vaanijya

dhanapraapti ke uddeshya se vastuon ka kraya-vikraya karna hi vaanijya (Commerce) hai. kisi utpaadan ya vyavasaaya ka vah bhaag jo utpaadit vastuon evam sevaaon ki unke utpaadakon evam upabhoktaaon ke beech vinimay se sambndh rakhata hai, vaanijya kahalaata hai. vaanijya ke antargat kisi aarthik mahatva ki vastu, jaise saamaan, seva, soochana ya dhan ka do ya do vyakti ya sansthaaon ke beech sauda kiya jaata hai. vaanijya poonjeevaadi arthavyavastha evam kuchh anya arthavyavasthaaon ka mukhya vaahak hai.

sansaar mein pratyek vyakti ki kai aavashyakataaeain hoti hain. unako praapt karne ke liye vah aavashyak vastueain praapt karne ka prayatn karta hai. inmein se kuchh vastueain to vah swayam bana leta hai aur adhikaansh vastueain use baajaar se mol khareedani padti hain. vastuon ko praapt karne ke liye use dhan ki aavashyakta padti hai aur is dhan ko praapt karne ke liye ya to vah doosaron ki seva karta hai athva aisi vastueain taiyaar karta hai ya kraya-vikraya karta hai jo doosaron ke liye upayogi hon. vastuon ka roop badalkar unako adhik upayogi banaane ka kaarya udyog maana jaata hai. vaanijya mein ve sab kaarya sammilit rahate hain jo vastuon ke kraya-vikraya mein safalta praapt karne ke liye aavashyak hain. jo vyakti vaanijya sambandhi koi kaarya karta hai use vanik kehte hain.

anukram

vaanijya ke ang

vaanijya ke do pradhaan ang hain - dookaanadaari aur vyaapaar. jab vastuon ka krayavikraya kisi ek sthaan ya dookaan se hota hai, tab us sambandh ke sab kaarya dukaanadaari ke andar aate hain. jab vastuon ko ek sthaan se doosare sthaan bhejkar vikraya kiya jaata hai, tab us sambandh ke sab kaarya vyaapaar ke andar samajhe jaate hain. deshi vyaapaar mein vastuon ka krayavikraya ek hi desh ke andar hota hai. videshi vyaapaar mein vastuon ka krayavikraya doosare deshon ke saath hota hai. bade paimaane par door-door ke deshon se vyaapaar ke liye badi pooainji ki aavashyakta hoti hai jo sammilit pooainjeevaadi companiyon aur vaanijya bankon dvaara praapt hoti hai. sansaar ke bhinn-bhinn deshon mein sansaaravyaapi vaanijya mein lage hue vyaktiyon ne milkar pratyek desh mein vaanijya mandalon (Chambers of Commerce) ki sthaapana kar li hai. in mandalon ka pradhaan kaarya desh ke vaanijya ke hiton ki sammilit roop se raksha karna aur sarkaar dvaara raksha karna hai. vaanijya sambandhi kaaryon ka uchit roop se niyantran karne ke liye pratyek desh ki sarkaar jo kaanoon banaati hain, ve vaanijya vidhi kahalaate hain.

vaanijya mein safalta praapt karne ke liye vanik ko vikraya kala ka vyaavahaarik gyaan hona aavashyak hai. use hisaab rakhane ki paddhati ko bhi theek tarah se jaanana aur upayog mein laana padta hai. apne kaaryon ki jokhim kam karne ke liye use apne maal ka beema karaana hota hai. isliye use is vishay ka gyaan bhi praapt karna padta hai. apne vyaapaar ko door door tak deshon mein failaane ke liye use patravyavahaar aur vijnyaaapanakala ka uchit upayog karna padta hai. vaanijya mein svatantr buddhi aur drudh vishvaas ki atyant aavashyakta hai. imaandaari dvaara hi vanik apne kaarya ki prasiddhi praapt karta hai. usaki baat ki sachchaai usaki saakh ko badhaati hai, jisse vah aavashyak pooainji aasaani se praapt kar leta hai.

vaanijya ko prabhaavit karne vaale kaarak

kisi desh ke udyog dhandhon ki dasha ka uske vaanijya par bahut prabhaav padta hai. jis desh mein udyog dhandhon dvaara vastuon ki utpatti baraabar badhti rahati hai, usaka vaanijya bhi unnat dasha mein rahata hai. kisi desh ke vaanijya ki unnati uske yaataayaat ke saadhanon ki dasha par bahut kuchh nirbhar rahati hai. pahaadi deshon mein, jahaaain sadkon ka praaya: abhaav rahato hai, vaanijya aur vyaapaar pichhdi hui dasha mein rahata hai. relon ke prachaar aur samudri jahaajon ki unnati se beesaveen sadi mein sansaar ke adhikaansh deshon mein vaanijya ki vruddhi mein bahut sahaayata mili hai. ab vaayuyaan dvaara bhi keemati vastuon ka vyaapaar hone laga hai. isse bhi vaanijya ko protsaahan mila hai.

jab kisi desh mein ashaanti rahati hai aur chor tatha daakuon ka bhaya badh jaata hai, tab uske vaanijya par bhi usaka bura prabhaav padta hai. vaanijya ki unnati mein ek aur baadha us aayaatakar ki hoti hai, jo koi desh apne udyog dhandhon ko doosare deshon ki pratiyogita se bachaane ke liye kuchh vastuon ke aayaat par lagaata hai.

vaanijya mein dhanapraapti ki bhaavana hi pradhaan rahati hai. kabhi kabhi svaarth ki bhaavana itni prabal ho jaati hai ki vanik log vastuon mein milaavat karke bechate hain, maal ke taulane mein beimaani karte hain aur jhoothe vigyaapan dekar athva chorabaajaari karke apne graahakon ko thagane ka prayatn karte hain. ve is baat ka vichaar naheen karte ki unke in prayatnon se doosaron ki kya haani hoti hai. ve apne kartavya ya dharm ka koi vichaar naheen karte, isi kaaran hamaare vanik dhanavaan hone par bhi asantusht bane rahate hain aur jeevan ko shaantimya naheen bana paate. jab vanik apne saamane uchch aadarsh rakheinge aur apne sab kaaryon mein doosaron ke svaarthon ka utana hi dhyaan rakheinge jitna ve apne svaarthon ka rakhate hain tab vaanijya bhi dhanopaarjan ke saath hi saath sukh aur shaanti ka bhi saadhan ho jaavega.

vaanijyavaad

vaanijyavaad (mercantilism) ka mukhya uddeshya videshi vyaapaar ko is tarah se sangathit karna tha jisse desh ke andar doosare deshon se sona evam chaaaindi baraabar adhik maatra mein aati rahe. vaanijyavaadi, sarkaar dvaara videshi vyaapaar ki aisi neeti nishchit karna chaahate the jisse desh ke niryaat ki maatra desh ke aayaat se sada hi adhik rahe aur doosare desh niryaat ki rakam ko poora karne ke liye sona baraabar bhejate rahein. baad mein angrej arthashaastriyon ne vaanijyaneeti ko naya roop diya. iske anusaar vanik samaaj aur sarkaar ko videshi vyaapaar mein aayaat aur niryaat donon ko is prakaar se badhaane ka prayatn karna chaahiye jisse desh mein upayogi vastuon ka baahulya ho jaae aur vastuon ka adhik parimaan mein upayog karne se deshvaasiyon ke rahan-sahan ka darja baraabar badhta jaae.

Bhaarat mein vaanijya ka itihaas

bhoot kaal mein, Bhaarat bhi vaanijya sambandhi kaaryon mein bahut prasiddhi praapt kar chuka hai. praacheen aaryon ki aarthik vyavastha ka pata vaidik saahitya se lagta hai. vaidik kaal se hi Dravid tatha aarya logon ne misr, aseeriya aur baibilon se vyaapaarik evam saanskrutik sambandh sthaapit kiye. isaamaseeh ke saikadon varsh poorv se hi Bhaarat mein shilp aur vaanijya ka sarvaangeen vikaas hua. vanikon ke sanghon ka ullekh us samay ke saahitya mein milta hai. us samay ke videshi yaatriyon ne yahaaain ke unnat udyog dhandhe aur vaanijya ki badi prashansa ki hai. Bhaarat ke kareeb teen hajaar varshon tak samudra par apna prabhutv jaari rakha aur apne vyaapaar aur vaanijya ki khoob unnati ki. vah saikadon varshon tak sansaar ka neta aur vaanijya ka kendra bana raha. us kaal mein bhaaratavaasiyon ne vaanijya mein apne laabh ke saath hi saath doosaron ko laabh pahuainchaane ka hamesha dhyaan rakha hai.

mugal kaal mein bhi Bhaarat ke gruh udyog unnat dasha mein the aur Asia, Europe aur Africa ke anek deshon mein yahaaain se taiyaar maal jaata tha. sansaar ke kai desh to keval Bhaarat ke vastron par hi nirbhar rahate the. sooti, reshami tatha ooni vastr taiyaar karanevaale bhaarateeya kaareegaron ka kaushal sansaar mein door door tak fail gaya tha. vastron ke atirikt moti, mooainga, haatheedaaaint, masaale, sugaandhit dravya ityaadi ka bhi khoob rojagaar hota tha.

Bhaarat se vaanijya dvaara laabh uthaane ki ichha se hi yooropavaasiyon ne Bhaarat mein padaarpan kiya aur uske vyaapaar par kabja karne ka prayatn kiya. angrejon ne dheere dheere sampoorn Bhaarat par apna raajaneetik prabhutv jama liya. in angrejon ke samay mein Bhaarat ke gruh udyog dhandhe nasht kar diye gaye aur deshi jahaaji bede ka bhi ant ho gaya. Bhaarat ke vaanijya par angrejon ka prabhutv hone se bhaaratavaasiyon ki aarthik dasha dayaneeya ho gayi. svatantrata praapt karne ke baad Bhaarat ko sansaar mein ek baar fir se vaanijya ka pradhaan kendra banaane ke prayaas kiye jaane lage.

inhein bhi dekhein

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