urdoo saahitya

urdoo Bhaarat tatha Pakistan ki aadhunik bhaarateeya aarya bhaashaaon mein se ek hai. iska vikaas madhyayug mein uttari Bhaarat ke us kshetr mein hua jismein aaj pashchimi uttar pradesh, Delhi aur poorvi Punjab sammilit hain. iska aadhaar us praakrut aur apabhransh par tha jise 'shauraseni' kehte the aur jisse khadeeboli, brajabhaasha, hariyaani aur punjabi aadi ne janm liya tha. musalmaanon ke Bhaarat mein aane aur Punjab tatha Delhi mein bas jaane ke kaaran is pradesh ki bolachaal ki bhaasha mein faarasi aur arabi shabd bhi sammilit hone lage aur dheere-dheere usane ek pruthak roop dhaaran kar liya. musalmaanon ka raajya aur shaasan sthaapit ho jaane ke kaaran aisa hona svaabhaavik bhi tha ki unke dharm, neeti, rahan-sahan, aachaar-vichaar ka rang us bhaasha mein jhalakane lage. is prakaar uske vikaas mein kuchh aisi pravruttiyaaain sammilit ho gain jinki aavashyakta us samay ki doosari bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ko naheen thi. pashchimi uttar pradesh aur Delhi mein bolachaal mein khadeeboli ka prayog hota tha. usi ke aadhaar par baad mein urdoo ka saahityik roop nirdhaarit hua. ismein kaafi samay laga, at: desh ke kai bhaagon mein thode-thode antar ke saath is bhaasha ka vikaas apne-apne dhang se hua.

urdoo ka mool aadhaar to khadeeboli hi hai kintu doosare kshetron ki boliyon ka prabhaav bhi usapar padta raha. aisa hona hi chaahiye tha, kyonki aarambh mein isko bolanevaali ya to baajaar ki janta thi athva ve sufi-fakeer the jo desh ke vibhinn bhaagon mein ghoom-ghoomkar apne vichaaron ka prachaar karte the. isi kaaran is bhaasha ke liye kai naamon ka prayog hua hai. ameer khusaro ne usako "hindi", "hindavi" athva "jbaane dehalavi" kaha tha; dakshin mein pahuainchi to "dakini" ya "dakkhini" kahalaai, Gujarat mein "gujri" (gujaraati urdoo) kahi gayi; dakshin ke kuchh lekhakon ne use "jbaane-ahale-Hindustan" (uttari Bhaarat ke logon ki bhaasha) bhi kaha. jab kavita aur visheshataya gajal ke liye is bhaasha ka prayog hone laga to ise "rekhta" (mili-juli boli) kaha gaya. baad mein isi ko "jbaane urdoo", "urdoo-A-mualla" ya keval "urdoo" kaha jaane laga. Europeeya lekhakon ne ise saadhaaranat: "hindustaani" kaha hai aur kuchh angrej lekhakon ne isko "moos" ke naam se bhi sambodhit kiya hai. in kai naamon se is bhaasha ke aitihaasik vikaas par bhi prakaar padta hai.

anukram

udgam

udgam ki drushti se urdoo vahi hai jo hindi; dekhne mein keval itna hi antar maaloom deta hai ki urdoo mein arabi-faarasi shabdon ka prayog kuchh adhik hota hai aur hindi mein sanskrut shabd adhik prayog hote hain. iski lipi devanaagari se bhinn hai aur kuchh muhaavaron ke prayog ne iski shaili aur dhaaainche ko badal diya hai. parantu saahityik paranparaaeain aur roop sab ek anya saaainche mein dhale hue hain. yeh sab kuchh aitihaasik kaaranon se hua hai jiska theek-theek anumaan uske saahitya ke adhyayan se kiya ja sakta hai. parantu isse pehle ek baat ki or aur dhyaan dena chaahiye. 'urdoo' Turkey bhaasha ka shabd hai jiska arth hai 'vah baajaar jo shaahi sena ke saath-saath ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par chalta rahata tha'. vahaaain jo mili-juli bhaasha boli jaati thi usako urdoovaalon ki bhaasha kehte the, kramash: vahi bhaasha swayam urdoo kahi jaane lagi. is arth mein is shabd ka prayog 17veen shataabdi ke ant se milta hai.

urdoo ki praanrabhik roop ya to soofi fakeeron ki baani mein milta hai ya janta ki bolachaal mein. bhaasha ki drushti se urdoo ke vikaas mein punjabi ka prabhaav sabse pehle dikhaai padta hai, kyonki jab 15veen aur 16veen sadi mein iska prayog dakshin ke kavi aur lekhak saahityik rachanaaon ke liye karne lage to usamein panjaabeepan paryaapt maatra mein paaya jaata tha. 17veen aur 18veen shataabdi mein brajabhaasha ka gahra prabhaav urdoo par pada aur bade-bade vidvaan kavita mein "gvaaliyri bhaasha" ko adhik shuddh maanane lage, kintu usi yug mein kuchh vidvaanon aur kaviyon ne urdoo ko ek naya roop dene ke liye braj ke shabdon ka bahishkaar kiya aur faarasi-arabi ke shabd badhaane lage. dakshin mein urdoo ka prayog kiya jaata tha. uttari Bhaarat mein use neechi shreni ki bhaasha samjha gaya kyonki vah Delhi ki bolachaal ki us bhaasha se bhinn thi jismein faarasi saahitya aur sanskruti ki jhalak thi. bolachaal bolachaal mein yeh bhedabhaav chaahe kuchh adhik dikhaai na de kintu saahitya mein shaili aur shabdon ke vishesh prayog se yeh vibhinnata bahut vyaapak ho jaati hai aur badhte-badhte anek saahityik schoolon ka roop dhaaran kar leti hai, jaise "dakan school", "Delhi school", "Lucknow school", "Bihar school" ityaadi. sach to yeh hai ki urdoo bhaasha ke banane mein jo sangharsh jaari raha usamein Irani aur hindustaani tatv ek doosare se takaraate rahe aur dheere-dheere hindustaani tatv Irani tatv par vijay paata gaya. anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki jis bhaasha ko urdoo kaha jaata hai usamein 85 pratishat shabd ve hi hain jinka aadhaar hindi ka koi na koi roop hai. shesh 15 pratishat mein faarasi, arabi, Turkey aur anya bhaashaaon ke shabd sammilit hain jo saanskrutik kaaranon se musalmaan shaasakon ke jamaane mein svaabhaavik roop se urdoo mein ghul-mil gaye the. is samay urdoo Pakistan ke anek kshetron mein, uttari bhaaratavarsh ke kai bhaagon mein, Kashmir aur Andhra pradesh mein bahut se logon ki maatrubhaasha hai.

shuruaati rachanaakaar

is baat ki or sanket kiya ja chuka hai ki musalmaan bhaaratavarsh mein aae to yahaaain ke jeevan par unka prabhaav pada aur ve swayam yahaaain ki sthiti se prabhaavit hue. unhonne yahaaain ki bhaashaaeain seekheen aur unamein apne vichaar prakat kiye. sabse pehle Lahore ke khwaaja masaood saad Salman (1166 E.) ka naam milta hai jinhonne hindi mein apna kaavyasangrah ekatr kiya jo durbhaagya se aaj praapt naheen hota. usi samay mein kai soofi fakeeron ke naam milte hain jo desh ke kone-kone mein ghoom firkar janta mein apne vichaaron ka prachaar kar rahe the. is baat ka anumaan karna kathin naheen hai ki us samay koi bani banaai bhaasha prachalit naheen rahi hogi isliye ve bolachaal ki bhaasha mein faarasi arabi ke shabd milaakar kaam chalaate honge. iske bahut se udaaharan soofiyon ke sambandh mein likhi hui pustakon mein mil jaate hain. jin logon ko kavitaaeain athva vaakya mile hain unamein se kuchh ke naam ye hain : Baba freed shakaraganj (mru. 1262 E.), shekh hameedauddeen naagauri (mru. 1274 E.), shekh sharafuddeen Abu Ali klandar (mru. 1323 E.), ameer khusaro (moo. 1370 E.), makhdoom asharaf jahaaaingeer (mru. 1355 E.), shekh abdulahak (mru. 1433 E.), Sayyed gesoo daraj (mru. 1421 E.), Sayyed muhammad jaunapuri (mru. 1504 E.), shekh bahaauddeen baajan (mru. 1506 E.) ityaadi. iname bachan aur dohare is baat ka pata dete hain ki ek aisi bhaasha ban rahi thi jo janasaadharan samajh sakta tha aur jiska roop doosari boliyon se bhinn tha.

oopar ke kaviyon mein amari khusaro aur gesoo daraaj urdoo saahitya ke praarambhik itihaas mein bahut mahatva rakhate hain. khusaro ki hindi rachanaaeain, jinka kuchh ansh Delhi ki khadeeboli mein hone ke kaaran urdoo kaha jaata hai, devanaagari mein bhi prakaashit ho chuki hain, parantu gesoo daraaj ke lekhon aur kavitaaon ki khoj abhi jaari hai. is samay tak "chakkeenaam", "tilaavatul vajood", "meraajanaama" praapt ho chuki hain, in sab mein soofi vichaar prakat kiye gaye hain. gesoo daraaj Delhi nivaasi the parantu unka jyaada samay dakshin mein beeta, vaheen unki mrutyu hui aur isi kaaran unki bhaasha ko dakkini urdoo kaha jaata hai. sach yeh hai ki urdoo, jisne Delhi ke aaspaas ek bhaasha ka roop grahan kiya tha, senaaon, soofi fakeeron, sarkaari karmachaariyon aur vyaapaariyon ke saath desh ke anya bhaagon mein pahuainchi aur uchit vaataavaran paakar badhi aur faili.

dakkani urdoo

urdoo ke saahityik roop ke praarambhik vikaas ke chinh sabse pehle dakshin aur Gujarat mein dikhaai padte hain. gesoo daraaj ke atirikt meeraanaji shamasul ushshaak, burahaanuddeen jaanam, nijaami, firoj, Mehmood, ameenuddeen aala ne aisi rachanaaeain chhodi hain jo pratyek urdoo saahitya ke itihaas mein sthaan praapt kar sakti hain. bahamani raajya ke patan ke pashchaat jab dakshin mein paaainch raajya bane to urdoo ko unnati karne ka aur avsar mila. janta se sampark rakhane ke liye baadashaahon ne bhi urdoo ko hi mukhya sthaan diya. golakunda aur Bijapur mein saahitya aur kala kaushal ki unnati hui. Delhi se naata todne aur apni svaadheenata prakat karne ke liye unhonne faarasi ke viruddh is deshi bhaasha ko apnaaya aur saahityakaaron ka saahas badhaaya. Bijapur ke ibraaheem aadilshaah ne apni suvikhyaat rachana "nauras" 16veen shataabdi ke ant mein prastut ki. ismein braj aur khadeeboli ka mel hai, faarasi arabi ke shabd bhi beech-beech mein aa jaate hain. parantu iska poora dhaaaincha ekamaatr hindustaani hai. iske samast geet bhaarateeya sangeet ke aadhaar par likhe gaye hain. iski bhoomika faarasi ke suprasiddh vidvaan, "jhoori" ne faarasi mein likhi jo "sehanasr" (teen gadya) ke naam se aaj bhi mahatva rakhati hai. Bijapur ke anya doosare baadshah bhi swayam kavi aur kaviyon ke sanrakshak the. inmein "aatashi", "mukeemi", "ameen", "rusatami", "khushanood", "daulatashaah" ke naam smaraneeya hain. Bijapur ke antim dinon mein urdoo ka kahaan kavi "nusarati" paida hua jisne shrrunngaar aur veeraras mein shreshth kavitaaeain likheen.

Bijapur ki hi bhaaainti golakunda mein bhi baadshah aur janta sab adhiktar urdoo hi mein likh rahe the. muhammad kuli kutubashaah (mru. 1611 E.) swayam urdoo, faarasi aur telugu mein kavitaaeain likhta aur kaviyon ko protsaahan deta tha. uske kaavyasangrah mein Bhaarat ke mausamon, falon, foolon, chidiyon aur tyauhaaron ka vichitr varnan milta hai. uske baad jo aur baadshah hue ve bhi achhe kavi hue aur unke sangrah bhi vidyamaan hain. prasiddh kaviyon aur lekhakon mein "vajahi", "gauvvaasi", "ibne nishaati", "gulaamaali" ityaadi mahatva rakhate hain. is prakaar dakshin mein urdoo ke is pehle saahityik roop ne kuchh aisi rachanaaon ko janm diya jo saahitya aur chintan donon ki drushti se saraahaneeya hain. in rachanaaon mein kuliyaate kleekutabashaah, kutub mushatari (vajahi), falaban (ibnenishaati), saiful-mulook va badeeul jamaal (gauvvaasi), manohar madhumaalati (nusarati), chandrabadan va mahayaar (mukeemi) ityaadi urdoo ki shreshth rachanaaon mein gini jaati hain.

17veen shataabdi ki samaapti ke poorv Gujarat, arakaat, Mysore aur Madras tak pahuainch chuki thi. Gujarat mein iski unnati adhiktar soofi kaviyon ke haathon hui jinmein shekh baajan, shaahaalojyu aur khoob muhammad chishti ki rachanaaeain bahut mahatva rakhati hain.

kyonki urdoo ki paranparaaeain ban chuki theen aur lagbhag 300 varshon mein unka sangathan bhi ho chuka tha isliye jab san 1687 E. mein mugalon ne dakshin ko apne raajya mein mila liya tab bhi urdoo saahitya ke sote naheen sookhe balki kaavyarachana ne aur teevr gati se unnati ki. 17veen shataabdi ke ant aur 18veen shataabdi ke aarambh mein "vali" dakkini (1707 E.), "bahari", "vajahi", "vali", "velori, "seraaj" (1763 E.), "Dawood" aur "ujlat" jaise kaviyon ne janm liya. inmein bhi "vali", "dakkini", "bahari", "seraaj" ki ganana urdoo ke bahut bade kaviyon mein hoti hai. "vali" ko to uttari aur dakshini Bhaarat ke beech ki kadi kaha ja sakta hai. yeh spasht hai ki Delhi ki bolachaal ki bhaasha urdoo thi parantu faarasi ke prabhaav se vahaaain ke padhe-likhe log apni saanskrutik aavashyakataaeain faarasi se hi poori karte the. ve samajhte the ki urdoo se inki poorti naheen ho sakti. "vali" aur unki kavita ke uttari Bhaarat mein pahuainchane se yeh bhram door ho gaya aur sahasa uttari Bhaarat ki saahityik sthiti mein ek kraantikaari parivartan ho gaya. thode hi samay mein Delhi sainkadon urdoo kaviyon ki vaani se gooainj uthi.

Delhi-lakhanau- akabaraabaad (Agra)

ab urdoo ke Delhi school ka aarambh hota hai. yeh baat smaraneeya hai ki yeh saamant kaal ke patan ka yug tha. mugal raaj keval andar se hi durbal naheen tha varan baahar se bhi usapar aakraman hote rahate the. is sthiti se janta ki bolachaal ki bhaasha ne laabh uthaaya. agar raajya prabal hota to na naadir shaah Delhi ko lootata aur na faarasi ki jagah janta ki bhaasha mukhya bhaasha ka svaroop dhaaran karti. is samay ke kaviyon mein khaane aarajoo, aabaroo, haatim (1783 E.), yakarang, naaji,majmoon, taabaaain, (1748 E.), fugaaain (1772 E.), "majhar jaanejaanaaain", "faayej" ityaadi urdoo saahitya mein bahut ooaincha sthaan rakhate hain. dakshin mein prabandh kaavyon aur marasiyon (shok kavitaaon) ki unnati hui thi, Delhi mein gajal ka bolabaala hua. yahaaain ki pragatisheel bhaasha hrudaya ke sookshm bhaavon ko prakat karne ke liye dakshini bhaasha ki apeksha adhik samarth thi isliye gajal ki unnati svaabhaavik jaan padti hai. yeh baat bhi yaad rakhane yogya hai ki is samay ki kavitaaon mein shrrunrungaararas aur bhakti ke vichaaron ko pramukh sthaan mila hai. sainkadon varsh ke puraane samaaj ki baadh ruk gayi thi aur jeevan ke saamane koi naya lakshya naheen tha isliye is samay ki kavita mein koi shakti aur udaarata naheen dikhlaai padti. 18veen shataabdi ke samaapt hone se pehle ek or nai-nai raajaneetik shaktiyaaain sir utha raheen thi jisse mugal raajya nirbal hota ja raha tha, doosari or vah sabhyata apni paranparaaon ki rogi sundarata ki antim bahaar dikha rahi thi. Delhi mein urdoo kavita aur saahitya ke liye aisi sthiti paida ho rahi thi ki usaki pahuainch raajadarabaar tak ho gayi. mugal baadshah shaahaaalam (1759-1806 E.) swayam kavita likhte the aur kaviyon ko aashray dete the. is yug mein jin kaviyon ne urdoo saahitya ka sir ooaincha kiya, ve hain meer dard (1784 E.), mirja mohammad rafi sauda (1785 E.), meer taki "meer" (1810 E.) aur "meer soj". inke vichaaron ki gaharaai aur ooainchaai, bhaasha ki sundarata tatha kalaatmak nipunata pratyek drushti se saraahani hai. "dard" ne soofi vichaar ke kaavya mein, "meer" ne gjl mein aur "sauda"doosari vidhaaon ke saath kseede ke kshetron mein urdoo kavita ki seemaaeain vistrut kar di.

parantu din bahut bure aa gaye the. East India company ka dabaav badhta ja raha tha aur Delhi ka raajasinhaasan daavaaaindol tha. vivsh hokar shaah aalam ne apne ko company ki raksha mein de diya aur peinshan lekar Delhi chhod prayaag mein bandiyon ki bhaaainti jeevan bitaane lage. iska fal yeh hua ki bahut se kavi aur kalaakaar anya sthaanon ko chale gaye. is samay kuchh nae nae raajadarabaar sthaapit ho gaye the, jaise Hyderabad, avadh, ajeemaabaad (Patna), farrukhaabaad ityaadi. inki nai jyoti aur jagamagaahat ne bahut se kaviyon ko apni or kheencha. sabse adhik aakarshak avadh ka raajadarabaar siddh hua, jahaaain ke navaab apne darbaar ki chamak damak mugal darbaar ki chamak-damak se mila dena chaahate the. Delhi ki sthiti kharaab hote hi "fugaaain", "sauda", "meer", "hasan" (1787 E.) aur kuchh samay baad musahafi (1825 E.), insha (1817 E.), juraat aur anya kavi avadh pahuainch gaye aur vahaaain kaavyarachana ka ek naya kendra ban gaya jisko "Lucknow school" kaha jaata hai.

san 1775 E. mein Lucknow avadh ki rajdhani bana. usi samay se yahaaain faarasi-arabi ki shiksha bade paimaane par aanrabh hui aur avadhi ke prabhaav se urdoo mein nai mithaas utpann hui. kyonki yahaaain ke navaab shiya musalmaan the aur vah shiya dharm ki unnati aur shobha chaahate the, isliye yahaaain ko kaavyarachana mein kuchh nai pravruttiyaaain paida ho gayi jo Lucknow ki kavita ko Delhi ki kavita se alag karti hain. urdoo saahitya ke itihaas mein Delhi aur Lucknow school ki tulana bada rochak vishay bani rahi hai; parantu sach yeh hai ki saanmati yug ki patanasheel seemaaon ke andar Delhi aur Lucknow mein kuchh bahut antar naheen tha. yeh avashya hai ki Lucknow mein bhaasha aur jeevan ke baahya roop par adhik jor diya jaata tha aur Delhi mein bhaavon par. parantu vastut: Delhi ki hi saahityik paranparaaeain theen jinhonne Lucknow ki badli hui sthiti mein yeh roop dhaaran kiya. yahaaain ke kaviyon mein "meer", "meer hasan", "sauda", "insha", "musahafi", "juraat", ke pashchaat aatish (1847 E.), naasikh (1838 E.), "anos" (1874 E.), "dabeer" (1875 E.), "vajeer", "naseem", "rashk", "rind or "saba" ooaincha sthaan rakhate hain. Lucknow mein marasiya aur masanavi ki vishesh roop se unnati karne ka avsar mila.

Lucknow aur Delhi schoolon ke baahar bhi saahitya rachana ho rahi thi aur ye rachanaaeain raajadarabaaron ke prabhaav ke door hone ke kaaran janasaadhaaran ke bhaavon ke nikat theen. is sambandh mein sabse mahatvapoorn naam najeer akabaraabaadi ka hai. unhonne roodhivaadi vichaaron se naata todkar hindustaani janta ke dilon keee dhadkanein apni kavitaaon mein band keen. unki shaili aur vichaaradhaara donon mein bhaarateeya jeevan ki saralata aur udaarata milti hai.

pashchimi sampark ke falasvaroop 19veen shataabdi ke madhya mein bhaaratavarsh ki doosari bhaashaaon ki tarah urdoo mein bhi nai chetna ka aanrabh ho gaya aur aarthik, saamaajik, tatha raajaneetik parivrtanon ke kaaran nai vichaaradhaara ka udbhav hua. kintu isse pehle Delhi ki mitti hui saamanti sabhyata ne jauk (1852 E.), momin (1855 E.), gaalib, (1869 E.), "shefta" (1869) aur "jfr" jaise kaviyon ko janm diya. inmein vishesh roop se gaalib ki saahityik rachanaaeain us jeevan ki shaktiyon aur trutiyon donon ki prateek hain. unki mahatta ismein hain ki unhonne apni kavitaaon mein haardik bhaavon aur maanasik sthitiyon, donon ka samanvaya ek vichitr shaili mein kiya hai.

urdoo gadya

urdoo gadya ka vikaas nae yug se pehle hi ho chuka tha parantu usaki unnati 19veen shataabdi mein hui. dakshin mein "meraajual aashikeen" aur "sabaras" (1634 E.) ke atirikt kuchh dhaarmik rachanaaeain milti hain. uttari Bhaarat mein "tahaseen" ki "nau taraje murassa" (1775 E.) ka naam liya ja sakta hai. angrejon ne apni suvidha ke liye fort William kaalej (1800 E.) sthaapit kiya aur gadya mein kuchh pustakein likhvaai jiske falasvaroop urdoo gadya ki us nai shaili k vikaas hua jo 50 varsh baad poornataya prachalit hui. yahaaain ki rachanaaon mein meer amman ki "baagobahaar" Hydari ki "aaraaishe mahafil", afsos ki "baage urdoo" vila ko "betaal pacheesi", javaan ki "sinhaasan batteesi", nihaalachand ki "majhabe ishk", uchch koti ki rachanaaeain hain. 19veen sadi ke aarambh mein hi "insha" ne "raani ketaki ki kahaani" or "dariyaae lataaft" likhi theen. Lucknow mein sabse mahatvapoorn aur kathaasaahitya mein suvikhyaat pustak "fisaanae ajaayab" 1824 E. mein likhi gayi; iske lekhak rajab Ali beg "suroor" hain. angreji shiksha ke vistaar ke kaaran nae paathayakram ban rahe the. iske liye 1842 E. mein dehali kaalej mein "varnaakyular" traansaleshan society" ki sthaapana hui jahaaain raamaayan, mahaabhaarat, leelaavati, dharmashaastr ityaadi ke atirikt vibhinn vishyon ki lagbhag 150 pustakon ke urdoo anuvaad hue. is prakaar urdoo gadya bhi unnati karta raha aur is yogya hua ki nai chetna ka saath de sake.

naya daur

urdoo saahitya mein navajaagruti ke vaastavik chinh 1857 ke vidroh ke baad hi se milte hain. iske aitihaasik, raajaneetik aur saamaajik kaaran spasht hain. in kaaranon se jo nai chetna utpann hui usi ne nae kaviyon aur saahityakaaron ko nai sthiti ke anukool likhne ka avsar diya. ismein sabse pehla naam sar Sayyed (1817-1897 E.) ka liya ja sakta hai. unheen ke netrutv mein haali, (1887-1914 E.) aajaad (1833-1910 E.) najeer Ahmad (1834-1912 E.) aur shibli (1857-1914 E.) ne urdoo gadya aur padya mein mahaan rachanaaeain keen aur angrej saahitya se prerana lekar apne saahitya ko samay ke anukool banaaya. maulaana muhammad husain aajaad nai urdoo kavita ke nirmaata the. ve Delhi kaalej mein apne vidyaarthi jeevan mein Europeeya vidvaanon aur saahitya se prabhaavit ho chuke the. Lahore mein unhonne shiksha vibhaag ke adhikaariyon ke sahayog se "anjumane Punjab" ki sthaapana ki aur 1867 E. mein usaki ek sabha mein vyaakhyaan dete hue unhonne urdoo kavita ki trutiyon ki or dhyaan dilaate hue kaha ki kavita ko maanav jeevan aur prakruti ke sabhi angon par prakaash daalna chaahiye jo durbhaagyavash abhi tak urdoo kavita mein naheen ho saka. hamein ab puraani lakeer peetane ke bajaae nae vaataavaran ki samasyaaon ko chintan aur kaavya ka vishay banaana chaahiye. inheen vichaaron ke falasvaroop urdoo kavita mein nai shaayari ka nirmaan hua aur baad ke adhiktar mahaan kavi isi se prabhaavit hue. bahut se chhaapekhaane khul gaye the, patra-patrikaaeain nikal rahi theen, nae puraane ka sangharsh chal raha tha, isliye in logon ko apne nae vichaar prakat karne aur unhein failaane mein badi suvidha hui. isi yug mein "sarashaar", "sharar" aur mirja rusava ka naam bhi liya ja sakta hai, jinhonne upanyaas saahitya mein bahoomoolya vruddhi ki. is yug ko har prakaar se aalochna ka yug kaha ja sakta hai; jo kuchh likha ja raha tha usako itihaas apni kasauti par parakh raha tha. in mahaan lekhakon ne aalochna, nibandh, upanyaas, jeevani, kavita ke roop mein jo kuchh likha hai vahi aaj ke nae saahitya ka aadhaar hai. is yug ki mahaanata yeh hai ki saahityakaar hi navachetana ke agradoot aur neta ban gaye the. raajaneetik drushti se ye log kraantikaari naheen the, kintu inheen ki vichaaradhaara ke baad ke lekhakon ko prerana di.

20veen sadi ka aarambh hone se bahut pehle raashtreeyata ki bhaavana paida ho chuki thi aur usaki jhalak in saahityakaaron ki krutiyon mein bhi mil jaati hai; parantu iska poora vikaas "ikbaal" (1873-1938 E.), "chakabast" (1882-1926), "premachand" (1880-1936 E.), ityaadi ki kavitaaon aur lekhon mein hua. yeh bhi yaad rakhana chaahiye ki isi ke saath saahitya ki puraani paranparaaeain bhi chal rahi theen aur "ameer" (1899), "daag" (1905), "jalaal" (1910) aur doosare kavi bhi apni gajalon se padhnevaalon ko mohit kar rahe the. kisi na kisi roop mein yeh dhaara ab tak chali ja rahi hai. is shataabdi ke ullekhaneeya kaviyon mein "safi", durga sahaaya "suroor", "saakib", "mahashar", "ajeej", "ravaaain, "hasarat", "faani", "jigr", "asar" aur lekhakon mein hasan nijaami, raashidul khairi, sulaimaan nadavi, abdulahak, rasheed Ahmad, masood hasan, maulaana aajaad aur aabidhusen hain.

vartamaan

varmamaan kaal mein saahitya ki seemaaeain aur vistrut hui hain aur har vichaar ke lekhak apne-apne dhang se urdoo saahitya ko doosare saahityon ke baraabar laane mein lage hue hain. kaviyon mein "josh", "firaak", "faij", "majaaj", "hafeej", "saagr", "mulla", "ravish", "sardaar", "jameel" aur "aajaad" ke naam ullekhaneeya hain, to gadya mein krushnachandr "ashk", huseni, "minto", haayatullaah, isamat, Ahmad nadeem, khvaaja Ahmad Abbas apna mahatva rakhate hain. 20veen shataabdi mein aalochna saahitya ki badi unnati hui. ismein niyaaj, firaak, jor, kaleem, majanooain, suroor, ehateshaam husain, ejaaj husain, mumataaj husain, ibaadat ityaadi ne bahut si bahumoolya pustakein likheen.

20veen shataabdi mein saahityik schoolon ke jhagade samaapt hokar vichaaradhaaraaon ke aadhaar par saahityarachana hone lagi thi. angreji saahitya aur shiksha ke prabhaav se chhaayaavaadi kavita ko badhaava mila. fir prajaatantr aur raashtreeyata ki bhaavana ne pragatisheel aandolan ko janm diya jo 1936 E. se aarambh hokar kisi na kisi roop mein ab tak chal raha hai. is beech mein "maakrs" aur "fraayad" ne bhi lekhakon ko bhinn-bhinn samoohon mein baaainta. kuchh lekhak mukt chhand mein bhi kavitaaeain likhne lage, kintu is prakaar ke samast prayog abhi tak apni jadein bahut gahari naheen kar sake hain.

samakaaleen urdoo saahitya mein nai kaavyarachana prayogavaad, spashtavaad, prateekavaad aur niruddeshyavaad se bahut prabhaavit ho rahi hai. nai kavita jeevan ke sabhi moolyon ka bahishkaar karti hai kyonki nae kavi saamaajik chetna ko kaavyarachana mein baadhak maanate hain. iske atirikt nae kavi apne vyaktitv apne vyaktitv ko siddh karne ke liye bhaasha, vichaar, kala aur saahitya ke sabhi niyamon ko todna aavashyak samajhte hain. kuchh log isi ko vichaar svatantrata ka naam bhi dete hain, kintu yeh baat abhi tak spasht naheen ho saki ki nai kavita likhnevaale ek or to saahitya aur kala ki sabhi paranparaaon se apna naata tod rahe hain aur doosari or ve apni vichaaradhaara ko Europe aur amareeka ke kuchh daarshanikon, lekhakon aur kaviyon ki vichaaradhaara se milaane ki anathak cheshta kar rahe hain. yeh aadhunikta urdoo kahaani aur upanyaas ko bhi prabhaavit kar rahi hai. nai kavita, kahaani aur upanyaas ko saahitya ke itihaas mein kya sthaan milega, is samay is sambandh mein kuchh naheen kaha ja sakta.