti se alag-thalag in samudaayon ko bahut kam buniyaadi svaasthya aur shiksha sevaaen muhaiya hain. church aur gair sarkaari sangathan kai gaanvon mein nyoonatam star ki madad upalabdh karaate hain. vaanooaatoo sarkaar ki svaasthya aur shiksha sevaaon par port vila ke chaaron taraf aur kuchh had tak lugaanavile me anaupachaarik aur chhitri hui bastiyon mein teji se badhti nagareeya aur pari-nagareeya aabaadi ki teevr vruddhi se nipatne ke liye zabardast dabaav daala ja raha hai.[62] port vile aur lugaanavile mein svaasthya sevaaen yathochit svaasth dekh-bhaal ki suvidha muhaiya karti hain, jinka samarthan aur unnayan aksar atithi chikitsakon ke maadhyam se hota rahata hai.

shiksha anivaarya naheen hai aur schoolon mein naamaankan aur upasthiti prashaant kshetr mein sabse kam hain. 1999 ke ek anumaan ke anusaar 15-24 varsh ke aayu varg ke logon ke liye saaksharata dar lagbhag 87% thi aur 2006 ke vayask saaksharata sambandhi ek anumaan ke anusaar 2006 mein yeh 78% thi, haalaanki vaastavik aankadon ke bahut kam hone ki sambhaavana hai. praathamik school mein naamaankan ki dar 1989 mein 74.5% se 1999 mein 78.2% tak aur uske baad 2004 mein 93.0% tak badhi, lekin fir 2007 mein 85.4% tak gir gayi. praathamik shiksha poori karne vaale vidyaarthiyon ka anupaat 1991 ke 90% se girkar 2004 mein 72% ho gaya.[62]

port vila aur teen anya keindron mein baarah prashaant deshon ke sanyukt svaamitv waali ek shikshan sanstha, dakshin prashaant vishvavidyaalaya ke parisar maujood hain. port vila mein sthit parisar, jise emaalas parisar ke naam se jaana jaata hai, vishvavidyaalaya ka kaanoon sambandhi vidyaalaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/g' not found.

  • vaanooaatoo se sambandhit lekhon ke soochakaank
  • vaanooaatoo mein doorasanchaar

sandarbh

  1. (PDF) 2009 Census Household Listing Counts. Vanuatu National Statistics Office. 2009. http://www.spc.int/prism/country/vu/stats/P_releases/Adhoc/HH%20listing%20count%20release%20-%20071009.pdf. abhigman tithi: January 6, 2010.
  2. a aa i E "Vanuatu". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=846&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=33&pr.y=9. abhigman tithi: 2010-04-21.
  3. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.
  4. a aa i E u oo A "prushthabhoomi not: vaanooaatoo". ameriki videsh vibhaag (April 2008). is aalekh mein is srot se li gayi saamagri shaamil hai, jo saarvajanik domen mein maujood hai.
  5. Shears, Richard (1980). The coconut war: the crisis on Espiritu Santo. North Ryde, N.S.W. : Cassell Australia, 1980.. pp. 1–210. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0726978663. 1414896. http://nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn1414896.
  6. "Independence". Vanuatu.travel -- Vanuatu Islands. 2009-09-17. http://vanuatu.travel/vanuatu/history/independence.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-17.
  7. "Tsunami Advisory". http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/tsunami_msgs/HEBTSUHWX.200910080018. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-10. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  8. "New Quakes, Small Tsunami Panic Pacific Islanders". http://www.clickondetroit.com/weather/21232878/detail.html?treets=det&tml=det_natlbreak&ts=T&tmi=det_natlbreak_1_06200110072009. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-10.
  9. "Earthquakes Near Vanuatu : Image of the Day". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=40677. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-11.
  10. "Magnitude 7.7 - Vanuatu". Earthquake.usgs.gov. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009mlcf.php. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  11. "Magnitude 7.8 - Santa Cruz Islands". Earthquake.usgs.gov. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009mlcx.php. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  12. "Magnitude 7.4 - Vanuatu". Earthquake.usgs.gov. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009mlcs.php. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  13. "Magnitude 6.6 - Santa Crus Islands". Earthquake.usgs.gov. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009mmam.php. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  14. "Magnitude 6.8 - Vanuatu". Earthquake.usgs.gov. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2009mmbf.php. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  15. USGS.gov[mrut kadiyaaain]
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  18. "Magnitude 7.3 - VANUATU". http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010zuaq/.
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  23. "Green Earthquake alert in Vanuatu". http://www.gdacs.org/reports.asp?eventType=EQ&ID=91522&system=asgard&location=VUT&alertlevel=Green.
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  25. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh ch chh j jh nya t th d the pees kaurp velakams you too vaanooaatoo . pees corps (May 2007). is aalekh mein is srot se li gayi saamagri shaamil hai, jo saarvajanik domen mein maujood hai.'
  26. a aa "Background Note: Vanuatu". Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. U. S. Department of State. April 2007. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2815.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-16.
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  29. "Major Earthquake Jolts Island Nation Vanuatu". indiaserver.com. 2008-07-11. http://www.india-server.com/news/major-earthquake-jolts-island-nation-4551.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-26.
  30. Asia development bank vaanooaatoo ikonomik report 2009
  31. * E.O. Wilson, prakrutivaadi, 1994, sheeyaravaatar books, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 1-55963-288-7
  32. "Population Statistics -- Vanuatu Population Summary -- Resident Population". Vanuatu Statistics Office. 1999. http://www.vanuatustatistics.gov.vu/About%20VNSO/Data/Social/Population.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-26.
  33. "Population Statistics -- Vanuatu Population Summary -- Vital Statistics 1967-1999". Vanuatu Statistics Office. 1999. http://www.vanuatustatistics.gov.vu/About%20VNSO/Data/Social/Population.htm#Vital%20Statistics,%201967%20-%201999. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-26.
  34. "Happiness doesn't cost the Earth". BBC News Online. 2006-07-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/5169448.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-16.
  35. a aa "Culture of Vanuatu". Vanuatu Tourism Office. Archived from the original on May 20, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070520205556/http://www.vanuatutourism.com/vanuatu/export/sites/VTO/en/culture/culture.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-16.
  36. fifty faikts ebaaut the Duke of edinbarg 25 January 2002
  37. sheeyars, richrd. is prince Phillip A gaud?, mel on sande, 3 June 2006, 15/02/2007 ko daaunalod kiya gaya.
  38. Squires, Nick (27 fravari 2007). "South Sea tribe prepares birthday feast for their favourite god, Prince Philip". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/02/19/wphilip19.xml.
  39. "Constitution of the Republic of Vanuatu". Government of the Republic of Vanuatu. 1983. http://www.vanuatugovernment.gov.vu/government/library/constitution.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-26.
  40. a aa lonali plainet: vaanooaatoo
  41. a aa "Vanuatu". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (via ask.com). 2004. http://www.reference.com/browse/vanuatu. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-28.
  42. "Census of Agriculture 2007 Vanuatu (page 33 – 5.2)". Vanuatu National Statistics Office (VNSO). 2008. http://www.spc.int/prism/country/VU/stats. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-28.
  43. "Census of Agriculture 2007 Vanuatu (page 49 – 7.2)". Vanuatu National Statistics Office (VNSO). 2008. http://www.spc.int/prism/country/VU/stats. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-28.
  44. "Census of Agriculture 2007 Vanuatu (page 77 – 13.1)". Vanuatu National Statistics Office (VNSO). 2008. http://www.spc.int/prism/country/VU/stats. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-28.
  45. "Census of Agriculture 2007 Vanuatu (page 114 – table 4.17)". Vanuatu National Statistics Office (VNSO). 2008. http://www.spc.int/prism/country/VU/stats. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-28.
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  48. "Tourism and Migration Statistics -- Visitor Arrivals by Usual Country of Residence (1995-2001)". Vanuatu Statistics Office. 2001. http://www.vanuatustatistics.gov.vu/About%20VNSO/Data/Social/Tour&Mig.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-26.
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  58. a aa "Asian Development Bank & Vanuatu -- Fact Sheet -- Operational Challenges (pdf file)". Asian Development Bank. 2008-12-31. http://www.adb.org/documents/fact_sheets/van.asp. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-26.
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  60. Elisabeth Hurtel. "''Customs dances and ceremonies in Vanuatu, photolibrary South-Images''". South-images.com. http://www.south-images.com/photos-melanesia.htm. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-22.
  61. blogs.cricinfo.com par vaanooaatoo enaauns major sponsor - biyond the test world eight cricinfo
  62. a aa asian development bank.vaanooaatoo ikonomik report 2009: tej sudhaar. mandaaluyong city, fileepeens: asian development bank, 2009.

baahari saamagri

aage padhein

  • etalas du vaanoatu (vaanooaatoo), 2009, (pehla sanskaran), 392 prushth, petreesiya simoni ki rachana, port-vila, jiyo-kansalt sanskaran
  • joel bonemaisan ki rachana Arts of vaanooaatoo
  • vibhinn lekhakon ki rachanaaen bards of the solomans, vaanooaatoo end new kailedoniya
  • henarik L. bregula ki rachana bards of vaanooaatoo
  • rik viliymasan ki rachana kaivorting vid kainibls: N eksaploreshan of vaanooaatoo
  • vibhinn lekhakon ki rachanaaen daaiving end snorkling guide too vaanooaatoo
  • feliks spesar ki rachana ethanolauji of vaanooaatoo: N arli tveinteeth century stadi
  • enelin eriksan ki rachana gender, krishchiyniti end change in vaanooaatoo: N enaalisis of social moovameints in North embrim
  • J. maartan troost ki rachana geting stond vid saivejej: A tip throo the aailainds of fiji end vaanooaatoo
  • vibhinn lekhakon ki rachana house-girls rimembar: domestik workers in vaanooaatoo
  • laingvej planning end paulisi in the paisifik, ank 1: fiji, fileepeens, end vaanooaatoo , vibhinn lekhakon ki rachana
  • vibhinn lekhakon ki rachana, lonali plainet guide: vaanooaatoo end new kailedoniya
  • John paitrik Taylor ki rachana the adar side: vej of beeing end place in vaanooaatoo
  • jenevive meskaim ki rachana peintekaust: N aailaind in vaanooaatoo
  • knut mikjel Rio ki rachana power of parsapektiv: social ontolauji end agency on embrim aailaind, vaanooaatoo
  • lisaant boltan ki rachana anafolding the moon: inekting vumens kaistam in vaanooaatoo
  • vibhinn lekhakon ki rachana vumen in vaanooaatoo: enaalaaijing chaileinjej too ikonomik paartisipeshan
  • maargaret jolly ki rachana vumen of the place: custom, kaaloniylijm end gender in vaanooaatoo

baahya kadiyaan

vaanooaatoo ke baare mein, vikipeediya ke bandhuprakalpon par aur jaane:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png shabdakosheeya paribhaashaaen
Wikibooks-logo.svg paathya pustakein
Wikiquote-logo.svg uddharan
Wikisource-logo.svg mukt strot
Commons-logo.svg chitr evam media
Wikinews-logo.svg samaachaar kathaaen
Wikiversity-logo-en.svg gyaan saadhan
  • Vanuatu entry at The World Factbook
  • yooseebi laaibrereej gaavapabs (GovPubs) se

vaanooaatoo

sarkaar

saaaincha:Culture of Oceania

saaaincha:Commonwealth of Nations saaaincha:Austronesian-speaking