urvarak

khaad daalte hue; khaad ek jaivik urvarak hai.

urvarak (Fertilizers) krushi mein upaj badhaane ke liye prayukt rasaayan hain jo ped-paudhon ki vruddhi mein sahaayata ke liye istemaal kiye jaate hain. paani mein sheegra ghulane vaale ye rasaayan mitti mein ya pattiyon par chhidkaav karke prayukt kiye jaate hain. paudhe mitti se jadon dvaara evam oopari chhidkaav karne par pattiyon dvaara urvarakon ko avashoshit kar lete hain. urvarak, paudhon ke liye aavashyak tatvon ki tatkaal poorti ke saadhan hain lekin inke prayog ke kuchh dushparinaam bhi hain. ye lambe samay tak mitti mein bane naheen rahate hain. sinchaai ke baad jal ke saath ye rasaayan jameen ke neeche bhaum jalastar tak pahuainchakar use dooshit karte hain. mitti mein upasthit jeevaanuon aur sukshmajeevon ke liye bhi ye ghaatak saabit hote hain. isliye urvarak ke vikalp ke roop mein jaivik khaad ka prayog teji se lokapreeya ho raha hai. Bhaarat mein raasaayanik khaad ka sarvaadhik prayog Punjab mein hota hai.

anukram

urvarak ka vargeekaran

  • kaarbanik/jaivik urvarak (kampost, yooriya) ya akaarbanik urvarak (amoniym naaitret)
  • praakrutik (peet) ya krutrim urvarak (super fausfet)

paudhon ke liye aavashyak poshak tatv

mukhya tatv

paudhon ke liye teen pramukh poshak tatv hain:

dviteeyak poshak tatv

sookshm poshak tatv (maaikronyutriyents)

seemaaen

urvarak, paudhon ke liye aavashyak tatvon ki tatkaal poorti ke saadhan hain lekin inke prayog ke kuchh dushparinaam bhi hain. ye lambe samay tak mitti mein bane naheen rahate hain. sinchaai ke baad jal ke saath ye rasaayan jameen ke neeche bhaum jalastar tak pahuainchakar use dooshit karte hain. mitti mein upasthit jeevaanuon aur sukshmajeevon ke liye bhi ye ghaatak saabit hote hain. Bhaarat mein raasaayanik khaad ka sarvaadhik prayog Punjab mein hota hai. vartamaan samay mein vahaaain paani ka jalastar evam mruda ki poshakata mein bhaari kami dekhi gayi hai. iske saath hi mruda tatha upaj mein haaneekaarak rasaayanon ki maatra mein bahut vruddi pai gayi hai. isliye urvarak ke vikalp ke roop mein jaivik khaad ka prayog teji se lokapreeya ho raha hai.

pramukh raasaayanik urvarak

yooriya

pehchaan vidhi :

  • safed chamakadaar, lagbhag samaan aakaar ke gol daane.
  • paani mein poornataya ghul jaana tatha ghol chhoone par sheetal anubhooti.
  • garm tave par rakhane se pighl jaata hai aur aanch tej karne par koi avashesh nahi bachata.

daai amoniym faasfet (di.A.pi.)

pehchaan vidhi :

  • sakht, daanedaar, bhoora, kaala, baadaami rang naakhoonon se aasaani se naheen chhootata.
  • di.A.pi. ke kuchh daanon ko lekar tambaakoo ki tarah usamein choona milaakar malane par teekshn gandh niklati hai, jise soonghana asahya ho jaata hai.
  • tave par dheemi aanch mein garm karne par daane fool jaate hai.

super faasfet

pehchaan vidhi :

  • yeh sakht daanedaar, bhoora kaala baadaami rangon se yukt tatha naakhoonon se aasaani se na tootane wala urvarak hai. yeh choorn ke roop mein bhi upalabdh hota hai. is daanedaar urvarak ki milaavat bahudha di.A.pi. va N.pi.ke. mikchar urvarakon ke saath ki jaane ki sambhaavana bani rahati hai.

jink salfet

pehchaan vidhi :

  • jink salfet mein maingneeshim salfet pramukh milaavati rasaayan hai. bhautik roop se samaanata ke kaaran nakali asli ki pehchaan kathin hoti hai.
  • di.A.pi. ke ghol mein jink salfet ke ghol ko milaane par thakkedaar ghana avakshep ban jaata hai. maigneeshiym salfet ke saath aisa naheen hota.
  • jink salfet ke ghol mein patala kaastik ka ghol milaane par safed, matamaila maand jaisa avakshep banta hai, jismein gaadha kaastik ka ghol milaane par avakshep poornataya ghul jaata hai. yadi jink salfet ki jagah par maingneeshim salfet hai to avakshep naheen ghulega.

potaash khaad

pehchaan vidhi :

  • safed kanaakaar, pise namak tatha laal mirch jaisa mishran.
  • ye kan nam karne par aapas mein chipkate naheen.
  • paani mein gholane par khaad ka laal bhaag paani mein oopar tairata hai.

utpaadan

vishv ke urvarak utpaadak desh
2002 mein sarvaadhik urvarak utpaadak desh
srot: "riutars : the vard in figrs (2005)
kram sankhya desh utpaadan
(million tan)
kramaank desh utpaadan
(million tan)
1 cheen 23,6 9 misr 1,5
2 Bhaarat 10,6 10 saudi arab 1,3
3 yooesae 9,4 11 polaind 1,2
4 roos 6,0 12 Bangladesh 1,1
5 Canada 3,8 13 needaralaind 1,1
6 Indonesia 2,9 14 Germany 1,0
7 Ukraine 2,3 15 France 1,0
8 Pakistan 2,2

khaad daalne ki mukhya vidhiyaaain

  • (1) tauliye ya thaala mein daalna : tauliye mein chhote paudhon mein aadha va bade paudhon mein ek foot ki tane se doori rakhate huye khaadein daal di jaati hai. khaadein paudhon ki tahaniyon ke failaav ke neeche bikher kar daalne ke baad mitti mein mila di jaateehai. mitti mein khaadein milaana ati aavashyak hota hai. jab bahut jyaada nami ho ya bahut jyaada sookha pad raha ho to khaadein na daalein.
  • (2) patti mein khaad daalna : tahaniyon ke failaav ke baahari ghere mein 20-25 seinteemeetar patti mein khaadein daal di jaati hai aur oopar se dhak diya jaata hai. aise vidhi vaheen prayog mein laai jaati hai jahaan jyaada barasaat hoti hai.
  • (3) chhidkaav vidhi : patton ke oopar chhidkaav kiya jaata hai. jyaadaattar yooriyaakhaad ko paani mein ghol kar use chhidkaav dvaara patton par daala jaata hai.
  • (4) bikher kar daalna : paudhon ki do panktiyon ke beech mein paudhon se uchitdoori banaate huye khet mein bikher kar khaadein daal di jaati hain. Himachal pradesh mein is vidhi ko kam hi prayog kiya jaata hai aur un seb ke baageechon mein prayog kiya jaata hai jahaan tauliye ke badle poora khet hi saaf rakha ho.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain