usmaani saamraajya

دaaَaaوaaْaaلaaَaaتaaِ عaaَaaلaaِaaيaaّaaهaaٔ عaaُaaثaaمaaَaaاaaنaaِaaیaaّaaه
Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâaniyye
usmaani saamraajya
saamraajya
1299 – 1923
ध्वज कुल चिन्ह
Flag kul chinh
Location of Sublime Ottoman State
usmaani saamraajya 1683 mein
rajdhani Istanbul (1453-1922)
bhaasha(eain) usmaani turk (aadhikaarik), arabi (pavitra), kai anya
dharm sunni islaam
sarkaar poorn raajashaahi
(1299–1876)
(1878–1908)
(1918–1922)
samvaidhaanik raajashaahi
(1876–1878)
(1908–1918)
sultaan
- 1299–1326 usmaan pratham (pehla)
- 1918–1922 mahamad chhatha (aakhiri)
vajeer
- 1320–1331 alaauddeen paasha (pehla)
- 1920–1922 Ahmad paasha (aakhiri)
vidhaayika mahaasabha
- uchch sadan varishth sabha
- nimn sadan pratinidhiyon ki sabha
itihaas
- sthaapit 27 July, 1299
- antarkaal 1402–1414
- 1.samvaidhaanik 1876–1878
- 2.samvaidhaanik 1908–1922
- saltanat ko samaapt kar diya 1 November 1922
- Turkey ganaraajya sthaapit 29 October, 1923
- khilaafat ko samaapt kar diya 3 March 1924
kshetr
- 1683 [1] 52,00,000 km² (20,07,731 sq mi)
- 1914 18,00,000 km² (6,94,984 sq mi)
janasankhya
- 1856 est. 3,53,50,000
- 1906 est. 2,08,84,000
- 1912 est. 2,40,00,000
mudra Akçae, Para, Sultani, Kuruş, Lira
vartamaan mein

usmaani saamraajya (1299 - 1923) (ya otoman saamraajya ya turk saamraajya, urdoo mein saltanat-A-usmaaniya, usmaani turk: دaaَaaوaaْaaلaaَaaتaaِ عaaَaaلaaِaaيaaّaaهaaٔ عaaُaaثaaمaaَaaاaaنaaِaaیaaّaaه) 1299 mein pashchimottar anaatoliya mein sthaapit ek ek turk raajya tha. mahamad dviteeya dvaara 1493 mein kaanstaintinopul jeetne ke baad yeh ek saamraajya mein badal gaya. pratham vishvayuddh mein 1919 mein paraajit hone par iska vibhaajan karke is par adhikaar kar liya gaya. svatantrata ke liye sangharsh ke baad 29 aktubar san 1923 mein Turkey ganaraajya ki sthaapana par ise samaapt maana jaata hai.

usmaani saamraajya solahaveen-satrahaveen shataabdi mein apne charam shakti par tha. apni shakti ke charamotkarsh ke samay yeh Asia, Europe tatha uttari Africa ke hisson mein faila hua tha. yeh saamraajya pashchimi tatha poorvi sabhyataaon ke liye vichaaron ke aadaan pradaan ke liye ek setu ki tarah tha.

isne 1453 mein kastunatuniya (aadhunik istaambul) ko jeetkar beejaantin saamraajya ka ant kar diya. istaambul baad mein inki rajdhani bani rahi. istaambul par iski jeet ne Europe mein punarjaagaran ko protsaahit kiya tha.

anukram

itihaas

udaya

Asia maainar mein san 1300 tak seljukon ka patan ho gaya tha. pashchim anaatoliya mein artagrul ek turk pradhaan tha. ek samay jab vo Asia maainar ki taraf kooch kar raha tha to usane apni chaar sau ghudsavaaron ki sena ko bhaagya ki kasauti par aajamaaya. usane haarate hue paksh ka saath diya aur yuddh jeet liya. unhonne jinka saath diya ve seljak the. seljak pradhaan ne artagrul ko upahaar svaroop ek chhota-sa pradesh diya. aartagrul ke putr usmaan ne 1281 mein apne pita ki mrutyu ke pashchaat pradhaan ka pad haasil kiya. usane 1299 mein apne aapko svatantr ghoshit kar diya. yaheen se usmaani saamraajya ki sthaapana hui. iske baad jo saamraajya usane sthaapit kiya use usi ke naam par usmaani saamraajya kaha jaata hai (angreji mein otoman, Ottoman Empire).

vikaas (1453–1683)

vistaar aur charamotkarsh (1453-1566)

kaunsteintinopal ke saamane usmaani sena, 1453, moldovita math

muraad dviteeya ke bete mahamad dviteeya ne raajya aur sena ka punargathan kiya aur 29 May 1453 ko kaunsteintinopal jeet liya. mahamad ne roodhivaadi church ki svaayattata banaaye rakhi . badle mein church ne usmaani prabhutta sveekaar kar li. chooainki baad ke baijentaain saamraajya aur pashchimi Europe ke beech rishte achhe naheen the isliye jyaadaatar roodhivaadi isaaiyon ne vinishiya ke shaasan ke bajaay usmaani shaasan ko jyaada pasand kiya.

pandrahaveen aur solavi shataabdi mein usmaani saamraajya ka vistaar hua. us dauraan kai pratibaddh aur prabhaavi sultaanon ke shaasan mein saamraajya khoob fala foola. Europe aur Asia ke beech ke vyaapaarik raasto par niyantran ki vajah se usaka aarthik vikaas bhi kaafi hua.

sultaan saleem pratham (1512 - 1520) ne poorvi aur dakshini morchon par chaldraan ki ladaai mein faaras ke safaavid raajavansh ke shaah ismaail ko haraaya. aur is tarah usane naatakeeya roop se saamraajya ka vistaar kiya. usane misr mein usmaani saamraajya sthaapit kiya aur laal saagar mein nausena khadi ki. usmaani saamraajya ke is vistaar ke baad purtagaali aur usmaani saamraajya ke beech us ilaake ki pramukh shakti banane ki hod lag gayi.

mohaich ka yuddh, 1526

shaanadaar sulemaan (1512-1566) ne 1521 mein belagred par kabja kiya. usane usmaani-Hungary yuddhon mein Hungary raajya ke madhya aur dakshini hisson par vijay praapt ki. 1526 ki mohaich ki ladaai mein etihaasik vijay praapt karne ke baad usane Turkey ka shaasan aaj ke Hungary (pashchimi hisson ko chhod kar) aur anya madhya Europeeya pradesho mein sthaapit kiya. 1529 mein usane viyna par chadhaai ki par shahar ko jeet paane mein asafal raha. 1532 mein usane viyna par dubaara hamla kiya par goons ki gheraabandi ke dauraan use vaapas dhakel diya gaya. samay ke saath traansilvheniya, valaachiya aur moldaaviya usmaani saamraajya ki aadheenast riyaasatein ban gayi. poorv me, 1535 mein usmaani turkon ne faarasiyon se bagdaad jeet liya aur is tarah se unhein mesopotaamiya par niyantran aur faaras ki khaadi jaane ke liye nausanik raasta mil gaya.

France aur usmaani saamraajya haibsabarg ke shaasan ke virodh mein sangathit hue aur pakke sahayogi ban gaye. fraansisiyo ne 1543 mein nees par aur 1553 mein korsika par vijay praapt ki. ye jeet fraansisiyo aur turko ke sanyukt prayaason ka parinaam thi jisme fraansisi raaja Francis pratham aur sulemaan ki senaayon ne hissa liya tha aur jiski aguvaai usmaani nausenaadhyakshon barbarossa hayreddeen paasha aur turgut reis ne ki thi. 1543 mein nees par kabje se ek maheene pehle fraansisiyo ne usmaaniyo ko sena ki ek tukadi de kar estergom par vijay praapt karne mein sahaayata ki thi. 1543 ke baad bhi jab turkiyon ka vijyaabhiyaan jaari raha to aakhirkaar 1547 mein haibsabarg ke shaasak ferdinand ne Hungary ka usmaani saamraajya mein aadhikaarik roop se vilay sveekaar kar liya.

sulemaan ke shaasanakaal ke ant tak saamraajya ki kul janasainkhya dedh karod thi jo ki teen mahaadveepon mein faili hui thi. uske alaava saamraajya ek nausanik mahaashakti ban chuka tha jiska adhikaansh bhoomadhya saagar par niyantran tha. is samay tak usmaani saamraajya Europe ki raajaneeti ka ek pramukh hissa ban chuka tha aur pashchim mein kai baar iski raajanitik aur sainik safalta ki tulana roman saamraajya se ki jaati thi. udahaaranasvarup itaalavi vidvaan fraansesko sansovino aur fraanseesi raajanitik darshanashaastri jeen bodin ne aisi tulana ki thi. bodin ne likha tha - "ikalauti shakti jo ki sahi roop se saarvabhaumik shaasak hone ka daava kar sakti hai vo usmaani sultaan hai. sirf vo hi sahi roop se roman samraat ke vanshaj hone ka daava kar sakte hain".

vidroh aur punarutthaan (1566-1683)

sjigetvar abhiyaan ke baare mein usmaani laghuchitr jisme usmaani senaayon aur tataro ko agrasar dikhaaya gaya hai.

pichhli shataabdi ka asaradaar sainik aur naukarashaahi ka tantr kamzor sultaanon ke ek deergh daur ki vajah se davaab mein aa gaya. dhaarmik aur bauddhik roodhivaadita ki vajah se naveen vichaar dab gaye jisse usmaani log sainik praudyogiki ke maamale mein yooropiyo se pichhad gaye. par is sab ke baavajood, saamraajya ek pramukh vistaaravaadi shakti bana raha. vistaar ka ye daur 1683 mein viyna ki ladaai tak bana raha jiske baad Europe mein usmaani saamraajya ke vistaar ka daur samaapt ho gaya.

pashchimi Europe ke pradeshon ne nae samudri vyapaarik maargo ki khoj kar li jisse vo usmaani vyaapaar ke ekaadhikaar se bach gaye. 1448 mein purtagaaliyon ne kep of gud hope ki khoj ki. isi ke saath hind mahaasaagar mein chalne vaale usmaani aur purtagaaliyon ke nausanik yuddhon ke daur ka praarambh ho gaya. ye yuddh poori solavi shataabdi mein chalte rahe. udhar nayi duniya se speni chaaaindi ki baadh aa jaane se usmaani mudra gir gayi aur mudraasfeeti aniyantrit roop se badh gayi.

ivaan chaturth (1533-1584) ne tatar khaanait ki keemat par rusi jaarashaahi ko volga aur kaispiyn ke kshetron mein falaaya. 1571 mein krimeeaa ke Khan devlet pratham jeereya ne usmaaniyo ki madad se Moscow ko jala kar khaak kar diya. agale saal usane fir hamla kiya par molodi ki ladaai mein use vaapas dhakel diya gaya. krimeeaai khaanait ne poorvi Europe par hamla kar gulaam banaane ka daur jaari rakha aur satravaheen sadi ke ant tak poorvi Europe ki ek pramukh shakti bana raha.

dakshini Europe mein Spain ke Phillip dviteeya ke netrutv mein ek Catholic gathabandhan ne 1571 ki lepainto ki ladaai mein usmaani bede ke upar vijay praapt ki. yeh haar usmaaniyo ke Ajay honi ki chhavi ko ek shuruaati (prateekaatmak hi sahi) jhatka tha. usmaaniyo ko jahaajon ke mukaabale anubhavi logo ka jyaada nuksaan hua tha. jahaajon ka nuksaan fataafat poora kar liya gaya. usmaani nausena jaldi ubari aur 1573 mein usane venis ko ek shaanti samjhaute ke liye raaji kar liya. is samjhaute se usmaaniyo ko uttari Africa mein vistaar karne aur sangathit hone ka mauka mil gaya.

1571 ka lepanto ka yuddh.

doosari taraf haibsabarg ke morche par cheejein sthir ho rahi thi. aisa haibsabarg ki raksha pranaali ke majaboot hone se utpann hue gatirodh ki vajah se tha. haibsabarg ostriya se chalne waali lambi ladaai (1593-1606) ki vajah se aagneyaastron se lais badi paidal sena ki jarurat mahasoos hui. is vajah se sena mein bharti ke niyamon mein chhoot di gayi. isne tukadiyon mein anushaasanaheenata aur nirankushata ki samasya utpann kar di jo kabhi poori tarah hal nahi ho pai. maahir nishaanebaajon (sekaban) ki bhi bharti ki gayi aur baad mein jab sainyavightan hua to vo jelaali ki dango (1595-1610) mein lootamaar mein shaamil ho gaye. isse solahaveen sadi ki ant mein aur satrahaveen sadi ke ant mein anaatoliya mein vyaapak araajakata ka khtara paida ho gaya. 1600 tak saamraajya ki janasainkhya teen karod tak pahuainch gayi jisse jameen ki kami hone se sarkaar par davaab aur badh gaya.

1683 mein viyna ki doosari gheraabandi.

apne deergh shaasanakaal mein muraad chaturth (1612-1640) ne keindreeya satta ko fir sthaapit kiya aur 1635 mein yerevan aur 1639 mein Baghdad ko safaavidon se jeet liya. mahilaayon ki saltanat (1648-1656) ek aisa samay tha jab yuva sultaanon ki maaon ne apne beton ki aur se hukoomat ki. is samay ki sabse prasiddh mahila kosim sultaan aur usaki bahoo turhan hatis thi. unki dushmani ka ant 1651 mein kosim ki hatya se hua. kopruloo ke daur ke dauraan saamraajya ka prabhaavi niyantran kopruloo parivaar se aane vaale pradhaan vajeeron ke haath mein raha. kopruloo parivaar ke vajeeron ne nayi sainik safalataaeain haasil ki jisme shaamil hai traansilvheniya par dubaara adhikaar sthaapit karna, 1669 mein kreet par vijay aur polish dakshini Ukraine mein vistaar (jiske saath 1676 mein khotyan aur kamiyaanets-podilskyi ke gadh aur podoliya ka kshetr usmaani niyantran mein aa gaya).

pun: adhikaar sthaapit karne ke is daur ka bada vinaashakaari ant hua jab mahaan Turkey yuddh (1683-1699) ke dauraan May 1683 mein pradhaan vajeer kaara mustafa paasha ne ek vishaal sena lekar viyna ki gheraabandi ki. aakhiri hamle mein deri ki vajah se viyna ki ladaai mein haibsabarg, Germany aur Poland ki sayunkt senaayon ne usmaani sena ko rond daala. is sayunkt sena ki aguvaai Poland ka raaja John truteeya kar raha tha. pavitra sangh ke gathabandhan ne viyna mein mili jeet ka faayda uthaaya aur iska samaapan karlovitj ki sandhi (26 January 1699) ke saath hua jisne mahaan Turkey yuddh ka ant kar diya. usmaaniyon ne kai mahatvapoorn kshetro ka niyantran kho diya (kuchh ka hamesha ke liye). mustafa dviteeya (1695-1703) ne 1695-1696 mein Hungary mein haibsabarg ke viruddh javaabi hamla kiya par 11 sitmbar 1697 ko vo jeinta ki ladaai mein vinaashakaari roop se haar gaya.

thaharaav aur doshanivrutti (1683-1827)

saleem truteeya topakaapi mahal ke faileesiti ke gate par ganamaanya vyaktiyon ka abhivaadan karte hue. ].

is avadhi ke dauraan roosi vistaar ek bade aur badhte khatre ko prastut kar raha tha. tadanusaar, sveedan ke raaja Charles baarahavein ko 1709 mein poltaava ki ladaai (1700-1721 ke mahaan uttari yuddh ka hissa.) mein roos dvaara haar ke baad otoman saamraajya mein ek sahayogi ke roop mein svaagat kiya gaya. Charles baarahavein ne roos par yuddh ki ghoshana karne ko turk sultaan Ahmad truteeya ko raaji kar liya, jiske parint 1710-1711 ki pruth nadi abhiyaan mein turko ki jeet hui. 1716-1718 ke ostro-Turkey yuddh ke baad paisarovich ki sandhi ne banat, Serbia aur "little valaakiya" (olteniaa) ko ostriya ko dene ki pushti ki. is sandhi se ye pata chala ki usmaani saamraajya bachaav ki mudra mein hai aur Europe mein iske dvaara koi bhi aakraamakata pesh karne ki sambhaavana naheen hai.

sandarbh

  1. "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires and Modern States" (PDF). Journal of World-Systems Research XII (II): 219–229. December 2006. ISSN 1076-156X. http://www.jwsr.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/jwsr-v12n2-tah.pdf. abhigman tithi: 11 fravari 2013.

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