vaakaatak aur gupt yugeen bundeli samaaj aur sanskruti

bundelakhand ke vaakaatakon ke poorv aur mauryaun ke baad ka bundeli samaaj shung vansh, naagavansh, saatavaahan, vikramaaditya, shak, kushaan, navanaag aadi shaasakon ki adheenata mein raha hai. is samay shaasakon ke beech sangharsh adhik hue hain. is yug go aachaarya Dwivedi braahman saamraajya na maankar hindu sanskruti ka nirmaan yug maanate hain jismein braahman sangharshasheel to hain parantu aapas mein hi bauddhon ke prati pratikriya kaheen naheen thi. saamaajik raajaneetik kshetr mein atyant uthal-puthal thi. dharmashaasr ko naveen rup diya gaya (yeh vastut: sankat ki vyavastha thi) par paravarti smrutikaar use aage na badha sake. vibhinn shaasakon ke samaaj tantr mein samaanvit kiya gaya. pan0 Dwivedi likhte hain ki maan se ya apamaan se yavan, shak, kushaam sabhi #us samaaj tantr mein khapa liye gaye. raajaneeti mein raaja ki nirankushata ka, uske daivi adhikaaron ka janm bhi is yug se pehle hi ho gaya tha. is yug mein braahman raaj ho gaya. parinaam yeh hua ki jab aage daivi adhikaar vaale samraaton ka ut. hua tab raajyapeethon se apadasth hue braahmanavanshon mein paraajaya, janya kuntha evam janm jaat shreshthata ki jhoothi bhaavana ghar kar gayi aur samraaton ke darbaar ke samaan hi samaaj mein ooainch-neech evam sprushya-asprushya ke bhed dikhaai diye.

vaakaatak kaal mein apne-apne varn ke antargat vivaah ki anumati thi parantu kabhi-kabhi anulobh vivaah bhi hote the. vaakaatak rudrasen ka vivaah prabhaavati gupton se hona iska pramaan hai. isi prakaar braahman kshatriya vivaah ka bhi ullekh milta hai. braahmanon mein upapad prasiddh the par kul ke naam se prachalit na hue the. vaakaatakon ke lekhon mein riagvedi aur saamavedi braahmanon ka ullekh kaheen naheen hai. varn vyavastha ka paalan niymaanusaal tha. vaakaatak kaal mein pattharon aur kaheen-kaheen iton se mandir baaaindhane ki paddhati prachaar mein aane lagi thi. ajanta ki gufaaon se gyaat hota hai ki tatkaaleen raajaprasaad, ghar aur dookaan lakdi ke hote the. kaalidaas ke saahitya mein tatkaaleen saamaajik parives ka parichay milta hai.

vaakaatak kaal mein pauraanik hindu dharm ka bhi atyaadhik utkarsh hua. unke raajya mein sarvatr anek hindu devi ke devaalayon ka nirmaan hua. adhikaansh vaakaatak raajaaon ke shaiv hone ke kaaran anya devo ki apeksha Bhagwan Shiv ke mandiron ka nirmaan sankhya mein hua hoga. saahitya ke kshetr mein sanskrut aur praakrut dono ki rachanaayein likhi milti hai. sthaapatya ki drushti jabalapur ke paas bahareebandh aur teegova ke mandir ko dhyaan mein rakhana aavashyak hai.

vaakaatakon ke samay mein bundelakhand mein shivopaasana ke saath vishnupooja mein teevrata I. Krishna aur Ram vishnu ke avataar ke rup mein pooje jaane lage. parashuraam ko bhi vishnu ka avataar maana jaane laga. vishnu aur Shiv ke beech abhinnata sthaapit ki gayi. yeh hindu sanskruti ke nirmaan ka yug tha jise pan0 Dwivedi ne shungon ke kaal se hi maana hai. shungo ke shaasan kaal mein vaishnav devamandiron ka nirmaan ho raha tha aur pashchimottar seemaaon ke yavan Bhagwat dharm me Dixit ho rahe the. iske atiriktat tumen me prastut kaal ka ek vishnu mandir praapt hua hai. jismein aajkal vindhyavaasin devi ki moorti laga di gayi hai. ise vaasudev ki leelaaon ke ardhachitron se alankrut kiya gaya hai.

bauddh dharm mein mahaayaan shaakha ka sootrapaat hua aur usamein bhi moortipooja hone lagi. jain dharm ka bhi prachaar hua. lakshneeya baat yeh hai ki shaiv aur vaishnav ko raajachinhon mein bhi dhaaran kiya gaya.

Damodar dharmaanand kausambi ke anusaar samudragupt ne aaryaavart ko bhi vijit kiya tatha nau naag raaja ko apna chaakar bataaya. prayaag prashasti mein ise vistaar se kaha gaya hai. samudragupt tase harshakaal tak ke samaaj mein braahman, kshatriya, vaishya teen uchch varg maane gaye the. shudron ki sthiti mein vishesh parivartan naheen hua. uttar kaaleen hindu dharm mein shreniyon aur saamaajik dalon ke paarasparik sambandh sangotr vivaah-paddhati, sahabhoj ke niyamon dvaara shaasit the. braahman kshatriya spardha chaaloo rahi. guptavansh ke shaasan mein samaaj aur dharm ki unnati ke anek prayatn hue. vishuddh saahitya ke kshetr mein jo sarvatonmukh unnati hui usaka darshan hamein kalaaon mein hota hai. na keval vaastu tatha sthaapatya kalaaon hi varan chitramaala, sangeet, lakshanakala aur mudra nirmaam ki kala ka abhootapoorv vikaas hua. brahmagupt, aaryabh aur vahaahamihir is kaal ke prasiddh vaigyaanik, ganitjnya hain. kaalidaas ka saahitya ek mahatvapoorn upalabdhi hai. is yug mein dhaarmik sahishnuta ke saath saath ek raashtreeya sanskruti ka viksit hone ka asar tha. Bhaarat dhaarmik kshetr mein hi naheen saamaajik-saanskrutik star par samanvaya ki bhaavana vishesh thi. spasht hai ki vivaah, Khan-paan, sanskaaron aadi mein nishedh kathor naheen hue the. antyaj ki dasha shuddhon se bhai buri thi. das pratha ka prachalan tha. naari ki sthiti mein parivartan aa g gaya tha. guptakaaleen smrutigranthon mein vaidik shiksha keval uchchakulon ki sriyon tak seemit ho gayi thi, sati, parda pratha ka kaheen kaheen prachalan tha. antarraashtreeya vyaapaar unnati mein tha. vaakaatak aur guptakaal mandiron ke nirmaan ka yug maana jaata hai. faahiyaan paaainchaveen shataabdi mein Bhaarat aaya tha. usane bauddhadharm, jainadharm ki unnati ka vivran diya hai. is prakaar ki sarvatonmukhi unnati ke kaaran hi guptakaal ko itihaas ka svarnayug kaha jaata hai.

isi samay ke aaspaas hoonon ne Bhaarat ke raajaneetik jeevan mein atyaadhik ast vyavastata prastut ki. gupt saamraajya ko hoon aakramanon se prabal dhakka pahuaincha. katipya itihaasakaar hoonon ke aakraman ko gupt saamraajya ke patan ka kaaran bhi maanate hain. kaalaantar mein hoon log hindu samaaj mein mila liye gaye. anek vidvaanon ka vichaar hai ki inheen hoonon se anek rajput vansh utpann huye hain. raajapooton ki is videshi utpatti ko bundelakhand ke sandarbh mein bilkul bhi nahi maana ja sakta kyonki bundeli samaaj mein shaurya avashya hai par iske saath-saath sadaashayata, raashtreeyata aur svaabhimaan ki bhaavana vishesh hai.

gupt saamraajaya ke baad harshavardhan ko bhaarateeya itihaas tatha bundelakhand donon mein vishesh mahatva ka maana gaya hai. bundelakhand mein harshavardhan ka shaasanakaal atyant mahatva ka maana jaata hai. usane hoonon ke aakraman ko vifal kiya tha. hoonon ka mukhiya toraman tha usane bundelakhand kuchh samay ke liye Aaron (bundelakhand ki praacheen nagareedh par raaj kiya tha. Aaron ke lekh mein tatha anyatr bhi uske bundelakhand mein bhayabheet karne vaale shaasan ka ullekh hai. itihaasakaaron ne hoonon ki sanskruti aur sabhyata ko barbar kaha hai kyonki unka aaghaat keval Bhaarat hi naheen vishv ki anya sabhyataaon par pashuta poorn maana gaya hai. bundelakhand mein barbataapoorn vyavahaar karne vaalon ko "hoon' (hoon ka vikrut rup) kaha jaata hai. bandaron ki prakruti hoonon se samaan maankar unhein apne khet se bhagaane ke liye "hoodaja' ka prayog sambhavat: isi ka prateek hai. aise hi bina niyam ke khel "hudi' bhi kabaddi ka rup hai jismein khilaadi ki saaains ki upeksha sahanashakti ki pareeksha li jaati hai aur sabhi prakaar se nocha-khasota jaata hai. harshacharit mein katipya mahatvapoorn ullekh karte hain jinse bundelakhand mein rahane aur tatkaaleen jeevan ke sambandh mein kaha ja sakta hai- jaisai - harsh ki bahan raajyashri ka apne pati ki mrutyu par kshubdh hokar vindhaya parvat par chala jaana, harsh dvaara usaki khoj karna aur vindhya parvat par chala jaana, harsh dvaara usaki khoj karna aur vindhya pradesh ke jeevan mein krushi aur aher ka ullekh karna aadi aise saahityik saakshya hain jo harsh kaaleen bundelakhand ke jeevan ki jhaaainki dete hain. harshacharit mein gaaainv aur jungle ke jeevan mein samaanata bataai gayi hai jisse yeh bhi nishkarsh liya ja sakta hai ki jaateeyata ka vishesh bolabaala nahi tha. isi samay ki ajanta gufa ki chitraavali bhi (6-7veen shataabdi ke aas paas) iska saakshya hai.

musalmaanon ke poorv tatha harsh ke baad uttar Bhaarat (640 i0 se 1200 i0) anek chhote-chhote raajyon mein baint jaata hai. vibhinn shaasakon mein kannauj ka raajakul, aayudh raajakul, pratihaar aur gahadvaal vansh pramukh hain. mihirbhoj aur alpakaaleen shaasan is pradesh ko kuchh na de paaya. mihirbhoj se pehle naveen shataabdi mein bundelakhand pratihaaron ke naagabhat ke adheen raha tha. isi ki parampara mein maheepaal dasveen shataabdi mein aur uske baad vinaayakapaal bhi thode samay tak bundelakhand mein tik paaye. vijyapaal ke samay mein saat shaktiyaan udit hui aur ve is prakaar hai -

1.aanhilvaad ke chaalukya 2.jejaakamukti me chandel 3.gvaaliyr ke kachhapaghaat 4.daahal ke chedi 5.maalava ke paramaar 6.dakshini rajputana ke guhil 7.shaakambhari ke chauhaan

ye shaktiyaan ek jut na rah sakeen. bundelakhand mein teen shaasakon ke kulon ka vishesh prabhaav raha. ye teenon jejaakamukti ke chandel, daahal aur chedi (baad mein kalachuri) aur gvaaliyr ke kachhapaghaat vibhinn prakaar se janasamaaj aur sanskruti ko ek khaas jeevan dete hain. samast uttar Bhaarat saamantavaad mein sthirta, unnati aur kala utkarsh ki or apne saamarthya ke anusaar agrasar hota hai. chandelon ko bundelakhand ke uttar tatha kalachuriyon ko dakshin mein samakaaleen hi maana gaya hai. dono raajasattaaon mein digvijya ke daaainv peinch chalte rahe the inka shaasanakaal hindu dharm aur samaaj donon ki unnati dene wala tha.