utsarjan vyaapaar

inhein bhi dekhein: Carbon emission trading, Personal carbon trading, evam carbon offset
Germany mein ek koyala oorja sanyantr. utsarjan vyaapaar karne ke kaaran, koyala anya vikalpon ki tulana mein ek kam pratiyogi indhan ban sakta hai.

utsarjan vyaapaar (kaip end trade ke roop mein bhi gyaat) ek prashaasanik drushtikon hai jiska prayog pradooshakon ke utsarjan mein katauti ko praapt karne par aarthik protsaahan pradaan karke pradooshan ko niyantrit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.

ek kendreeya praadhikran (aamtaur par ek sarkaari nikaaya), utsarjit kiye ja sakane vaale pradooshak ki maatra par ek seema ya kaip nirdhaarit karta hai. companiyon ya anya samoohon ko[tathya vaanchhit] utsarjan paramit jaari kiye jaate hain aur unhein ek baraabar sankhya mein chhootein (ya kredit) rakhane ki aavashyakta hoti hai jo utsarjan karne ki ek vishisht maatra ke adhikaar ko darshaata hai. chhoot aur kredit ki kul maatra, seema se adhik naheen ho sakti, jo kul utsarjan ko us star tak ke liye seemit kar deti hai. ve companiyaan jinhein apne utsarjan chhoot ko badhaane ki jaroorat hai, unke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki ve un logon se kredit khareedein jo kam pradooshan karte hain. in chhooton ka sthaanaantaran vyaapaar kahalaata hai. javaab mein, khareedadaar, pradooshan ke liye ek shulk de raha hai, jabki vikreta ko, utsarjan ko aavashyakta se adhik kam karne ke liye puraskrut kiya ja raha hai. is prakaar, siddhaant roop mein, jo log utsarjan ko sabse saste tareeke se kam kar sakte hain ve aisa kareinge, samaaj par nyoonatam asar ke saath pradooshan mein kami ko praapt karna.[1]

vibhinn vaayu pradooshakon mein sakriya vyaapaar kaaryakram maujood hain. greenahaaus gaison ke liye sabse badi yooropiyn union emishn trading skeem hai.[2] sanyukt raajya America mein aml varsha ko kam karne ke liye ek raashtreeya baajaar hai aur naaitrojan aaksaaid mein kai kshetreeya baajaar hain.[3] anya pradooshakon ke liye baajaar apekshaakrut chhote aur adhik sthaaneeyakrut hua karte hain.

anukram

paridrushya

ek utsarjan vyaapaar yojana ka samagr lakshya, nirdhaarit utsarjan lakshya ko praapt karne ki laagat ko nyoonatam karna hai.[4] kaip, utsarjan par pravartaneeya seema hai jise aamtaur par samay ke saath kam kiya jaata hai - jiski disha ek raashtreeya utsarjan lakshya ki or hoti hai.[4] anya pranaaliyon mein kaarobaar kiye gaye sabhi kredit ke ek hisse ko lautaana aavashyak hota hai, jisse pratyek vyaapaar ke samay utsarjan mein ek shuddh kami hoti hai. kai kaip end trade pranaali mein, jo sangathan pradooshan naheen failaate hain ve bhi bhaag le sakte hain, is prakaar paryaavaran samooh chhoot ya kredit ko khareed sakte hain aur nivrutt kar sakte hain aur is prakaar maang ke niyam ke anusaar bache hue ki keemat ko badha sakte hain.[5] nigam, chhooton ko kisi gair-laabh sanstha ko daan karke samay se pehle bhi unhein lauta sakte hain aur fir ek kar katauti ke liye paatr ho sakte hain.

arthashaastriyon ne, paryaavaran sambandhi samasyaaon ke samaadhaan ke liye nideshaatmak "aadesh aur niyantran" viniyman ke bajaay, "baajaar-aadhaarit" upakaranon ke prayog ka aagrah kiya hai jaise ki utsarjan vyaapaar.[6] aadesh aur niyantran viniyman ke atyadhik kathor, praudyogikeeya aur bhaugolik bhinnataaon ke prati asamvedansheel aur aprabhaavakaari hone ke kaaran aalochna ki gayi hai.[7] haalaanki, utsarjan mein prabhaavi dhang se katauti karne ke liye, utsarjan vyaapaar ko ek kaip (seema) ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur kaip ek sarkaari niyaamak tantr hai. ek sarkaari raajaneetik prakriya dvaara ek seema ko nirdhaarit kiye jaane ke baad, vyaktigat companiyaan yeh chunaav karne ke liye mukt hain ki kya aur kitna ve apne utsarjan ko kam kareingi. utsarjan ko kam karne mein vifalta ko aksar ek anya sarkaari viniyaamak tantr dvaara dandit kiya jaata hai, ek jurmaana jo utpaadan ki laagat ko badha deta hai. pradooshan viniyman ka paalan karne ke liye companiyaan sabse kam laagat vaale tareeke ko chuneingi, jo katauti ko prerit karega jahaan sabse kam mahange samaadhaan hon, jabki un utsarjan ki anumati dega jinhein kam karna adhik mahanga hai.

itihaas

aage chalakar "kaip-end-trade" kahe jaane vaale is vaayu pradooshan niyantran drushtikon ki prabhaavakaarita ko sookshm-aarthik computer chhadm adhyayan ki shrrunkhala mein pradarshit kiya gaya. ise 1967 aur 1970 ke beech naishanal air paulyushan control edaministreshan ke liye (yoonaaited states invaayarameintal protection agency ke vaayu aur vikirn kaaryaalaya ka poorvavarti) ke liye elisn bartan aur William sanjorn dvaara kiya gaya. in adhyayanon ne vibhinn shaharon unke utsarjan sroton ke ganiteeya model ka istemaal kiya taaki vibhinn niyantran rananeetiyon ki laagat aur prabhaavakaarita ki tulana ki ja sake.[8][9][10][11][12] katauti ki pratyek rananeeti ka, ek computer anukoolan program dvaara nirmit "nyoonatam laagat samaadhaan" se Milan kiya jaata hai taaki diye gaye ghataav lakshya ko praapt karne ke liye nyoonatam laagat vaale srot katauti ke sanyojan ki pehchaan ki ja sake.[13] pratyek maamale mein yeh paaya gaya ki nyoonatam laagat samaadhaan naatakeeya roop se, katauti ki kisi bhi paaramparik rananeeti se falit pradooshan ki samaan maatra mein kami se sasta tha.[14] isne "kaip end trade" ki avadhaarana ko, katauti ke diye gaye star ke liye "nyoonatam laagat samaadhaan" praapt karne ke ek upaaya ke roop mein prerit kiya.

itihaas ke kram mein utsarjan vyaapaar ke vikaas ko chaar charanon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai:[15]

  1. garbh kaal: upakaran ki saiddhaantik abhivyakti (kos,[16] kraukar,[17] dels,[18] maantagomeri[19] aadi dvaara) aur US invaayarameintal agency mein "lacheele viniyman" ke saath poorv ki fer-badal se mukt.
  2. siddhaant ka saboot: utsarjan pramaanapatr ke vyaapaar ki disha mein pehla vikaas, svachh vaayu adhiniyam mein 1977 mein liye gaye "ofaset-tantr" par aadhaarit hai.
  3. prototaaip: 1990 clean air act ke sheershak IV mein US esid ren program ke hisse ke roop mein pratham "kaip-end-trade" pranaali ka shubhaaranbh, aadhikaarik taur par ise paryaavaran neeti mein ek badlaav ke roop mein ghoshit kiya gaya, jaisa ki "project 88" dvaara taiyaar kiya gaya tha, America mein paryaavaraneeya aur audyogik hiton ko saath laane ke prayaas mein ek network-nirmaan pahal.
  4. shaasan gathan: ameriki svachh vaayu neeti se failate hue vaishvik jalavaayu neeti ka roop lena aur vahaan se Europeeya sangh, jiske saath thi ubharate vaishvik kaarban baajaar ki aasha aur "kaarban udyog" ka gathan.

kaip end trade banaam ek aadhaararekha aur kredit drushtikon ke maadhyam se nirmit ofaset

tekstabuk utsarjan vyaapaar kaaryakram ko ek "kaip end trade" drushtikon kaha ja sakta hai jismein sabhi sroton par ek samagr kaip sthaapit kiya jaata hai aur fir in sroton ko aapas mein vyaapaar karne ki anumati di jaati hai taaki yeh nirdhaarit kiya ja sake ki kaun se srot vaastav mein kul pradooshan bhaar failaate hain. mahatvapoorn antaron wala ek vaikalpik drushtikon ek aadhaar-rekha aur kredit kaaryakram hai.[20]

ek aadhaar-rekha aur kredit kaaryakram pradooshak mein jo ek samagr kaip ke tahat naheen hain, apne utsarjan ko utsarjan ke ek aadhaar-rekha star se neeche pahunchaate hue kredit bana sakte hain, aamtaur par jise ofaset kaha jaata hai. is tarah ke kredit ko pradooshakon dvaara khareeda ja sakta hai jinke paas ek niyaamak seema hai.[21]

antararaashtreeya utsarjan vyaapaar ka arthashaastr

yeh sambhav hai ki koi desh aadesh aur niyantran drushtikon ka upayog karte hue utsarjan ko kam kar le, jaise viniyman, pratyaksh aur apratyaksh kar. vibhinn deshon mein is drushtikon ki laagat alag-alag hai kyonki marginal abetameint kaust karv (MAC) - pradooshan ki ek atirikt ikaai ko samaapt karne ki laagat - deshon ke anusaar bhinn. ek tan CO2 ko samaapt karne mein cheen ko $2 lag sakta hai jabki sveedan ya America ko shaayad isse jyaada lage. antararaashtreeya utsarjan vyaapaar baajaar, bhinn MACs ka laabh uthaane ke liye nirmit kiye gaye.

udaaharan

ek saral utsarjan kaiping skeem ki tulana mein, gens fraum trade ke maadhyam se vyaapaar utsarjan, vikreta aur khareedadaar, donon ke liye adhik faayademand ho sakta hai.

do Europeeya deshon par vichaar keejiye, jaise sveedan aur Germany. donon desh chaahein to utsarjan ki poori aavashyak maatra ko swayam kam kar sakte hain ya fir ve ise baajaar mein khareedne ya bechne ka chunaav kar sakte hain.

udaaharan ke taur par do alag alag deshon ke liye MACs

is udaaharan ke liye ham yeh maan lete hain ki sveedan ki tulana mein Germany kaafi kam laagat se apne CO2 mein katauti kar sakta hai, udaaharan, MACS > MACG jahaan sveedan ka MAC vakr Germany ki tulana mein adhik gahra hai (uchch dhaal) aur RReq utsarjan ki kul maatra hai jise ek desh dvaara kam kiye jaane ki jaroorat hai.

graaf ke baain or Germany ke liye MAC vakr hai. RReq, Germany ke liye aavashyak katauti ki maatra hai, lekin RReq par MACG vakr, CO2 ki baajaar chhoot keemat se pratichhed naheen karta hai (baajaar chhoot moolya = P = λ). is prakaar, CO2 chhoot ke baajaar moolya ke aadhaar par, Germany ke paas adhik laabhaanvit hone ki sambhaavana hai yadi vah utsarjan mein aavashyakta se adhik katauti karta hai.

daain taraf sveedan ke liye MAC vakr hai. RReq, sveedan ke liye katauti ki aavashyak maatra hai, lekin MACs vakr, RReq tak pahunchane se pehle hi CO2 chhoot ke baajaar moolya ko pratichhed karta hai. is prakaar, CO2 ki baajaar chhoot keemat ko dekhte hue, sveedan ke paas laagat bachat ki kshamata hai agar vah utsarjan mein, aatanrik roop se aavashyak katauti se kam katauti karta hai aur balki unhein kaheen aur katauti karta hai.

is udaaharan mein, sveedan utsarjan mein tab tak katauti karega jab tak iska MACS P ke saath (R* par) pratichhed na kare, lekin isse sveedan ki kul aavashyak katauti se keval thoda hi ansh kam hoga. uske baad vah Germany se P (prati unit) moolya par utsarjan kredit khareed sakta hai. baajaar mein Germany se khreede gaye kredit ki keemat ke saath sanyukt, sveedan ki apni katauti ki aantarik laagat, sveedan ke liye aavashyak kul katauti (RReq) tak pahunchati hai. is prakaar sveedan, baajaar (Δ d-e-f) mein kredit khareed kar bachat kar sakta hai. yeh "gens fraum trade" ko darshaata hai, atirikt kharch ki raashi jise sveedan ko anyatha kharch karna padta agar usane bina vyaapaar kiye apne kul aavashyak utsarjan ko khud kam kiya hota.

Germany ne apne atirikt utsarjan katauti par laabh kamaaya, jitni aavashyakta thi usase oopar par: usane, jitna usase apekshit tha (RReq), us saare utsarjan mein katauti karke niyamon ko poora kiya. iske alaava, Germany ne apne adhishesh ko kredit ke roop mein sveedan ko bech diya aur use katauti ki gayi prati ikaai ke liye P ka bhugataan praapt hua, jabki usane P se kam kharch kiya. usaka kul raajasv, graaf ka kshetrafal hai (RReq 1 2 R*), usaki kul katauti laagat kshetrafal hai (RReq 3 2 R*) aur isliye utsarjan kredit bechne se usaka shuddh laabh hai kshetrafal (Δ 1-2 -3) arthaat gens fraum trade (vyaapaar se laabh)

do R* (donon graaf par) vyaapaar se utpann hone vaale kushal aavantan ko darshaate hain.

  • Germany: ne (R* -RReq) utsarjan kredit ko ikaai keemat P par sveedan ko becha.
  • sveedan ne ikaai keemat P par Germany se utsarjan kredit khareeda.

agar command control paridrushya mein utsarjan ki vishisht maatra ki katauti ki kul laagat X hai, to Germany aur sveedan mein sanyukt pradooshan ki samaan maatra ki katauti karne mein, kul katati laagat utsarjan vyaapaar paridrushya mein kam hogi arthaat (X - Δ 123 - Δ def).

uparokt udaaharan na sirf raashtreeya star par laagoo hota hai: balki yeh bhinn deshon mein sthit do companiyon par, ya fir ek hi company ke bheetar do sahaayak companiyon par bhi laagoo hota hai.

aarthik siddhaant ko laagoo karna

pradooshak ki prakruti us vakt ek bahut mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaati hai jab neeti nirmaata is baat ka nirnaya lete hain ki pradooshan ko niyantrit karne ke liye kaun sa dhaancha istemaal kiya jaana chaahiye.

CO2 vishv star par kaarya karta hai, is prakaar dharati par chaahe jahaan kaheen bhi ise chhoda jaae, paryaavaran par iska prabhaav samaan hai. paryaavaraneeya drushti se, utsarjan ki utpatti ke sthaan se vaastav mein koi fark naheen padta.

neetigat dhaanche, kshetreeya pradooshakon ke liye alag-alag hona chaahiye[22] (jaise SO2 aur NOX aur paara bhi), kyonki ho sakta hai in pradooshakon ka prabhaav sabhi sthaanon mein ek jaisa na ho. samaan maatra ka ek kshetreeya pradooshak, kuchh sthaanon mein bahut uchch prabhaav daal sakta hai aur anya sthaanon mein kam prabhaav, isliye yeh vaastav mein maayane rakhata hai ki pradooshak ko kahaan chhoda ja raha hai. ise haut spot samasya ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

ek laigareinj dhaanche ka aam taur par istemaal, ek uddeshya ko praapt karne ki nyoonatam laagat ko nirdhaarit karne ke liye hota hai, is maamale mein ek varsh mein aavashyak utsarjan mein kul kami hai. kuchh maamalon mein, pratyek desh ke liye (unke MAC par aadhaarit) aavashyak katauti ka nirdhaaran karne ke liye laigareinj anukoolan dhaanche ka upayog karna sambhav hai, taaki katauti ki kul laagat ko nyoonatam kiya ja sake. aise paridrushya mein ek, laigareinj gunak, pradooshak ke baajaar chhoot moolya (P) ko darshaata hai, jaise Europe[23] aur amareeka[24] mein utsarjan ki maujooda baajaar chhoot keemat.

sabhi deshon ko us baajaar chhoot keemat ka saamana karna padta hai jo us din baajaar mein maujood hai, taaki ve aise vyaktigat nirnaya lene mein saksham rahe jo unki laagat ko nyoonatam kare, jabki niyaamak anupaalan ko bhi saath-saath praapt kare. yeh sam-seemaant-siddhaant ka ek anya sanskaran hai, jise aam taur par aarthik roop se sarvaadhik kushal nirnaya ke chunaav ke liye arthashaastr mein prayog kiya jaata hai.

moolya banaam maatra aur suraksha vaalv

utsarjan mein katauti haasil karne ke liye moolya banaam maatra yuktiyon ki tulanaatmak khoobiyon par kaafi puraani bahas chali aa rahi hai.[25]

ek utsarjan kaip aur paramit vyaapaar pranaali ek maatra saadhan hai, kyonki yeh samagr utsarjan star (maatra) ko theek karti hai aur keemat ke bhinn hone ki anumati deti hai. bhavishya mein maang aur aapoorti ki sthitiyon mein anishchitta (baajaar ki asthirta), pradooshan kredit ki ek nishchit sankhya ke saath yugmit hokar, pradooshan kredit ki bhavishya ki keemat mein anishchitta laata hai aur udyog ko tadanusaar baajaar ki in asthir sthitiyon ke anuroop dhalane ke kharch ko vahan karna hoga. is prakaar, ek asthir baajaar ka bojh udyog ke saath nihit hota hai, na ki niyantran agency ke saath, jo aam taur par adhik kushal hoti hai. haalaanki, asthir baajaar sthitiyon ke tahat, niyantran agency ki kaip ko badalne ki kshamata "vijetaaon aur paraajiton" ko chunane ki kshamata mein parivrtit ho jaaegi aur is prakaar bhrashtaachaar ke liye ek avsar prastut karegi.

iske vipreet, ek utsarjan kar ek moolya saadhan hai kyonki yeh keemat ko nishchit kar deta hai jabki utsarjan star ko aarthik gatividhiyon ke anusaar badalne ki anumati hai. ek utsarjan kar ka ek pramukh dosh yeh hai ki paryaavaraneeya parinaam (jaise, utsarjan ki maatra par seema) ki guaranty naheen hoti hai. ek taraf ek kar, sanbhavat: kisi upayogi aarthik gatividhi ko daba kar udyog se poonji ko nikaal dega, lekin iske vipreet, pradooshak ko bhavishya ki anishchitta ke khilaaf bahut adhik hichkichaane ki zaroorat naheen hai kyonki kar ki raashi laabh ke saath chalegi. ek asthir baajaar ke bojh ko, swayam udyog ke bajaay niyantran (kar lagaane waali) agency vahan karegi, jo aam taur par kam kushal hoti hai. ek faayda yeh hai ki, ek samaan kar ki dar aur ek asthir baajaar mein, kar lagaane waali sanstha "vijetaaon aur aparaajiton" ko chunane ki sthiti mein naheen hogi aur bhrashtaachaar ke liye avsar kam honge.

yeh maanate hue ki koi bhrashtaachaar naheen hai aur yeh maanate hue ki niyantran agency aur udyog baajaar ki asthir sthitiyon ke anuroop dhalane mein samaan roop se kushal hain, sabse achha vikalp laabh ki sanvedanasheelata ki tulana mein, utsarjan mein kami ki laagat ki sanvedanasheelata par nirbhar karta hai (yaani, katauti dvaara bachaaya gaya jalavaayu nuksaan) jab utsarjan niyantran ka star bhinn hai.

choonki companiyon ki anupaalan laagat mein uchch anishchitta hai, kuchh logon ka tark hai ki moolya tantr ishtatam pasand hai. haalaanki, anishchitta ka bojh, samaapt naheen kiya ja sakta hai aur is maamale mein yeh tax agency mein hi sthaanaantarit ho gaya hai.

kuchh vaigyaaniko ne kaarban daaioksaaid ki vaayumandaleeya saandrata mein ek seema ki chetaavani di hai, jiske pare atyant taap prabhaav paida ho sakta hai, jisse apooraneeya kshati hone ki kaafi sambhaavana hai. yadi yeh ek bodhagamya jokhim hai to ek maatraatmak saadhan ek behtar vikalp ho sakta hai kyonki utsarjan ki maatra ko nishchitta ke ek uchch star ke saath roka ja sakta hai. baharahaal, yadi yeh jokhim maujood rahata hai to yeh sach naheen ho sakta hai, lekin ise GHG sankendran ke gyaat star athva gyaat utsarjan path ke saath joda naheen ja sakta.[26]

suraksha vaalv ke roop mein gyaat, ek teesara vikalp, moolya aur maatra saadhanon ka ek sankar hai. yeh pranaali moolat: ek utsarjan seema aur paramit vyaapaar pranaali hai lekin adhiktam (ya nyoonatam) sveekaarya keemat ko seemit kiya gaya hai. pradooshan failaane vaalon ke paas yeh vikalp hai ki ve chaahe to baajaar se paramit haasil kar lein ya fir sarkaar se ek nirdisht trigr moolya par khareedein (jise vakt ke saath samaayojit kiya ja sakta hai). nai jaankaari ke prakaash mein aane par sarkaar ko is pranaali ko samaayojit karne ka lacheelaapan dekar, donon pranaaliyon ki maulik kharaabiyon par kaaboo paane ke ek tareeke ke roop mein kabhi-kabhi is pranaali ki sifaarish ki jaati hai. yeh darshaaya ja sakta hai ki trigr keemat ko paryaapt ooncha rakhakar ya paramit ki sankhya ko paryaapt neeche rakhakar, suraksha vaalv ko shuddh maatraatmak ya shuddh moolya tantr ki nakl karne ke liye upayog kiya ja sakta hai.[27]

sabhi teen tareekon ko, greenahaaus gas utsarjan ko niyantrit karne ke liye neetigat saadhan ke roop mein upayog kiya jaata hai: EU-ETS ek maatraatmak yojana hai jo national ailokeshan plaans dvaara nirdhaarit lakshyon ko haasil karne ke liye kaip aur vyaapaar pranaali ka upayog karti; Denmark mein ek moolya pranaali hai jo kaarban tax ka upayog karti hai (world bank, 2010, p. 218),[28] jabki cheen apni clean development maikenijm pariyojanaaon ko vittaposhit karne ke liye CO2 baajaar moolya ka upayog karta hai, lekin CO2 ke prati tan par nyoonatam moolya ka ek suraksha vaalv lagaata hai.

kaarban risaav

kaarban risaav vah prabhaav hai jo ek desh/sector ka utsarjan viniyman anya deshon/sectoron ke utsarjan par daalata hai jo samaan viniyman ke antargat naheen aate hain (baarkar va anya, 2007).[29] lambi avadhi ke kaarban risaav ke parimaan par koi aam sahamati naheen hai (goldamabarg va anya, 1996, p. 31).[30]

kyoto protokaul mein, anulagnak I desh utsarjan ki seema ke adheen hain, lekin gair-anulagnak I desh naheen hain. baarkar eight al. (2007) ne risaav par saahitya ka moolyaankan kiya. risaav dar ko is roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai ki yeh deshon ke baahar ghareloo shaman kaarravaai karne vaale CO2 ke utsarjan mein vruddhi ko ghareloo shaman kaarravaai karne vaale deshon ke utsarjan mein kami se bhaag dena hai. tadanusaar, 100% se adhik ke ek risaav dar ka matlab hoga ki utsarjan ko kam karne ke liye ki gayi ghareloo kaarravaaiyon ke prabhaavasvaroop anya deshon mein kaafi had tak utsarjan badha hai, arthaat, ghareloo shaman kaarravaai ne vaastav mein vaishvik utsarjan mein vruddhi ko prerit kiya hai.

kyoto protokaul ke tahat kaarravaai kiye jaane vaale risaav dar ka anumaan, moolya pratispardha mein haani ke parinaamasvaroop 5 se 20% ke beech hai, lekin in risaav daron ko bahut anishchit hone ke roop mein dekha gaya.[31] oorja-gahan udyogon ke liye, praudyogikeeya vikaas ke maadhyam se anulagnak I ki kaarravaai ke laabhadaayak prabhaav ko sambhaavit roop se thos roop mein dekha ja sakta hai. is laabhakaari prabhaav ko, haalaanki bharosemand tareeke se parimaanit naheen kiya gaya hai. anubhavajanya saakshya se unhonne moolyaankan kiya, baarkar tatha anya. (2007) ne nishkarsh nikaala ki tab-vartamaan shaman kriya ke pratispardhaatmak nuksaan, jaise, EU ETS, mahatvapoorn naheen the.

vyaapaar

is prakaar kaarban shaman neeti ke baare mein vivaadon mein se ek hai ki kaise seema samaayojan ke saath "khel ke maidaan ko samatal" kiya jaae.[32] udaaharan ke liye, American clean enarji end sikyoriti act ka ek ghatak, bina kaip-end-trade kaaryakram vaale deshon se aayaatit maal par kaarban adhibhaar ki maang karta hai. yahaan tak ki shulk aur vyaapaar ke saamaanya samjhaute ke anupaalan ke alaava, is tarah ke seema samaayojan, yeh anumaan karte hain ki kaarban utsarjan ke liye utpaadak desh jimmedaari vahan karein.

vikaasasheel deshon ke beech ek saamaanya dhaarana yeh hai ki mein vyaapaarik vaartaaon mein jalavaayu parivartan ki charcha, uchch aay vaale deshon dvaara "harit sanrakshanavaad" ko prerit kar sakti hai (world bank, 2010, p. 251).[28] $50 ton/CO$2 ke kaarban moolya ke saath sangat, aayaat par shulk ("aabhaasi kaarban") vikaasasheel deshon ke liye mahatvapoorn ho sakta hai. vishv bank (2010) ne tippani ki hai ki seema shulk shuroo karne se, vyaapaar upaayon ka prasaar ho sakta hai jahaan pratispardhaatmak khel maidaan ko asamaan hone ke roop mein dekha ja raha hai. ye shulk, kam aay vaale deshon ke liye ek bojh bhi ho sakta hai jinhonne jalavaayu parivartan ki samasya mein bahut kam yogadaan diya hai.

vyaapaar pranaali

kyoto protokaul

kyoto protokaul 1997 ki ek antararaashtreeya sandhi hai jo 2005 mein astitv mein I. sandhi mein, adhikaansh viksit desh, chhah pramukh greenahaaus gaison ke apne utsarjan ke liye kaanooni taur par baadhyakaari lakshyon ke liye sahamat ho gaye.[33] utsarjan kota ("niyat maatra" ke roop mein gyaat) par, shaamil pratyek 'anulagn 1' desh raaji ho gaya, jiske tahat samagr utsarjan ko 1990 ke star se kam karke 2012 ke ant tak 5.2% karne ka iraada tha. anulagn I ke antargat, sanyukt raajya America hi aisa ekamaatr audyogik desh hai jisne is sandhi ki pushti naheen ki hai aur isliye vah iske dvaara baadhya naheen hai. jalavaayu parivartan par antarasarakaari panel ka anumaan hai ki kyoto pratibaddhata avadhi ke bheetar, vyaapaar ke maadhyam se anupaalan ke vitteeya prabhaav ko vyaapaar karne vaale deshon ke madhya GDP ke 0.1-1.1% ke beech seemit kiya jaaega.[34]

yeh protokaul vibhinn tantron ko paribhaashit karta hai ("lacheele tantr") jinhein anulagnak I deshon ko, utsarjan mein apni katauti pratibddhataaon (caps) ke lakshya ko ghatit aarthik prabhaav ke saath haasil karne ki anumati dene ke liye dijaain kiya gaya hai (IPCC, 2007).[35]

kyoto protokaul ke anuchhed 3.3 ke tahat, anulagnak 1 paartiyaan, utsarjan mein kami ki apni pratibddhataaon ko poora karne ke liye GHG reemuval ka upayog kar sakti hain, vaneekaran se aur pun: vaneekaran (van sink) aur vanon ki kataai (sootron) 1990 ke baad se.[36]

anulagn 1 paartiyaan antararaashtreeya utsarjan vyaapaar (IET) ka bhi upayog kar sakti hain. sandhi ke tahat, 2008 se 2012 tak ki 5 saal ki anupaalan avadhi tak jo desh apne kota se kam utsarjan karte hain, ve nirdhaarit raashi ko un deshon ko bechne mein saksham honge jo apne kota ki seema ko paar kar jaate hain.[37] anulagn 1 deshon ke liye aisi kaarban pariyojanaaen praayojit karna sambhav hoga jo anya deshon mein greenahaaus gas ke utsarjan ko kam karti hain. ye pariyojanaaen vyaapaar yogya kaarban kredit utpann karti hain jiska istemaal anulagn 1 deshon dvaara apni seema ko praapt karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. pariyojana-aadhaarit kyoto tantr, svachh vikaas tantr (CDM) aur sanyukt kaaryaanvayan (JI) hain.

CDM un pariyojanaaon ko aavrutt karta hai jo gair-anulagn 1 deshon mein kaaryaanvit hoti hain, jabki JI, anulagn 1 deshon mein hone waali pariyojanaaon ko shaamil karta hai. CDM pariyojanaaon se aasha hai ki ve vikaasasheel deshon mein satataposhaneeya vikaas mein yogadaan kareinge aur "asli" aur "atirikt" utsarjan bachat bhi utpann kareinge, arthaat, aisi bachat jo keval ghatit hoti hai, prashn mein CDM pariyojana ke liye dhanyavaad (kaarban trast, 2009, p.14)[38] ye utsarjan bachat asli hai ya naheen, saabit karna haalaanki mushkil hai (vishv bank, 2010, pp 265-267.)[28]

Australia

gaarnaut draft report

2003 mein new south vels (NSW) raajya sarkaar ne utsarjan ko kam karne ke liye NSW greenahaaus gas katauti yojana ki ektarfa sthaapana ki[39] jiske liye vidyut generator aur NSW greenahaaus gas katauti pramaan patra khareedne ke liye badi maatra mein upabhoktaaon ki aavashyakta thi. isne, kredit dvaara vitt poshit muft oorja-kushal compact floroseint prakaash-balbon ko aur anya oorja-daksh upaayon ko prerit kiya. UNSW ke center for enarji end invaayarameint maarkets (CEEM) ne, utsarjan mein katauti karne mein iski akushalata, paaradarshita ki kami aur iske utsarjan mein katauti ki atiriktata ke satyaapan ki kami ki vajah se, is yojana ki aalochna ki hai.[40]

4 June 2007 ko poorv pradhaanamantri John haavard ne 2012 tak shuroo hone waali ek Australiaee kaarban trading yojana ki ghoshana ki, lekin vipakshi dalon ne is yojana ko "bahut tuchh, bahut deri se" ullikhit kiya hai.[41] 24 November 2007 ko haavard ki gathabandhan sarkaar chunaav haar gayi aur usaki jagah lebar party ne shaasan sambhaala aur kevin rud pradhaanamantri ka padabhaar grahan kiya. pradhaanamantri rood ne ghoshana ki ki ek kaip-end-trade utsarjan vyaapaar yojana 2010 mein shuroo ki jaaegi,[42] haalaanki is yojana ko ek saal ke liye, madhya 2011 tak vilanbit kar diya gaya.[43]

Australia ka Commonwealth, raajya aur kendra shaasit pradesh ki sarkaaron ne gaarnaut jalavaayu parivartan sameeksha ko gathit kiya, ek kshamataavaan utsarjan vyaapaar pranaali ke tantr par pro॰ Ross gaarnaut dvaara ek adhyayan. iski antarim report 21 fravari 2008 mein jaari ki gayi.[44] isne ek utsarjan vyaapaar yojana ki sifaarish ki jismein parivhan shaamil hai lekin krushi naheen aur kaha ki kaarban pradooshakon ke liye utsarjan paramit ko pratispardhi roop se becha jaana chaahiye aur muft aavantit naheen kiya jaana chaahiye. isne paaya ki oorja ki keematon mein vruddhi hogi aur kaha ki kam aay vaale parivaaron ko muaavaja ki aavashyakta hogi. isne, nimn utsarjan praudyogiki mein anusandhaan ke liye aur adhik samarthan ki sifaarish ki aur is tarah ke anusandhaan ki dekharekh karne ke liye ek nikaaya hone ki baat kahi. isne koyala khanan kshetron ke liye sankraman sahaayata ki jaroorat ki bhi pehchaan ki.[45]

gaarnaut draft report ki pratikriya mein, rud ki lebar sarkaar ne 16 July ko ek green pepar jaari kiya[46] jismein vaastavik vyaapaar yojana ke soche gaye svaroop ka varnan tha.

Europeeya sangh

Europeeya sangh utsarjan vyaapaar yojana (ya EU ETS) vishv ki sabse badi bahu raashtreeya, greenahaaus gas utsarjan vyaapaar pranaali hai. kyoto protokaul mein nirdhaarit apni seema ko praapt karne ke liye, yeh Europeeya sangh ki kendreeya neeti ka upaaya hai (jons, va anya, 2007, pi. 64).[47]

Britain aur Denmark mein svaichhik pareekshanon ke baad, January 2005 mein pratham charan shuroo hua jismein Europeeya sangh ke sabhi 15 sadasya raajyon (ab 27 mein se 25) ne hissa liya.[48] yeh kaaryakram, 20 MW ke shuddh taap aapoorti ke saath, bade pratishthaanon se utsarjit kiye jaane vaale kaarban daaioksaaid ki maatra par seema tay karta hai, oorja sanyantr aur kaarban gahan kaarkhaane[49] aur Europeeya sangh ke lagbhag aadhe (46%) kaarban daaioksaaid utsarjan ko samaavisht karta hai.[50] pehla charan, pratibhaagiyon ko aapas mein aur kyoto ke svachh vikaas tantr ke maadhyam se vikaasasheel deshon se maanya kredit mein vyaapaar karne ki anumati deta hai.

pehle aur doosare charan ke dauraan, utsarjan ke liye chhooton ko companiyon ko aamtaur par muft mein diya gaya, jiske parinaamasvaroop unhein apratyaashit laabh hua (CCC, 2008, p. 149).[51] elaraman aur bukhanar (2008) (grab va anya dvaara sandarbhit, 2009, p. 11) ne sujhaav diya ki apne sanchaalan ke aaranbhik do varshon ke dauraan, EU ETS ne prati varsh utsarjan mein 1-2 pratishat ki apekshit vruddhi ko ek laghu nirpeksh giraavat mein badla.[52] grab va anya (2009, p. 11) ka sujhaav hai ki iske pehle do varshon ke sanchaalan ke dauraan utsarjan mein katauti ka ek uchit anumaan tha 50-100 MtCO2 prati varsh ya 2.5-5 pratishat.

dijaain mein vyaapt kai doshon ne ke is yojana ki prabhaavasheelata ko seemit kiya hai (jons va anya, 2007, p. 64). praarambhik 2005-07 ki avadhi mein, utsarjan seemaaen intani kathor naheen theen ki ve utsarjan mein mahatvapoorn kami ko darshaaen (CCC, 2008, p. 149). chhoot ka kul aavantan, vaastavik utsarjan se adhik nikla. isse kaarban ka moolya 2007 mein shoonya ho gaya. yeh ati-aapoorti, bhavishya ke utsarjan ki bhavishyavaani karne mein kathinaai ko darshaata hai jo ek seema ki sthaapana ke liye aavashyak hai.

dviteeya charan mein kuchh kathorata dekhi gayi, lekin JI aur CDM ofset ka upayog karne ki anumati thi, jiska parinaam yeh hua ki dviteeya charan ki seema ko praapt karne ke liye EU mein kisi katauti ki aavashyakta naheen hogi (CCC, 2008, pp. 145, 149.) kisi seema ke abhaav mein apekshit utsarjan ki tulana mein, dviteeya charan ke liye aasha ki jaati hai ki yeh seema 2010 mein 2.4% ke utsarjan katauti ko falit karegi (bijnes-aij-yoojual emishn) (jons va anya, 2007, p. 64). teesare charan ke liye (2013-20), Europeeya aayog ne kai parivrtanon ka prastaav kiya hai, jaise:

  • ek samagr EU seema ka nirdhaaran, jiske baad Europeeya sangh ke sadasyon ko chhoot aavantit ki jaaegi;
  • ofset ke upayog karne par sakht seema;
  • dviteeya aur truteeya charan ke beech chhoot ki banking ko aseemit karna
  • aur chhoot se neelaami ki or kadam.

nyoojeelaind

inhein bhi dekhein: New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme
inhein bhi dekhein: Climate change in New Zealand

New Zealand utsarjan vyaapaar yojana (NZ ETS), ek raashtreeya utsarjan vyaapaar yojana hai, jise New Zealand ki paanchaveen lebar sarkaar dvaara September 2008 mein nirmit kiya gaya aur New Zealand ki paanchaveen raashtreeya sarkaar dvaara November 2009 mein sanshodhit kiya gaya.[53][54]

NZ ETS, sabhi-kshetron ki sabhi-gaison ki teevrata aadhaarit utsarjan vyaapaar yojana hogi.[53] . ek teevrata aadhaarit ETS, aisa ETS hai jismein aavantan, aitihaasik utsarjan ke bajaay companiyon ke vartamaan utpaadan dar par aadhaarit hai.

haalaanki yeh yojana 'sabhi-kshetron' ki hai, apashisht niptaan aur krushi prakriyaaon se utsarjit methane aur naaitras oksaaid ka is yojana mein shaamil hona kramash: 2013 aur 2015 mein nirdhaarit hai. jeevaashm utsarjan par 1 July 2010 se daayitv hoga, jabki vaaniki par 1 January 2008 se katauti aur utsarjan ke liye daayitv hoga.

1 July 2010 se lekar 31 December 2012 tak ek sankraman kaal kaam karega.[53] . is avadhi ke dauraan, New Zealand utsarjan ikaaiyon (NZUs) ki keemat ko NZ$25 par seemit kiya jaaega. iske alaava, kaarban daaioksaaid ke do tan ke baraabar utsarjan ke liye ek hi ikaai ko jama karne ki aavashyakta hogi, jo prabhaavi roop se utsarjan ki laagat ko prati tan NZ$12.50 kar dega.

jalavaayu parivartan pratikriya adhiniyam 2002 (adhiniyam) ki dhaara 3 ke anusaar is adhiniyam ka uddeshya utsarjan ko bijnes-aij-yujual star se kam karna hai or (yoonaaited nations frem vark kanveinshan on klaaimet change (UNFCCC) aur kyoto protokaul ke tahat New Zealand ke antararaashtreeya daayitvon ko poora karna hai.[53] kuchh hitdhaarakon ne, poorn katauti ko lakshya banaane ki bajaay, utsarjan ko bijnes-aij-yujual star ki tulana mein kam karne ke prayaas ki aalochna ki hai.[55] adhiniyam ke khilaaf katauti ko nishaana banaane ke liye, bijnes-aij-yujual star ko maanadand ke roop mein prayog karne se, utsarjan ko samay ke saath badhne ki anumati deta hai.

America

utsarjan vyaapaar pranaali ka ek aaranbhik udaaharan hai, America mein 1990 ke svachh vaayu adhiniyam ke aml varsha kaaryakram ke dhaanche ke tahat SO2 vyaapaar pranaali to vyaapaar utsarjan vyaapaar pranaali. is kaaryakram ke tahat, jo anivaarya roop se kaip-end-trade utsarjan vyaapaar pranaali hai, utsarjan ko 1980 ke star se 2007 mein 50% tak kam kiya gaya.[56] kuchh visheshagyon ka tark hai ki SO2 utsarjan katauti ki kaip-end-trade pranaali ne aml varsha ko niyantrit karne ki laagat mein sors-baai-sors katauti ki tulana mein 80% ki kami ki hai.[6][57]

1997 mein, ilinauya raajya ne Chicago ke adhikaansh kshetr mein visfotak kaarbanik yaugik ke liye ek vyaapaar kaaryakram apnaaya hai, jise emishns ridkshan market system kaha jaata hai.[58] 2000 mein shuru karte hue, ilinois ke aath kaauntiyon mein pradooshan ke 100 se adhik pramukh sroton ne pradooshan kredit ka vyaapaar shuroo kiya.

2003 mein, urja utpaadakon ke liye ek kaip-end-trade kaarban daaioksaaid utsarjan kaaryakram ka gathan karne ke liye, New York raajya ne prastaav pesh kiya aur nau poorvottar raajyon se pratibddhataaen praapt ki, jise reejanal greenahaaus gas inishiyetiv (RGGI) ke naam se jaana gaya. 1 January 2009 ko shuroo hue is kaaryakram ka uddeshya tha pratyek raajya ke vidyut utpaadan sector ke kaarban "bajat" ko, 2018 tak, 2009 ki unki chhoot se 10% neeche tak laana tha.[59]

2003 mein iske alaava, America ke nigam, ek svaichhik yojana ke tahat Chicago klaaimet exchange par CO2 utsarjan chhoot ka vyaapaar karne mein saksham the. August 2007 mein, exchange ne sanyukt raajya America ke andar pariyojanaaon ke liye utsarjan ofset banaane ke liye ek tantr ki ghoshana ki jo ojon ko nasht karne vaale padaarthon ko safaai se nasht karta hai.[60]

2007 mein, California vidhaanamandal ne California global vaarming samaadhaan adhiniyam, AB-32 paarit kiya, jise arnold shvaarjanegar apne hastaakshar dvaara kaanoon ka roop diya. is prakaar, pariyojana aadhaarit ofset ke roop mein, paanch mukhya pariyojana prakaar ke liye kaafi lacheele tantr ka sujhaav diya gaya hai. ek kaarban pariyojana yeh dikhaane ke dvaara ki isne kaarban daaioksaaid aur anya samakaksh gaison mein katauti ki hai, ofaset nirmit karegi. pariyojana ke prakaar mein shaamil hain: khaad prabandhan, vaaniki, nirmaan oorja, SF6 aur laindafil gas kaipchar.

February 2007 ke baad se, saat ameriki raajyon aur Canada ke chaar praanton ne western klaaimet inishiyetiv (WCI) ke gathan ke liye haath milaaya hai, greenahaaus gas utsarjan vyaapaar ki ek kshetreeya pranaali.[61]

17 November 2008 ko raashtrapati ke liye chune gaye Barack Obama ne Youtube ke liye record ki gayi ek vaarta mein spasht kiya ki, global vaarming ko rokane ke liye America ek kaip-end-trade pranaali mein pravesh karega.[62]

2010 ke sanyukt raajya America ke sangheeya bajat ne svachh oorja vikaas ke samarthan ka prastaav pesh kiya hai jismein prati varsh US$15 beeliyn ka nivesh hoga, jiske liye vah greenahaaus gas (GHG) utsarjan kredit ki bikri se dhan jutaaega. prastaavit kaip-end-trade kaaryakram ke tahat, sabhi GHG utsarjan kredit ko neelaam kiya jaaega, jisse, vitt-varsh 2012 ke liye anumaanit roop se atirikt $78.7 beeliyn ka raajasv praapt hoga, jo lagaataar badhte hue 2019 ke vitt-varsh tak $83 beeliyn ho jaaega.[63]

ameriki svachh oorja aur suraksha adhiniyam (H.aar. 2454) ek kaip-end-trade bill, ko 26 June 2009 ko 219-212 ke ek vote se pratinidhi sabha mein paarit kiya gaya. yeh bill house enerji end Commerce committee mein utpann hua aur ise rape. henari A. vaiksaman aur rape. Edward J. maarke dvaara pesh kiya gaya.[64]

inhein bhi dekhein: Climate change in the United States

Akshay oorja pramaan patra

Akshay oorja pramaan patra, ya "green taig", kuchh ameriki raajyon ke bheetar Akshay oorja ke liye hastaantaraneeya adhikaar hain. ek Akshay oorja pradaata ke liye, pratyek 1,000 kWh ke uske oorja utpaadan ke liye ek harit taig jaari kiya jaata hai. is oorja ko vidyut grid mein bech diya jaata hai aur pramaanapatr ko laabh ke liye khule baajaar mein becha ja sakta hai. unhein, companiyon ya vyaktiyon dvaara yeh darshaane ke liye khareed liya jaata hai ki unki oorja ka ek hissa Akshay sroton ke saath hai aur yeh svaichhik hota hai.

inhein aam taur par ek ofset yojana ki tarah istemaal kiya jaata hai ya kaurporet daayitv dikhaane ke liye, haalaanki unka jaari kiya jaana aviniymit hai, jiske tahat aisi koi raashtreeya rajistri naheen hai jo yeh sunishchit kare ki vahaan koi dohari-ginti naheen hai. haalaanki, yeh ek tareeka hai jiske maadhyam se ek sangathan, jeevaashm indhan ka upayog karne vaale ek sthaaneeya pradaata se apni oorja khareed sakta hai, lekin uske samarthan mein ek pramaanapatr rakhata hai jo ek vishisht vaayu ya panabijli pariyojana ka samarthan karta hai.

kaarban baajaar

kaarban utsarjan vyaapaar, vishesh roop se kaarban daaioksaaid (kaarban daaioksaaid samakaksh tan ya tCO2e mein ganana) ke liye utsarjan vyaapaar hai aur vartamaan ke utsarjan baajaar ka ek bada hissa is par aadhaarit hai. yeh bhi ek tareeka hai jisse vibhinn desh kyoto protokaul ke tahat kaarban utsarjan ko kam karne ke apne daayitvon ka nirvaah kar sakte hain aur is prakaar global vaarming ko kam kar sakte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein: personal carbon trading evam carbon offset

baajaar ka rujhaan

kaarban utsarjan vyaapaar, haal ke varshon mein lagaataar badha hai. vishv bank ke kaarban vitt ikaai ke anusaar, 374 meeliyn meetrik tan kaarban daaioksaaid samakaksh (tCO2e) ko pariyojanaaon ke maadhyam se 2005 mein aadaan-pradaan kiya gaya, 2004 (110 mtCO2e) ki tulana mein yeh 240% adhik tha[65] jo swayam 2003 (78 mtCO2e) ki apeksha 41% zyaada tha.[66]

dollar ke sandarbh mein, Felipe de Jesus Garduñao Vazquez vishv bank ka anumaan hai ki kaarban baajaar ka aakaar 2005 mein 11 beeliyn USD tha, 2006 mein 30 beeliyn,[65] aur 2007 mein 64 beeliyn tha.[67]

kyoto protokaul ke maaraakesh akaurds ne deshon ke beech vyaapaar ka samarthan karne ke liye antararaashtreeya vyaapaar vyavastha aur aavashyak rajistriyon ko paribhaashit kiya, jahaan chhoot vyaapaar ab Europeeya deshon aur Asiaee deshon ke beech ho raha hai. jabki ek raashtra ke roop mein, America ne protokaul ki pushti naheen ki, uske kai raajya ab kaip-end-trade pranaali ko viksit kar rahe hain aur apne utsarjan vyaapaar pranaali ko aapas mein jodne ke tareeke ki khoj kar rahe hain, raashtreeya aur antararaashtreeya star par, sabse kam laagat ki talaash aur baajaar ki taralata mein sudhaar.[68] haalaanki, ye raajya, apni vyaktigat nishtha aur anoothi visheshataaon ko bhi sanrakshit karna chaahate hain. udaaharan ke liye, kyoto-sangat anya pranaaliyon ke vipreet, kuchh raajya greenahaaus gas ke anya prakaar ke sroton, alag-alag maap tareekon, chhooton ki keematon par adhiktam ka nirdhaaran karne, ya CDM pariyojanaaon ke abhigm ko seemit karne ka prastaav karte hain. aise upakaranon ka nirmaan karne se jo poorn arth mein pratimochya naheen hain, asthirta ki shuruaat aur moolya nirdhaaran mushkil ho jaaega. yeh dekhne ke liye vibhinn prastaavon ki jaanch ki ja rahi hai ki kaise ek baajaar se doosare baajaar mein in pranaaliyon ko joda ja sakta hai, jiske liye intaranaishanal kaarban action paartanaraship (ICAP) is kaarya mein ek antararaashtreeya nikaaya ke roop mein madad kar raha hai.[69][70]

vyaapaar pratikriya

kyoto protokaul ke antargat, kaarban daaioksaaid ke utsarjan ke anivaarya vyaapaar ke liye ek baajaar ke nirmaan ke saath, London ke vitteeya baajaar ne khud ko kaarban vitt baajaar ke kendra ke roop mein sthaapit kiya hai aur ummeed hai ki 2007 mein yeh ek $60 beeliyn moolya ke baajaar mein viksit ho gaya hai.[71] tulanaatmak roop se, svaichhik ofaset baajaar ko 2010 tak kareeb $4 beeliyn tak vikaas karte hue darshaaya gaya hai.[72]

23 bahuraashtreeya nigam, G8 jalavaayu parivartan golamej par ek saath aae, yeh ek vyaapaar samooh hai jiska gathan vishv aarthik forum mein January 2005 ko hua. is samooh mein Ford, toyota, british eyaravej, BP aur yooneelivr shaamil hain. 9 June 2005 ko is samooh ne yeh bataate hue ek bayaan prakaashit kiya ki jalavaayu parivartan par kaarravaai karne ki aavashyakta hai aur baajaar aadhaarit samaadhaanon ke mahatva par bal diya. isne sarkaaron se "lambi avadhi ke niti dhaanche ke srujan" ke maadhyam se "spasht, paaradarshi aur sthaai moolya sanket" ki sthaapana karne ki maang ki, jismein green house gaison ke pramukh utsarjak shaamil honge.[73] December 2007 tak, vikaas karte hue ismein 150 vaishvik kaarobaar shaamil ho gaye.[74]

Britain ka vyaapaar jagat, jalavaayu parivartan ko kam karne ke liye ek mahatvapoorn upakaran ke roop mein utsarjan vyaapaar ke samarthan mein joradaar tareeke se saamane aaya hai, jiska samarthan gair sarkaari sangathanon ne bhi kiya hai.[75] haalaanki, sabhi kaarobaaron ne ek vyaapaarik drushtikon ka samarthan naheen kiya hai. 11 December 2008 ko reks tilrsan, iksonamobil ke CEO ne kaha hai ki ek kaarban tax, kaip-end-trade kaaryakram ki tulana mein "ek adhik pratyaksh, adhik paaradarshi aur ek adhik prabhaavi drushtikon hai" jo unhonne kaha, "nishchit roop se anaavashyak kharch aur jatilta utpann karta hai". unhonne yeh bhi kaha ki unhein aasha hai ki kaarban tax se praapt raajasv ka istemaal anya karon ko kam karne ke liye kiya jaaega taaki vah raajasv tatasth bana rahe.[76]

international air transport association ka rukh, jiski 230 sadasya eyaralaainein sampoorn antararaashtreeya yaataayaat ka 93% ka nirmaan karti hain, yeh hai ki vyaapaar ko "maanadandon" par aadhaarit hona chaahiye, jo udyog ke ausat ke aadhaar par utsarjan star ko nirdhaarit karega, na ki "graindafaadaring" ke aadhaar par jo vyaktigat companiyon ke pichhle utsarjan star ka prayog, unke bhavishya ki chhooton ke nirdhaaran ke liye karta hai. unka tark hai ki graindafaadaring "un eyaralaainon ko dandit karega jo apne jahaajon ko aadhunik banaane ke liye sheegra kaarravaai kareinge, jabki ek maanadand drushtikon, agar theek se taiyaar kiya jaae to adhik kushal sanchaalanon ko puraskrut karega".[77]

maapan, reporting, satyaapan (MRV)

ek utsarjan vyaapaar pranaali mein oparetar ya sthaapana ke star par maapan ki aavashyakta hoti hai. in maapan ko iske baad ek niyaamak ko soochit kiya jaata hai. greenahaaus gaison ke liye, sabhi vyaapaarik desh, raashtreeya aur sthaapana star par utsarjan ki ek soochi banaae rakhate hain; iske alaava, uttari America ke andar ke vyaapaarik samooh klaaimet rajistri ke maadhyam se raajya star par soochi banaae rakhate hain. kshetron ke beech vyaapaar ke liye, samakaksh ikaaiyon aur maap takaneekon ke saath sangat honi chaahiye.

kuchh audyogik prakriyaaon mein utsarjan ko bhautik roop se censor aur flomeetar ko chimni aur staik mein daal kar maapa ja sakta hai, lekin kai prakaar ki gatividhi maapan ke liye saiddhaantik ganana par nirbhar karti hai. sthaaneeya kaanoon ke aadhaar par, in maapan ko sarkaar dvaara atirikt jaanch aur satyaapan ya sthaaneeya niyaamak ke paas jama karne se pehle ya baad mein truteeya paksh ke lekha pareekshak ki aavashyakta ho sakti hai.

pravartan

ek anya mahatvapoorn, fir bhi mushkil bhara pahaloo hai pravartan.[78] bina prabhaavi MRV aur pravartan ke chhooton ka moolya ghat jaata hai. pravartan ko kai tareekon se kiya ja sakta hai, jismein shaamil hai jurmaana ya jinhonne apni chhoot ki seema ko laangha hai unhein puraskrut karke. chintaaon mein shaamil hai MRV aur pravartan ki laagat aur yeh khatra ki suvidhaaon ka prayog vaastavik katauti karne ke bajaay gumaraah karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai ya apni kami ko poora karne ke liye kisi anya sanstha se chhoot ya ofset khareedne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. ek bhrasht reporting pranaali ya kharaab prabandhit ya vitt-poshit niyaamak ka asli prabhaav, utsarjan ki keemat par chhoot aur vaastavik utsarjan mein ek (gupt) vruddhi ke roop mein ho sakta hai.

nordahauus ke anusaar (2007, p. 27), kyoto protokaul ka sakht pravartan, un deshon aur udyogon mein dekhe jaane ki sambhaavana hai, jo EU ETS dvaara aavrut hain.[79] elarman aur bukhanar (2007, p. 71) ne EU ETS ke bheetar paramit ki kami ke pravartan par Europeeya aayog (EC) ki bhoomika par tippani ki hai.[80] aayog ne aisa, paramit ki kul sankhya ki sameeksha dvaara kiya, jo sadasya raajyon ne apne udyogon ke aavantan ke liye prastaavit kiya tha. sansthaagat aur pravartan vivechana ke aadhaar par, kroogar va anya ne (2007, pp. 130-131) sujhaav diya ki vikaasasheel deshon mein utsarjan vyaapaar ho sakta hai ki nikat avadhi mein ek yathaarthavaadi lakshya na ho.[81] burniauks va anya ne (2008, p. 56) tark diya ki samprabhu raajyon ke khilaaf antararaashtreeya niyamon ko laagoo karne mein kathinaai ki vajah se, kaarban baajaar ke vikaas ke liye vaarta aur aam sahamati ki aavashyakta hogi.[82]

utsarjan vyaapaar par vichaar

Chicago loop mein Chicago jalavaayu exchange imaarat ke saamane Chicago jalavaayu nyaaya kaaryakartaaon dvaara kaip-end-trade kaanoon ka virodh

aalochanaaen

utsarjan vyaapaar ke aalochakon mein shaamil hain paryaavaran sangathan,[83] arthashaastri, shram sangathan aur ve log jo oorja ki aapoorti aur atyadhik karaadhaan ke baare mein chintit hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] lokapriya vigyaan patrika new saaintist mein, loman (2006) ne tark diya hai ki pradooshan chhooton ke vyaapaar se parahej karna chaahiye kyonki ve lekhaankan mein viflataaon,[tathya vaanchhit] sandigdh vigyaan[tathya vaanchhit] ko falit karte hain aur sthaaneeya logon aur vaataavaran par pariyojanaaon ke vinaashakaari prabhaavon ko darshaate hain.[84]

loman (2006b) ne un paaramparik viniyman, harit kar aur oorja neetiyon ka samarthan kiya hai jo "nyaaya-aadhaarit" aur "samudaaya chaalit" hain.[85] traansanaishanal insteetayoot (N.di.) ke anusaar, kaarban trading ka ek "vinaashakaari itihaas raha hai." EU ETS ki prabhaavasheelata ki aalochna ki gayi aur yeh tark diya gaya ki CDM ne niyamit roop se "paryaavaraneeya drushti se aprabhaavi aur saamaajik roop se anyaayapoorn pariyojanaaon" ka samarthan kiya hai.[86]

ofsets

Europeeya paryaavaran samooh, FERN ke van prachaarak jutta kill (2006) ka tark hai ki utsarjan katauti ke liye ofset, utsarjan mein vaastavik katauti ka vikalp naheen hain. kill ne kaha ki "pedon mein [kaarban] asthaayi hai: aag, rog, jalavaayu parivartan, praakrutik kshaya aur lakdi kataai ke maadhyam se ped aasaani se vaataavaran mein kaarban chhod sakte hain".[87]

paramit ki aapoorti

niyaamak agencyon dvaara dher saare utsarjan kredit jaari karne ka khatra bana rahata hai, jo utsarjan paramit par nyoon keemat ko falit kar sakta hai (CCC, 2008, p. 140).[51] yeh us protsaahan ko kam kar deta hai jo paramit-rini companiyon ko apne utsarjan mein katauti karni hoti hai. doosari or, bahut kam paramit jaari karne se paramit ki keemat mein bahut jyaada badhotri ho jaati hai (hepabarn, 2006, p. 239).[88] sankar upakaran ke paksh mein yeh ek tark hai, jiski ek moolya-satah hai, yaani ek nyoonatam paramit moolya aur ek moolya-seema, yaani, paramit keemat par ek seema. ek moolya-seema (suraksha maan), tathaapi, utsarjan ki ek vishesh maatra ki seema ki nishchitta ko hata deti hai (baashamakov va anya. 2001).[89]

protsaahan

utsarjan vyaapaar vikrut protsaahan mein mein falit ho sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, agar pradooshan failaane waali companiyon ko, utsarjan paramit muft ("graindafaadaring") mein diye jaate hain to yeh unke liye ek kaaran hoga ki ve apne utsarjan mein katauti naheen kareinge. aisa isliye hai kyonki utsarjan mein badi katauti karne waali company ko sambhaavit roop se bhavishya mein kam utsarjan paramit pradaan kiya jaaega (IMF, 2008, 25-26).[90] is vikrut protsaahan ko kam kiya ja sakta hai agar paramit ki neelaam ki jaae, yaani, paramit ko muft mein dene ke bajaay, pradooshakon ko use becha jaae (hepabarn, 2006. 236-237).[88]

doosari or, paramit ke aavantan ko, ghareloo farmon ko antararaashtreeya star par pratispardha se raksha ke upaaya ke roop mein istemaal kiya ja sakta (p. 237). yeh tab hota hai jab ghareloo farm, anya aise farmon ke khilaaf mukaabala karti hain jo samaan niymom ke adheen naheen hain. paramit ke aavantan ke paksh mein diye jaane vaale is tark ko EU ETS mein prayog kiya gaya hai, jahaan udyogon ko antararaashtreeya star par khula paaya gaya, udaaharan ke liye, cement aur ispaat utpaadan ko muft mein paramit diya gaya hai (4CMR, 2008).[91]

neelaami

neelaami se praapt raajasv sarkaar ke paas jaata hai. in raajasv ka upayog, udaaharan ke liye, sanposhaneeya praudyogiki ke anusandhaan aur vikaas ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai.[92] vaikalpik roop se, raajasv ka istemaal vikrut karon mein katauti ke liye kiya ja sakta hai, is prakaar samagr kaip neeti ki dakshata mein sudhaar kiya ja sakta hai (fishr va anya 1996, p. 417).[93]

vitranaatmak prabhaav

kaangreshanal bajat office (CBO, 2009) ne America ke parivaaron par ameriki svachh oorja aur suraksha adhiniyam ke sambhaavit prabhaavon ki jaanch ki.[94] yeh adhiniyam, paramit ke muft aavantan par kaafi nirbhar karta hai. dekha gaya ki yeh vidheyak, kam aay vaale upabhoktaaon ki suraksha karta tha, lekin yeh sifaarish ki gayi is vidheyak ko adhik kushal banaane ke liye badla jaae. yeh sujhaav diya gaya ki vidheyak ko badla jaae taaki nigmon ke liye kalyaanakaari praavadhaanon ko kam kiya ja sake aur upabhokta raahat ke liye adhik sansaadhanon ko upalabdh karaaya jaae.

yeh bhi dekhein

saaaincha:EnergyPortal

  • aml varsha vaapasi kosh
  • Asia-prashaant utsarjan vyaapaar forum
  • AP 42 vaayu pradooshak utsarjan kaarakon ka sankalan
  • janm kredit
  • kaarban kredit
  • kaarban utsarjan reporting
  • kaarban vitt
  • maang uttaradaayi traanjit exchange
  • utsarjan maanak
  • oorja kaanoon
  • lacheela tantr
  • green pramaanapatr
  • harit nivesh yojana
  • greenavaash
  • jalavaayu parivartan par vyaktigat aur raajaneetik kaarravaai
  • nimn-kaarban arthavyavastha
  • nimn kaarban oorja utpaadan / Akshay oorja
  • global vaarming ka shaman
  • mobile utsarjan nyooneekaran kredit (MERC)
  • open kaarban world
  • pigoviyn kar
  • vyaapaar yogya dhoomrapaan pradooshan paramit

sandarbh

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