vaakyapadeeya

vaakyapadeeya, sanskrut vyaakaran ka ek prasiddh granth hai. ise trikaandi bhi kehte hain. vaakyapadeeya, vyaakaran shrunkhala ka mukhya daarshanik granth hai. iske rachayita neetishtak ke rachayita mahaavaiyaakaran tatha yogiraaj bhartruhari hain. inke guru ka naam vasuraat tha. bhartruhari ko kisi ne teesari, kisi ne chauthi tatha chhathi ya saatavi sadi mein rakha hai. vaakyapadeeya mein bhartruhari ne bhaasha (vaach) ki prakruti aur usaka vaahya jagat se sambandh par apne vichaar vyakt kiye hain. yeh granth teen bhaagon mein vibhkt hai jinhein "kaand" kehte hain. yeh samast granth padya mein likha gaya hai. pratham "brahmakaand" hai jismein 157 kaarikaaeain hain, doosra "vaakyakaand hai jismein 493 kaarikaaeain hain aur teesara "padakaand" ke naam se prasiddh hai.

iska pratham kaand brahmakaand hai jismein shabd ki prakruti ki vyaakhya ki gayi hai. ismein shabd ko brahm maana gaya hai aur brahm ki praapti ke liye shabd ko pramukh saadhan bataaya gaya hai.

doosare kaand mein vaakya ke vishay mein bhartruhari ne vibhinn mat rakhe hain.

teesare kaand mein anya daarshanik reetiyon ke vishyon, jaise - jaati, dravya, kaal aadi ki charcha ki gayi hai. ismein bhartruhari yeh dikhaane ka prayaas karte hain ki vividh mat, ek hi vastu ke alag-alag aayaamon ko prakaashit karte hain. is prakaar ve sabhi darshanon ko apne vyaakaran aadhaarit darshan dvaara ekeekaran karne ka prayaas kar rahe hain.

anukram

pratham kaand (brahmakaand)

mool mein vyaakaran shaastr ek prakaar se aagam shaastr hai. iski abhivyakti maheshvar se hai. aagam ke anusaar shabd ke chaar svaroop hain - "para", "pashyanti", "madhyama" tatha "vaikhari". inmein "para" hi brahm hai. iseeliye vaakyapadeeya ki pratham kaarika mein hi shabdatatv ko anaadi aur anant tatha akshar brahm kaha hai. isi paraaroop brahm se sansaar ke padaarthon ki utpatti tatha vyavahaar vivrtaroop mein maana gaya hai. pratham kaand mein, shabdatatv ke daarshanik roop ka vichaar hai, ataev ise "brahmakaand" naam diya gaya hai aur saadhaaran roop mein iska vaachakatv siddh kiya gaya hai. vastut: yeh aagamik kaand hai. aagam ki drushti se likha gaya hai.

is kaand ki kuchh upayogi tatha jaanane yogya baatein ye hain-

us brahm ki praapti ke upaaya tatha svaroop ko maharshiyon ne "ved" kaha hai. yeh ek hota hua bhi anek maaloom hota hai. iseeliye rik yajush, saam tatha atharvan naam se chaar ved kahe jaate hain. rigved ki 21, yajurved ki 100, saamaved ki 1000 tatha atharvaved ki 9 milaakar 1130 shaakhaaeain ved ki hui. aisa hone par bhi sabhi vedon tatha unki shaakhaaon ka ekamaatr pratipaadya vishay "karm" hai. yeh smaran rakhana hai ki jo shabd ya mantra jis svar mein jis shaakha mein padha gaya hai vah shabd usi tarah uchchaaran kiye jaane par fal denevaala hota hai. vahi shabd usi roop mein doosari shaakha mein padhe jaane se is shabdochchaaran ka fal hoga anyatha naheen, athva anya koi fal dega.

aagam ke bina kartavya evam akartavya ka nishchaya naheen ho sakta. rishiyon mein jo ateendriya vastu ko dekhne ka gyaan hai vah bhi aagam hi ke dvaara praapt hai (vaakya. 1.37). tark ke dvaara koi yathaarth gyaan naheen praapt ho sakta, vah parivrtanasheel hai. ooainche star ke rishiyon ke liye bhoot aur bhavishya sabhi pratyaksh hain. gyaan ke svaprakaash hone ke kaaran usamein aatma ka svaroop tatha ghat aadi jnyaeya padaarth ka svaroop donon bhaasit hote hain. usi prakaar shabd mein arth ka svaroop aur usaka apna svaroop, donon ki prateeti hoti hai.

jis prakaar jayaapushp ke ke laal roop se sambaddh hi sfatik ka grahan hota hai usi prakaar sfot se mili hui dhvani ka hi grahan hota hai. kisi ka mat hai ki jis prakaar indriyon ka gun asanvedya hokar bhi vishyon ke gyaan ka kaaran hai, usi prakaar dhvani asanvedya hoti hui bhi shabd ke gyaan ka kaaran hoti hai. doosra mat hai ki "dooratv" dosh ke kaaran sfot ke svaroop ka gyaan naheen hota, keval dhvani ka hi bhaan hota hai. teesara mat hai ki sfot ka bhaan to hota hai parantu dooratv dosh ke kaaran asfut rahata hai, jaise door hone ke kaaran kisi vastu ka "parimaan" spasht roop mein bhaasit naheen hota.

anuon mein sabhi prakaar ki shaktiyaaain hain, iseeliye bhed aur sansarg (viyog tatha sanyog) roop mein anuon se (sansaar ke sabhi) kaarya hote hain. ye anu chhaaya, aatap, tamas tatha shabd ke roop mein parint hote rahate hain. ye shaktiyaaain abhivyakt hone ke samay mein bade prayatn se prerit ki jaati hain. aur jis prakaar (jal ke paramaanuon ke kramash: ikatthe hone se) baadal bante hain usi prakaar shabd ke parmaanu kramash: ikatthe hokar sabhi kaarya karte hain. in paramaanuon ka naam "shabd" ya "shabdaparamaanu" hai.

is prakaar shabd ke aagamik svaroop ka vivechan tatha shabd hi se samast jagat ki srushti ka niroopan brahmakaand mein hai.

dviteeya kaand

dviteeya kaand mein "pad" vaachak hai ya "vaakya" iska vishd vichaar hai. bhinn-bhinn maton ka aalochan hai. isi kaand mein bhartruhari ne kaha hai - shabd aur arth ek hi paramatatv ke do bhed hain jo pruthak naheen rahate (2.31). rishiyon ko tatv ka pratyaksh gyaan hota hai kintu usase vyavahaar naheen chal sakta. isliye vyavahaar ke samay un anirvachaneeya tatvon ka jis prakaar log vyavahaar karte hon usi tarah sabhi ko karna chaahiye (2.143). "pratibha" ko sabhi praamaanik maanate hain aur isi ke bal se pakshiyon ke bhi vyavahaar ka gyaan logon ko hota hai (2. 149). beej bone ke saath saath "laah" ka ras aadi padaarth ke mila dene se us beej ke falon ke rang mein tatha uske falon mein bhed ho jaata hai. "shaastraarth" ki prakriya keval ajnya logon ko samajhaane ke liye hai, na ki tatv ke pratipaadan ke liye. shaastron mein prakriyaaon ke dvaara avidya ka hi vichaar hai. "avidya" ke upamardan ke pashchaat aagam ke vikalpon se rahit shaastraprakriya prapanchashoonya hone par "vidya" ke roop mein prakat hoti hai. iseeliye kaha hai ki asatya ke maarg ke dvaara hi satya ki praapti hoti hai, jaise baalakon ko padhaate samay unhein pehle shaastron ka pratipaadan keval prataaranamaatr hota hai. ityaadi daarshanik roop se vyaakaran ke tatvon ka vichaar 493 kaarikaaon mein doosare kaand mein hai.

truteeya kaand

teesare kaand mein "padavichaar" ka prakram kiya gaya hai. arth dvaara padon ki pareeksha hoti hai. nyaaya-vaisheshik ke mat mein aakaash mein saamaanya (jaati) naheen hai kintu vaakyapadeeya ke anusaar mukhya ya aupaadhik deshabhed ke kaaran aakaash mein bhi jaati hai (3.15-16). "gyaan" svaprakaash hai. vishyajnyaaan tatha usaka paraamarshajnyaaan, ye donon bhinn hain. is kaand mein 13 khand hain jinmein 450 se adhik kaarikaaon mein daarshanik roop se vyaakaran ke padaarthon ka vishd vichaar kiya gaya hai. yeh kaand khandit hi hai.

teekaaeain

vaakyapadeeya par bhootiraaj ke putr helaaraaj ne bahut sundar tatha vistrut teeka likhi hai. aadhunik samay mein bhi kuchh vidvaanon ne teeka likhi hai kintu in sabki drushti aagamik na hone ke kaaran vaakyapadeeya ka vaastavik gyaan naheen praapt hota. iski bahut si kaarikaaeain nasht hui maaloom hoti hain. yudhishthir meemaansak tatha saadhooraam ne lupt kaarikaaon par kuchh vichaar kiye hain. vyaakaran ke aagamik roop ke vichaar mein is granth ke samaan anya granth bahut naheen hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain