uttar afreeka

uttar afreeka ke desh (gahre hare rang mein) - halke hare rang ke desh bhi kabhi-kabhi uttar afreeka mein maane jaate hain
tooneesheeya ke sidi boo said shahar ki ek gali
etalas shrunkhala ke jabal tubakal pahaad par barf
tuneesiya ki ek barbar aurat (san 1900 ke kreeb li gayi tasveer)

uttar afreeka (arabi: شaaمaaاaaل أaaفaaرaaيaaقaaيaaا, shumaal afreekiya) afreeka ke mahaadveep ka uttari bhaag hai. iske aur up-sahaara afreeka ke daramayaan sahaara ka vishaal registaan aata hai jo uttar afreeka aur baaki afreeka mein itna bada faasala bana deta hai ke uttar afreeka ki jaatiyaaain, bhaashaaeain, reeti-rivaaj, mausam aur jaanavar baaki afreeka ke kaafi bhinn hain. sanyukt raashtra ki paribhaasha ke anusaar uttar afreeka mein saat raashtra aate hain: morakko, Algeria, tooneesheeya, Libya, misr, soodaan aur pashchimi sahaara. is bhoobhaag mein kuchh chhote-se Spain-niyantrit uttar afreeki kshetr bhi aate hain. uttar afreeka mein arabi, barbari bhaashaaeain aur kuchh anya bhaashaaeain boli jaati hain. morakko, Algeria, tooneesheeya, Libya aur mauritaaniya ke samooh ko "magrib" bhi kaha jaata hai, jiska arth arabi mein (aur hindi-urdu mein bhi) "pashchimi" hai.

anukram

bhoogol

is ilaake ke uttari bhaag mein etalas parvat shrunkhala morakko, uttari Algeria aur tunishiya mein sthit hain. in pahaadon mein kaheen-kaheen van aur jhaad hain aur anya sthaanon par jameen patthareeli aur banjar hai. inmein kaheen-kaheen sardiyon ke mausam mein barf bhi padti hai aur chhote-mote nadi-naale pravaah karte hain. thoda sa dakshin mein aur poorv ki disha mein yeh pahaad khtm ho jaate hain aur ghaas aur jhaad ke khule faile hue maidaan hain, jo aur dakshin ki aur jaakar sahaara registaan ki ret mein samaapt ho jaate hain. uttari afreeka ka 75% bhaag yahi sahaara registaan hai. sahaara ka bahut sa hissa daraasal ek pathaar par sthit hai aur ismein bahut si chattaanein aur sookhe pahaad sthit hain. poorv ki aur misr mein neel nadi ki ghaati mein kaafi hariyaali hai aur misr ki adhikaaainsh aabaadi isi nadi ke paas rahati hai. sahaara ke registaan mein bhi kaheen-kaheen par nakhlistaan (oesis) milte hain. poore uttari afreeka mein samudra ke kinaare ka ilaaka thoda-bahut hariyaala hai aur vahaaain shahar-ksbe base hue hain.

uttar afreeka ka sab se uttari chhor tuneesiya ka "raas bin sakka" hai jo 37°a21' uttar akshaansh (laitityood) par sthit hai. yeh lagbhag Kashmir ke sab se uttari chhor ke baraabar hai.

deshon ka byaura

desh kshetrafal (varg kimi) janasainkhya aabaadi ka ghanatv
(vyakti prati varg kimi)
rajdhani sakal ghareloo utpaad prati vyakti ki ausat vaarshik aay mudra sarkaar ki vyavastha maanak bhaashaaeain
Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria 2,381,741 34,586,184 14.5 aljiyrj $254.7 arab (2010 est.)[1] $7,400 (2010 est.) aljeeriyaai dinaar raashtrapati-pradhaan ganatantr arabi aur fraansisi
Flag of Egypt.svg misr 1,001,450 80,471,869 80.4 kaahira $500.9 arab (2010) $6,200 (2010) misri pound raashtrapati-pradhaan ganatantr arabi
Flag of Libya.svg Libya 1,759,540 6,461,454 3.7 tripoli $89.03 arab (2010)[2] $13,800 (2010) Libya dinaar taanaashaahi (gruhayuddh jaari hai) arabi
Flag of Morocco.svg morakko 446,550 31,627,428 70.8 rabaat $153.8 arab (2010)[3] $4,900 (2010) morakkvi dirham samvaidhaanik raajashaahi arabi, lekin kshetreeya star par fraansisi aur barbari
Flag of Sudan.svg soodaan 2,505,813 43,939,598 17.5 khaaratoom $98.79 arab (2010)[4] $2,200 (2010) soodaani pound taanaashaahi arabi aur angreji
Flag of South Sudan.svg dakshin soodaan ??? 43,939,598 17.5 jooba $98.79 arab (2010)[5] $2,200 (2010) soodaani pound prajaatatr arabi aur angreji
Flag of Tunisia.svg tyoonishiya 163,610 10,589,025 64.7 toonis $100.3 arab (2010)[6] $9,500 (2010) toonishiyaai dinaar taanaashaahi / ganatantr arabi
Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg pashchimi sahaara[7] 266,000 491,519 1.8 ऍl aaiun $90 karod (2007)[8] $2,500 (2007) morakkvi dirham morakko dvaara niyantrit arabi, fraansisi aur spainish
kul, uttar afreeka 8,524,704 208,167,077 24.4 $12 kharab $5,700$

srot aur tipnni:
1. srot: vishv tathyakosh, sanyukt raajya America ki khufiya ejainsi (see॰aaai॰ae॰), 11 fravari 2011.[9]
2. misr ko praay: ek uttari Africa evam pashchimi Asia ke beech antarmahaadveepeeya desh maana jaata hai. yahaan janasankhya evam kshetrafal ke aankade svej nahar ke pashchimi or ke afreeki bhoobhaag ke hi hain.
3. pashchimi sahaara saharaavi arab janataantrik ganaraajya, jo kshetr ki ek alpamat bhoomi kshetr ka prashaasanik adhikaar rakhata hai evam morokko, jiske adhikaar mein shesh dakshini praant kshetr hai; ke beech ek vivaadit kshetr hai.

sanskruti

uttar afreeka ki sanskruti chaar mukhya dhaaraaon ke taalamel se bani hai -

  • poorvi bhaag mein misr ki praacheen sabhyata neel nadi aur uske paas ke kshetron mein hajaaron varshon tak charam par rahi hai. misr ke kopti isaai (jinhein angreji mein kauptik krishchan kehte hain) samudaaya par is praacheen misri sabhyata ki gahari chhaap dekhi ja sakti hai.
  • doosari dhaara pashchimi bhaag ki barbar jaatiyaaain aur barbari bhaashaaoain ko lekar bani hai, jo is bhaag ka praacheen virsa hai. neel nadi se kuchh pashchim mein misr ke hi seeva nakhlistaan (oesis) se barbar prabhaav dikhne lagta hai aur yeh pashchim mein andh mahaasaagar tak faila hua hai.
  • teesari dhaara arabi sanskruti ki hai. arabon ne islaami daur ki shuruaat ke baad uttar afreeka par aakraman karke usako arab sanskruti ke saath jod liya tha. sadiyon ke beetane se misr ki praacheen bhaasha lagbhag khtm ho gayi aur vah log arabi bolne lage. barbar ilaakon par bhi arabi prabhaav itna pada ke in samaajon mein barbari ki tulana mein arabi bolne vaale adhik ho gaye aur adhikaaainsh barbari mool ke log apne-aap ko arab samaaj ka hissa samajhne lage.
  • chauthi dhaara 18vi sadi se 20sadi ke madhya tak chalne vaale yooropiyaai saamraajyavaad ki hai, jismein uttar afreeka mein misr par inglaind, Libya par Italy aur baaki hisson par France ko bulandi mili. samay ke saath-saath Italy ka prabhaav to jaata raha hai, lekin fraansisi bhaasha aur kai taur-tareeke abhi bhi uttar afreeka ke "magrib" kshetr mein dekhe ja sakte hain.

20vi sadi mein bahut se barbar mool ke logon mein apni praacheen sanskruti ke liye jaagruti paida hui. kuchh log saamaajik, kala aur sarkaari jeevan mein barbari bhaashaaoain ko maanyata milne ke liye aandolan chalaane lage. iske vipreet kuchh anya logon ko laga ke is se arab ekta ko dhakka lagta hai aur ve iska virodh karne lage. yeh vivaad jaari hai, haalaanki morakko, Algeria aur anya deshon mein barbari bhaashaaoain ki maanyata dheere-dheere badhti gayi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh