uttar America ki arthavyavastha

uttar America ki arthavyavastha
2003 ke dauraan, jab tak anyatha ghoshit
janasankhya: 52.8 karod
GDP (PPP) (2009): 16,981 arab dollar
GDP (mudra) (2009): 16,279 arab dollar
GDP/vyakti (PPP) (2009): 25,263 $
GDP/vyakti (mudra) (2009): 24,155 $
prati vyakti GDP
ki vaarshik vruddhi dar:
1.84% (1990-2002)
sarvaadhik dhani 10% ki aay: 32.9%
lakhapati*: 32 lakh (0.65%)
berojgaari 10%
* das lakh dollar se oopar

uttar America ki arthavyavastha ke antargat 52.8 karod se adhik log aate hain jo 23 samprabhuta sampann deshon aur 15 adhinsth kshetron mein nivaas karte hain. is arthatantr ke antargat uttar mein Canada aur America jaise desh hai, jo sansaar ke sarvaadhik dhani aur viksit deshon mein hain aur madhya America aur kairibiyaai desh bhi jo apekshaakrut kam viksit ya vikaasasheel hain. in donon chhoron ke beech sthit hai Mexico jo ek naveen audyogik desh hai aur uttar ameriki mukt vyaapaar samjhaute (naafta) ka sadasya hai aur ekamaatr laatin ameriki desh hai jo oiseedi ka sadasya hai.

sanyukt raajya America sanjnyaaatmak aur kraya shakti donon hi aadhaar par is kshetr ki sabse badi arthavyavastha hai jabki sant loosiya (sanjnyaaatmak) aur dominika (kraya shakti) ke aadhaar par uttar America ki sabse chhoti arthavyavasthaaeain hain.

anukram

itihaas

bees ke dashak ka teevr vikaas

pratham vishv yuddh ke parinaamasvaroop, uttar ameriki deshon mein saamaajik aur aarthik vruddhi hui. is ghatanaavrutt ke falasvaroop in deshon ko bahut laabh pahuaincha jaise, bade paimaane par vijnyaaapanon ka utthaan, jiske kaaran bahut aarthik samruddhi I.[1]

tees ke dashak ki "mahaamandi"

mahaamandi, uttar America mein October 1929 mein aarambh hui thi. iska kaaran aamtaur par share baajaar ka kaale shukravaar ke din dharaashaai hone ko maana jaata hai lekin yeh vaastavik kaaran naheen tha.[2] vishesh roop se Canada aur America ki arthavyavasthaaon mein bhaari giraavat I, 1929 se 1933 ke madhya ameriki arthavyavastha mein 37% aur kanaadiyaai arthavyavastha mein 43% ki giraavat I.[3] 1933 mein arthavyavastha apne nyoonatam sthar par pahuainch gayi. doosare vishv yuddh ke kaaran maal ki maang mein uchhaal aaya jiske kaaran mahaamandi ka ant hua.

mahaamandi ke baad ke varshon mein uttar America ki arthavyavasthaaon mein sarkaari hastakshep badha. America mein new deal ke antargat berojgaari beema laaya gaya, nyoonatam vetan aur kaam karne ke ghante nishchit kar diye gaye.[4] Canada mein bhi isi prakaar ke sudhaar kiye gaye.[5] mahaamandi ke dauraan meksikon mein kuchh mahatvapoorn bankon ka raashtreeyakaran kar diya gaya aur 1937 mein relamaargon ka aur 1938 mein tel udyog ka bhi raashtreeyakaran kar diya gaya.

dviteeya vishv yuddh

doosare vishv yuddh ke dauraan, bahut se purush sena mein bharti ho gaye aur utpaadakon ne mahilaaon ka svaagat kiya. pehle ye kaam mahilaaon ke liye band the lekin upakaranon ki bhaari maaaing ke kaaran aur purush karmachaariyon ke sena mein bharti hone ke kaaran mahilaaon ko in kaarkhaanon mein kaam karne ki chhoot mil gayi. spasht roop se kahein to kaaryakartaaon ki kami ke kaaran uttar America mein berojgaari lagbhag samaapt ho gayi.

sheet yuddh


America-Canada mukt vyaapaar samjhauta aur naafta - aarthik ekeekaran ke yug ka sootraadhaar

1989 ke Canada-America mukt vyaapaar samjhaute aur uttaravarti iske uttar ameriki mukt vyaapaar samjhaute mein badalne ke kaaran in deshon ke beech ke vyaapaar mein abhootapoorv vruddhi hui aur America-Canada ka aapasi vyaapaar teen guna badha. 2006 mein Canada ke 85% niryaat America ko hue.

kshetriya vividhta


vyaapaar desh samooh

Asia-prashaant aarthik sahayog (epek)

Asia-prashaant aarthik sahayog (epek) prashaant kshetr ke deshon ka samooh hai jo in deshon ke aarthik aur raajanaitik sambandhon ki pragaadhta ko sudrudh karne ka manch hai. epek ke nirdhaarit lakshyon mein pramukh hain prashulk ko shoonya aur paaainch ke beech rakhakar Asia-prashaant ke viksit deshon ke liye 2010 tak aur vikaasasheel deshon ke liye 2020 tak mukt aur khula vyaapaar aur nivesh.

is sangathan mein chaar mahaadveepon se sadasya desh hain, jinmein uttar America se teen sadasya hain: Canada, Mexico aur America.

kairibiyaai samudaaya

kairibiyaai samudaaya (kairikaum) ka gathan is uddeshya ke saath kiya gaya tha " saamudaayik sansthaanon aur samoohon ke saath bhaageedaari karke gatisheel netrutv aur seva pradaan karna, jisse ek vyavahaarya, antarraashtreeya pratiyogita-mulak aur aise samudaaya ka nirmaan ho sake jismein sabhi ka jeevan star pehle ki tulana mein behtar ho".

- 1 January, 2006 tak chh: sadasy: {baarabados, belij, guyaana, jamaika, sooreenaam aur Trinidad aur tobego) anaadhikaarik roop se kairibiyaai (kairikaum) ekal baajaar aur arthavyavastha ka nirmaan.

- 30 January, 2006 ko jamaika mein aadhikaarik roop se protokaul par hastaakshar karne ke baad, chh: anya deshon (enteeguaa aur baarabuda, dauminika, Grenada, sant kits aur nevis, sant lusiya aur sant vinsent aur grenaadaains) ne samooh ke saath 2006 ki doosari timaahi se judne ki ichha prakat ki. mauntasiraat, ek british adhishaasi hai jiska nivedan abhi Britain ke paas lambit hai. haiti aur bahaamaas ka filhaal samooh se judne ka iraada naheen hai.

madhya America mukt vyaapaar samjhauta

madhya America mukt vyaapaar samjhauta (kaafta), sanyukt raajya America aur madhya ameriki deshon kosta rika, guaatemaala, L salvaador aur nikaaraaguaa ke beech hua ek samjhauta hai. is samjhaute ka uddeshya iske sadasya raashtron ke beech mukt vyaapaar ko badhaava dena hai. Canada aur Mexico ki sadasyata vichaaraadheen hai.

uttar America mukt vyaapaar samjhauta

uttar America mukt vyaapaar samjhauta (naafta) Canada, Mexico aur America ke beech hua ek samjhauta hai jiska uddeshya sadasyon ke beech saamaanon (maal) prashulk samaapt karna hai.

yadyapi abhi yeh keval ek samjhauta hai, lekin kai sujhaav is sambandh mein diye gaye hain ki Europeeya sangh ki tarj par hi uttar ameriki sangh ya uttar ameriki mudra sangh ko moortaroop diya jaae. lekin abhi yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki kaalaantar mein aisa koi sangh is mahaadveep par janm lega.

mudraaeain

nimnalikhit soochi uttar America ki mudraaon ki hai, vinimay dar ameriki dollar aur Euro donon mein di gayi hai. 12 April 2008 ki dar

desh mudra moolya Euro mein moolya dollar mein kendreeya bank
anteeguaa aur baarabooda isi dollar 0.24 0.38 poorvi kairibiyaai kendreeya bank
bahaamaas bahaamaasi dollar 0.63 1.00 bahaamaas kendreeya bank
baarabaados baarabadisi dollar 0.32 0.50 baarabaados kendreeya bank
beleej beleejeeyaai dollar 0.32 0.51 beleej kendreeya bank
Canada kanaadiyaai dollar 0.62 0.98 bank of Canada
kosta rika kolon 0.001 0.002 kosta rika kendreeya bank
dominika isi dollar 0.24 0.38 poorvi kairibiyaai kendreeya bank
dominikn ganaraajya dominikn ganaraajya peeso 0.02 0.03 dominikn ganaraajya kendreeya bank
al saalvaador ameriki dollar 0.63 1.00 al saalvaador kendreeya rijrv bank
Grenada isi dollar 0.24 0.38 poorvi kairibiyaai kendreeya bank
gvaatemaala kooetjl 0.08 0.13 bank of gvaatemaala
haiti gorde 0.02 0.03 haiti kendreeya bank
haunduras lempira 0.03 0.05 haunduras kendreeya bank
jamaika jamaikaai dollar 0.009 0.01 bank of jamaika
Mexico meksiki peeso 0.06 0.09 bank of Mexico
nikaaraaguaa kordoba 0.03 0.05 nikaaraaguaa kendreeya bank
panaama baalboaa 0.63 1.00 panaama raashtreeya bank
sant kits aur nevis isi dollar 0.24 0.38 poorvi kairibiyaai kendreeya bank
sant loosiya isi dollar 0.24 0.38 poorvi kairibiyaai kendreeya bank
sant vinsent aur grenaadaains isi dollar 0.24 0.38 poorvi kairibiyaai kendreeya bank
Trinidad aur Tobago Trinidad aur Tobago dollar 0.10 0.16 Trinidad aur Tobago kendreeya bank
sanyukt raajya America ameriki dollar 0.63 1.00 sangheeya rijrv pranaali

aarthik kshetr

krushi

krushi kshetr madhya aur kairibiyaai deshon mein mahatvapoorn hai. pashchimi Canada mein, saaskaatcheevan, albarta, british Columbia aur maanitoba mein geinhooain aur anya bahut se krushi utpaad ugaae jaate hain. America mein bhi bahut se raajyon mein, mukhyat: madhya mahaadveepeeya America mein krushi sambandhit utpaad ugaae jaate hain. meksikon mein bahut se ushnadesheeya falon aur sabjiyon aur khaadya pashuon ka utpaadan kiya jaata hai.

nirmaan

uttar America ka nirmaan kshetr viksit aur yeh kshetr badha hai. praarambh mein Europe ke desh nirmaan ke bade kendra the. 50 ke dashak ke aarambh mein America, Canada ke saath vishv ka sabse bada nirmaan kendra tha aur Mexico inke peechhe tha. vartamaan mein uttar America ke desh aarthik roop se bahut sudrud aur samruddh hain.

sevaakshetr

Canada, America aur kairibiyaai kshetr mein sevaakshetr mein sarvaadhik log kaaryarat hain. bahut se log bainko aur dukaano mein kaam karte hain. Canada mein to 70% se bhi adhik log sevaakshetr mein kaaryarat hain. yahi sthiti America mein bhi hai. abut se ameriki aur kanaadiyaai log Khan-paan aur kapadon par bahut paisa kharch karte hain.

nivesh aur banking

America ka banking aur nivesh kshetr uttar America mein sabse adhik viksit hai. Canada aur Mexico teji se is disha mein badh rahe hain. chhoti arthavyavasthaaen jaise guaatemaala, kosta rika, haunduras aur panaama bhi dheere lekin is disha mein pragati kar rahe hain.

vaishvik vyaapaar sambandh


yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain