vaakyavinyaas

kisi bhaasha mein jin siddhaanton evam prakriyaaon ke dvaara vaakya bante hain, unke adhyayan ko bhaasha vigyaan mein vaakyavinyaas, 'vaakyavijnyaaan' ya sintaiks (syntax) kehte hain. vaakya ke kramabaddh adhyayan ka naam 'vaakyavijnyaaan' kehte hain. vaakya vigyaan, padon ke paarasparik sambandh ka adhyayan hai. vaakya bhaasha ka sabse mahattvapoorn ang hai. manushya apne vichaaron ki abhivyakti vaakyon ke maadhayam se hi karta hai. at: vaakya bhaasha ki laghutam poorn ikaai hai.

vaakyavijnyaaan ka svaroop

vaakya vigyaan ke antargat nimnalikhit baaton ka vichaar kiya jaata hai- vaakya ki paribhaasha, vaakyon aur bhaasha ke anya ag ka sambandha, vaakyon ke prakaar, vaakyon mein parivartan, vaakyon mein padon ka kram, vaakyon mein parivartan ke kaaran aadi.

vaakya vigyaan ke svaroop ke vishay mein dau॰ kapildev Dwivedi ne vistaar se vivechan kiya hai. unka mat is prakaar hai:-

vaakya-vigyaan mein bhaasha mein prayukt vibhinn padon ke paraspar sanbandh ka vichaar kiya jaata hai. ataev vaakya-vigyaan mein in sabhi vishyon ka samaavesh ho jaata hai- vaakya ka svaroop, vaakya ki paribhaasha, vaakya ki rachana, vaakya ke anivaarya tattv, vaakya mein padon ka vinyaas, vaakyon ke prakaar, vaakya ka vibhaajan, vaakya mein niktasth avayav, vaakya mein parivartan, parivartan ki dishaaeain, parivartan ke kaaran, padim (Taxeme) aadi. is prakaar vaakya-vigyaan mein vaakya se sambaddh sabhi tatvon ka vivechan kiya jaata hai.

padavijnyaaan aur vaakya-vigyaan mein antar yeh hai ki pad-vigyaan mein padon ki rachana ka vivechan hota hai. at: usamein pad vibhaajan (sanjnyaa, kriya, visheshan aadi), kaarak, vibhkti, vachan, ling, kaal, purush aadi ke bodhaak shabd kis prakaar bante hain, is par vichaar kiya jaata hai. vaakya-vigyaan usase agali koti hai. ismein poorvaaekt vidhi se bane hue padon ka kahaaain, kis prakaar se rakhane se arth mein kya antar hota hai, aadi vishyon ka vivechan hai. dhavani nirmaapak tattv hain. jaise mitti, kapaas aadi; pad bane hue ve tattv hain, jinka upayog kiya ja sakta hai, jaise- int, vastra aadi; vaakya vah roop hai, jo vaastavik roop mein prayog mein aata hai, jaise- makaan, sile vastra aadi. pad int hai to vaakya makaan ya bhavan.

taattvik drushti se dhvani, pad aur vaakya mein maulik antar hai. dhavani moolat: uchchaaran se sambaddh hai. ya shaareerik vyaapaar se utpann hoti hai, at: dhvani mein mukhyataya shaareerik vyaapaar pradhaan hai. pad mein dhvani aur saarthakata donon ka samanvaya hai. dhvani shaareerik paksh hai aur saarthakata maanasik paksh hai. pad mein shaareerik aur maanasik donon tattvon ke samanvaya se vah vaakya mein prayog ke yogya ban jaata hai. saarthakata ka sanbandh vichaar se hai. vichaar man ka kaarya hai, at: pad mein maanasik vyaapaar bhi hai. vaakya mein vichaar, vichaaron ka samanvaya, saarthak evam samanvit roop mein abhivyakti, ye sabhi kaarya vichaar aur chintan se sambaddh hai, at: maanasik kaarya hai. vaakya mein maanasik athva manovaigyaanik paksh mukhya hota hai. vichaaron ki poorn abhivyakti vaakya se hoti hai, at: vaakya hi bhaasha ka sookshmatam saarthak ikaai maana jaata hai. inka bhed is prakaar bhi prakat kiya ja sakta hai-

  • 1. dhavani : uchchaaran se sambaddh hai, shaareerik tattv mukhya hai, praakrutik tattv ki pradhaanata ke kaaran prakruti ke tulya 'sat' hai.
  • 2. pad : ismein shaareerik aur maanasik donon tattv hain, sat ke saath chit bhi hai, at: 'sachchit' roop hai.
  • 3. vaakya : maanasik paksh ki poorn pradhaanata ke kaaran bhaasha ka abhivyakt roop hai, at: 'aanand' roop ya 'sachchidaanand' roop hai. vaakya hi saarthakata ke kaaran rasaroop ya aanandaroop hota hai. bhaavaanubhooti, rasaanubhooti ya aanandaanubhooti ka saadhaan vaakya hi hai. vaakya sat, chit, aanand ka samanvit roop hai, at: daarshanik bhaasha mein ise 'sachchidaanand' kah sakte hain

baahari kadiyaaain