ushnakatibandheeya varsha-van

Brazil mein amejn varshaavan ka ek kshetr. dakshin America ke ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan mein dharati par prajaatiyon ki sabse badi vividhta hai.

ushnakatibandheeya varsha-van ek aisa kshetr hota hai jo bhoomadhya rekha ke dakshin ya uttar mein lagbhag 28 degree ke bheetar hota hai. ve Asia, Australia, Africa, dakshin America, madhya America, Mexico aur prashaant dveepon par paae jaate hain. vishv vanyajeev nidhi ke baayom vargeekaran ke bheetar ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan ko ushnakatibandheeya aardr van (ya ushnakatibandheeya nam chaude patte ke van) ka ek prakaar maana jaata hai aur unhein vishuvateeya sadaabahaar taraai van ke roop mein bhi nirdisht kiya ja sakta hai. is jalavaayu kshetr mein nyoonatam saamaanya vaarshik varsha 175 semi (69 inch) aur 200 semi (79 inch) ke beech hoti hai. ausat maasik taapamaan varsh ke sabhi maheenon ke dauraan 18 °ase (64 °afai) se oopar hota hai.[1] dharati par rahane vaale sabhi pashuon aur paudhon ki prajaatiyon ki aadhi sankhya in varshaavanon mein rahati hai.[2]

varshaavanon ke kai kshetron mein bhoomi star par sooraj ki raushani na pahunch paane ke kaaran bade vrukshon ke neeche chhote paudhe aur jhaadiyaan bahut kam ug paati hain.[3] is kaaran van se hote hue logon aur anya jaanvaron ka chalana sambhav ho jaata hai. yadi patton ke vitaan ko kisi kaaran se nasht ya patala kar diya jaata hai to neeche ki jameen sheegra hi ghani ulajhi lataaon, jhaadiyon aur jungle kahe jaane vaale chhote pedon se bhar jaati hai.[4]

ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan vartamaan mein maanav gatividhi ke kaaran bikhr rahe hain. bhoovaijnyaaanik prakriyaaon, jaise ki jvaalaamukhi aur jalavaayu parivartan ke kaaran hone wala vaas vikhandan ateet mein hua hai aur inhein prajaateekaran ke chaalak ke roop mein pahachaana gaya hai.[5] haalaanki, maanav prerit teevr adhivaas vinaash ko prajaatiyon ke vilupt hone ke pramukh kaaranon mein se ek maana jaata hai.

anukram

abhilkshan

peroo mein amejn nadi varshaavan

varshaavanon mein itni prajaatiyaan ya aabaadi vaas karti hain jitni anya sabhi baayom ko milaakar bhi naheen karti. duniya bhar ki 80% jaiv vividhta ushnakatibandheeya varshaavanon mein pai jaati hai.[6] lambe pedon ka pattiyon se bhara sheersh - jo van ke tal se 50 se 85 meter oopar hota hai - ek laghu jhaad-pattiyon ke star ka nirmaan karta hai. jameen par girne waali jaivik saamagri sheegra hi sad jaati hai aur poshak tatvon ko paida karti hai.

varshaavanon mein uchch varsha pai jaati hai. jisse ghulanasheel poshak tatvon ki leeching ke kaaran mitti anupajaaoo ho jaati hai. okseesols, mausami roop se baadh vaale jungle ki aisi mitti hoti hai jo upajaaoo gaad se saalaana samruddh ho jaati hai.

ushnakatibandheeya varsha van sampoorn 20veen ke dauraan bhaari kataav aur krushi safaai ke adheen rahe hain aur duniya bhar mein varshaavan vaale kshetr teji se sikud rahe hain.[7][8]

varshaavanon ko aksar "dharati ka fefada" kaha jaata hai; tathaapi, is tarah ke kisi daave ka koi vaigyaanik aadhaar naheen hai kyonki ushnakatibandheeya varshaavanon ko okseejan tatasth jaana jaata hai, jahaan okseejan ka bahut kam ya koi shuddh utpaadan naheen hota hai.[9][10]

varshaavan nam hota hai. lambe, chaude patte vaale sadaabahaar ped vahaan pramukh paudhe hote hain, jo van ki satah par pattedaar vitaan ka gathan karte hain. lambe ped, jinhein aapaatik kaha jaata hai, vitaan se oopar badh sakte hai. vitaan ka oopari hissa aksar samruddh adhipaadap vanaspati ka samarthan karte hain, jismein shaamil hai aarkid, bromeeliyed, shaivaal aur laaiken jo pedon ki shaakhaaon se jude rahate hain. varshaavanon ke kai kshetron mein bhoomi star par sooraj ki raushani na pahunch paane ke kaaran bade vrukshon ke neeche chhote paudhe aur jhaadiyaan bahut kam ug paati hain aur aamtaur par inmein aisi chhaaya-sahishnu jhaadiyaan, jadi-booti, farn, chhote ped aur lambi lataaen hoti hain jo soorya ke prakaash ke liye pedon par chadhti hain. jameen par faili apekshaakrut virl vanaspati logon aur anya jaanvaron ke liye jungle se hokar gujarane ko sambhav banaati hai. parnapaati aur arddh parnapaati jangalon mein, ya aise jangalon mein jahaan vitaan kisi kaaranavash nasht ho jaate hain, vahaan neeche ki jameen par sheegra hi ulajhi lataaen, jhaadiyaan aur chhote pedon ka failaav ho jaata hai jise jungle kaha jaata hai.

taapamaan 21 degree celcius se 45 degree celcius ke beech hota hai aur vaarshik varsha 125 se 660 semi hoti hai.

paratein

chitr:TropischeRegenwaelder.png
ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan ka prasaar
kaakum raashtreeya udyaan, Ghana mein jameen se 40 meter oopar vitaan udyaanapath

varshaavanon ko paanch alag-alag staron mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai, jinmein pratyek ke bhinn paudhe aur jaanavar hain, jo us vishesh kshetr mein jeevan ke liye anukoolit hain. ye hain: bhoomi star, jhaadi star, andarastori star aur aakasmik star: keval aakasmik star ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan ke liye adviteeya hai, jabki anya bhi sheetoshn varshaavan mein paae jaate hain.

aakasmik parat mein bahut oonche pedon ki thodi sankhya shaamil hoti hai jo vitaan se oopar tak hote hai jinki oonchaai se 45-55 meter tak hoti hai, halaanki kabhi-kabhi kuchh prajaati 70 ya 80 mi. oopar tak jaati hai. unhe garm taapamaan aur tej havaaon ka saamana karne mein saksham hona chaahiye. cheel, titliyaan, chamagaadad aur kuchh bandar is parat mein rahate hain.

vitaan, jungle ki praathamik parat hai aur baaki paraton ke oopar ek chhat k nirmaan karti hai. adhikaansh vitaan vrukshau ke patte chikne, andaakaar hote hai jo ek bindu par aa jaate hain. yeh pattiyon aur shaakhaaon ka ek janjaal hai. choonki bhojan prachur maatra mein milta hai kai jaanavar isi kshetr mein rahate hain. in jaanvaron mein shaamil hain: saanp, tooken aur vruksh ke meindhak.

andarastori star tak bahut kam hi dhoop pahunch paati hai, isliye vrukshon ke patte itne bade hote hain ki ve paryaapt dhoop ko kheench sakein. is kshetr mein paudhe shaayad hi kabhi 3 meter (10 foot) tak badhte hain. yahaan kai jaanavar rahate hain jinme shaamil hain jaguaar, teinduaa aur laal aankhon vaale vruksh meindhak. yahaan keedon ki bahulata pai jaati hai.

jhaadi star aur van tal atyant andhere mein rahate hain. falasvaroop, bahut kam hi paudhe is kshetr mein ugate hain. choonki bamushkil hi sooraj ki raushani jungle ki satah tak pahunch paati hai cheejein sheegra hi sadna shuroo ho jaati hain. ek patta jise ek niyamit jalavaayu mein galane mein ek saal lag sakte hain vah yahaan 6 saptaah mein gaayab ho jaata hai. vishaal cheenteekhor is star par rahate hain.

praakrutik itihaas

ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan pruthvi par laakhon varshon se astitv mein hain. lagbhag 300 million varsh pehle kaarboniferas mein yuraaamerika mahaadveep par ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan paaristhitiki dhah gayi. varshaavan, jalavaayu mein badlaav ke kaaran vightit ho gaye. sthalachar-jalachar ki vividh prajaati ka nuksaan hua jabki usi samay shushk jalavaayu ne sareesrup vividheekaran ko prerit kiya.[5]

maanav upayog

nakaaraatmak maanav prabhaav

kheti, lakdi aur pashupaalan ke liye maanav teji se amejn varshaavan ko kaat raha hai, jiski anumaanit dar 1.5 ekad prati sekend hai athva prati minute 50 football maidaan hai, jiske chalte varshaavan ka astitv khatre mein aa gaya hai (75 ekad prati minute)[krupaya uddharan jodein]

nivaas

ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan maanav jeevan ka samarthan karne mein asamarth hain.[11] uchch jaiv vividhta ke kaaran jungle ke bheetar khaadya sansaadhan atyant bikhra hua hai aur jo khaana maujood hai vah bade paimaane par vitaan tak seemit hai aur use praapt karne ke liye kaafi oorja ki aavashyakta hain. jangali aadivaasiyon ke kuchh samoohon ne mausami aadhaar par varshaavanon ka shoshan kiya hai, lekin ve mukhya roop se najdeek ke savaana aur khule van ke vaataavaran mein rahate hain jahaan bhojan kaheen adhik prachur maatra mein milta hai. anya log jinhein varshaavan nivaasi ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai ve jangali aadivaasi hain jo apna nirvahan mukhya roop se jungle ke baahar rahane vaale logon ke saath van utpaadon ka vyaapaar kar ke karte hain jaise ki pashucharm, pankh aur shahad.[11]

krushi bhoomi mein roopaantaran

kheti ke aavishkaar ke saath, maanav varshaavan ke hisson ko khule khet mein parivrtit karte hue fasalon ki paidaavaar mein saksham hue. aise log, tathaapi, apna bhojan mukhya roop se saaf kiye gaye jungle[11][12] ke kheton ke bhookhandon se praapt karte hain aur iske poorak ke roop mein ve jungle ke bheetar shikaar aur khaadya ki khoj karte hain.

poorv ki van bhoomi par krushi karna aasaan naheen hota hai. varshaavan ki mitti aksar patali hoti hai aur kai khanijon ke bina hoti hai aur bhaari varsha teji se kheti ke liye saaf kiye gaye kshetr se poshak tatvon ko baha kar le ja sakti hai. log, jaise ki amejn ke yanomaamo, is tarah ki samasyaaon ko sulajhaane ke liye slesh-end-barn (kaato aur jalaao) krushi ka upayog karte hain jisse ve us kshetr mein gahre andar ja paane mein saksham hote hain jo kabhi ateet mein varshaavan vaataavaran the. haalaanki, ve varshaavan nivaasi naheen hai, balki ve saaf kiye gaye kheton ke vaasi hain[11][12] jo jangalon mein bhojan ki khoj karte hain. theth yanaamomo aahaar ka 90% kheti ke paudhon se aata hai.[12]

krushi khaadya padaarth aur masaale

kaufi, chaukalet, kela, aam, papeeta, mekaadaamiya, avokaado aur ganna sabhi mool roop se ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan se aaya hai aur abhi bhi jyaadaatar un kshetron mein baagaanon mein ugaaya jaata hai jo ateet mein praathamik van the. 1980 ke dashak ke madhya aur 90 ke dashak mein, 40 meeliyn tan kele ki khapat duniya bhar mein hui jiske alaava aam ki khapat 13 meeliyn tan hui. madhya ameriki kaufi niryaat ka moolya 1970 mein yooes$3 beeliyn dollar tha. nae keet se hue nuksaan ko darakinaar karne mein prayukt aanuvanshik parivartan ko abhi bhi pratirodhi jangali pashuon se praapt kiya jaata hai. ushnakatibandheeya vanon ne kheti kiye jaane laayak 250 prakaar ke falon ki aapoorti ki hai jabki sheetoshn vanon ne tulana mein keval 20 diye hain. akele new gini mein khaane laayak falon ke vrukshon ki 251 prajaatiyaaain hain, jinme se 1985 tak keval 43 ko kheti ki fasal ke roop mein sthaapit kiya gaya hai.[13]

faarmaasyutikl aur jaiv vividhta sansaadhan

ushnakatibandheeya varshaavanon ko "duniya ki sabse bade faarmesi" kaha jaata hai[krupaya uddharan jodein] kyonki vahaan bade paimaane par praakrutik davaaen milti hain jinhein varshaavan paudhon se haasil kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, varshaavanon mein "haarmonal garbhanirodhak vidhiyon ki buniyaadi saamagri, kokeen, uttejak aur shaant karne waali dava" milti hai (bainks 36)[krupaya uddharan jodein]. kuraare (ek pairaalaaijing dava) aur kunain (maleriya ke ilaaj ki ek dava) bhi vahaan pai jaati hain.

sakaaraatmak prabhaav

dakshin pashchim greeshm monsoon ki shuruaati tithi aur prachalit vaayu dhaaraaen.

ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan mein paryatan ke nakaaraatmak prabhaav ke baavajood, vahaan kai mahatvapoorn sakaaraatmak prabhaav maujood hain.

  • paryatan mein vruddhi se aarthik sahaayata mein vruddhi hui hai, jisse nivaas ke sanrakshan ke liye adhik raajasv ki praapti hue hai. paryatan, samvedansheel kshetron aur nivaas ke sanrakshan mein seedhe yogadaan kar sakta hai. park pravesh shulk aur isi tarah ke sroton se praapt raajasv ka vishesh roop se istemaal paryaavaran ki drushti se samvedansheel kshetron ki suraksha aur prabandhan ke liye bhugataan mein kiya ja sakta hai. karaadhaan aur paryatan se praapt raajasv, sarkaaron ke liye jungle ke sanrakshan ke liye raajasv yogadaan ke roop mein ek atirikt protsaahan hota hai.
  • paryaavaran ki saarvajanik prashansa ko badhaane ki bhi kshamata paryatan mein hai aur jab yeh logon ko paryaavaran ke saath najadeeki sampark mein laata hai to paryaavaran sambandhi samasyaaon ke prati jaagrukta ko bhi jagaata hai. aisi vardhit jaagrukta se paryaavaran ke prati sajag vyavahaar paida ho sakta hai. vanya jeev sanrakshan aur sanrakshan prayaason par paryatan ka ek sakaaraatmak prabhaav pada hai, vishesh roop se Africa mein aur iske alaava dakshin America, Asia, Australia aur dakshin prashaant mein.[14]

=== paaristhitiki tantr seva maanaveeya dohan upayog ke alaava varshaavanon ka gair-dohan upayog bhi hota hai jise paaristhitiki tantr seva ke roop mein sankshepit kiya jaata hai. varshaavan jaiv vividhta ko banaae rakhane, varsha mein parivartan aur baadh ki ghatna mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaate hain aur vaigyaanik gyaan ko badhaate hain.

vinaash

praakrutik prakriyaaon jaise ki jvaalaamukhi, aag aur jalavaayu parivartan ke maadhyam se ushnakatibandheeya varshaavanon ke vinaash ki charcha jeevaashm record mein bhali prakaar se ki gayi hai.[5] ye bhoovaijnyaaanik prakriyaaen dheere-dheere bhautik vaataavaran ke dhaaainche ko parivrtit karti hain aur prajaateekaran aur sthaanikeekaran ko badhaati hain.[5] iske vipreet, ushnakatibandheeya vanon ka maanav gatividhiyon dvaara jaise ki bhoomi ka krushikran karne se paryaavaran ka teevrata ke saath badlaav hota hai aur ise jeevon ke vilupt hone ke pramukh kaaranon ke roop mein dekha jaata hai.

academic sansaadhan

  • krushi aur van mausam[15]
  • vanaspati vigyaan ka itihaas[16]
  • dakshini paaristhitiki
  • jaiv vividhta aur sanrakshan, ISSN: 0960-3115 eISSN: 1572-9710[17]
  • jaivik sanrakshan[18]
  • vividhta aur vitran[19]
  • paaristhitik sanketak[20]
  • paaristhitik prabandhan aur bahaali[21]
  • ikosaains[22]
  • ushnakatibandheeya paaristhitiki patrika[23]
  • peliyograafi, peliyoklaaimetoloji, peliyoikoloji[24]
  • niotropikl jeev aur paryaavaran ka adhyayan[25]
  • ushnakatibandheeya aur uposhn-katibandheeya chaude patte ke aardr van ke paryaavaran kshetron ki soochi
  • peliyograafi
  • varshaavan
  • sheetoshn varsha van
  • ushnakatibandheeya aur uposhn-katibandheeya chaude patte ke van
  • ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan jalavaayu

sandarbh

  1. susaan vudavard. ushnakatibandheeya sadaabahaar chaude patte ke van: varshaavan. 2008/03/14 par liya gaya.
  2. Michigan vishvavidyaalaya ke reejent. ushnakatibandheeya varsha van. 2008/03/14 par liya gaya.
  3. Michael ritr. van baayom. 2008-03-14 ko pun: praapt.
  4. "Tropical Rain Forest". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. abhigman tithi: 2008-05-14
  5. a aa i E Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. & Falcon-Lang, H.J. (2010). "Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica" (PDF). Geology 38: 1079–1082. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/38/12/1079.
  6. sanyukt raashtra ne vanon ki kataai ko samaapt karne ke liye Asiaee raashtron ka aahvaahan kiya, raayatars
  7. Brazil: vanon ki kataai teji se badh gayi kyonki kisaanon ne teji se amejn mein dakhal diya, the gaarjiyn, 1 September 2008
  8. cheen, Asia ke vanon ki kataai ka shyaam vivr hai, Asia news, March 24, 2008
  9. broker, dabloo.S., 2006 "breeding iji, eight too, O2" Columbia vishvavidyaalaya Columbia.edu
  10. moran, ef.E., "Brazil ke amejn mein vanon ki kataai aur bhoomi ka prayog," maanav paaristhitikeeya, khand 21, sankhya 1, 1993 "duniya ka fefada" vaale mithk ko tootane mein 15 saal se adhik lag gaye. varshaavan prakaash sanshleshan ke maadhyam se vaataavaran mein shuddh okseejan ka bahut kam hi atirikt yogadaan karte hai. "
  11. a aa i E belly, aar si, head, ji, jenike, M, oven, bi rektaman, aar, jesheintar, E. 1989 "ushnakatibandheeya varshaavan mein shikaar aur ekatran: kya yeh sambhav hai." ameriki maanav vigyaani, 91:1 59-82
  12. a aa i Phillip L vaakar, lairi sugiyaama, richrd chaakan. (1998) "aahaar, dant chikitsa, svaasthya aur saanskrutik parivartan ko haal hi mein sampark kiye gaye dakshin ameriki bhaarateeya hantar mein dekha gaya" hyuman deintal development, morfoloji end paitholauji oregon yunivrsiti, maanav vigyaan prapatr. 54
  13. maayars, N 1985. praathamik srot dabloo.dabloo. nortan end company, new yaark, peepi 189-193.
  14. fotioo, S (October 2001) paryatan ke paryaavaran prabhaav. pun: praapt 30 November 2007 se Uneptie.org
  15. Elsevier. "Agricultural and Forest Meteorology". http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681923. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  16. Oxford University Press. "Annals of botany". http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  17. Springer. "Biodiversity and Conservation". http://www.springerlink.com/content/100125/?p=279ec1ca0a954b9bac5ab06fa6ea8ecc&pi=0. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  18. Elsevier. "Biological Conservation". http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00063207. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  19. "Diversity and Distributions". http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118507128/home. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  20. Elsevier. "Ecological Indicators". http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1470160X. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  21. John Wiley & Sons. "Ecological Management & Restoration". http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1442-7001. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  22. BioOne. "Ecoscience". http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-archive&issn=1195-6860. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  23. Cambridge University Press. "Journal of Tropical Ecology". http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=TRO. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  24. Elsevier. "Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology". http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00310182. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.
  25. Taylor & Francis. "Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment". http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713817190~db=all. abhigman tithi: 20 January 2009.

baahya kadiyaan