uraaainv

oraaainv ya 'kudukh' Bhaarat ki ek pramukh janajaati hain. ye Bhaarat ke kendreeya evam poorvi raajyon mein tatha bangalaadesh ke nivaasi hain. inki bhaasha ka naam bhi 'uraaainv' ya 'kudukh' hai.

anukram

parichay

oraaainv ya uraaainv chhota Nagpur kshetr ka ek aadivaasi samooh hai. oraaainv athva uraaainv naam is samooh ko doosare logon ne diya hai. apni lokabhaasha mein yeh samooh apne aapko 'kurukh' naam se varnit karta hai. aaingareji mein 'O' akshar se likhe jaane ke kaaran is samooh ke naam ka uchchaaran 'oraaainv' kiya jaata hai; Bihar/Chhattisgarh mein 'uraaainv' naam ka prachalan adhik hai.

uraaainv bhaasha Dravid parivaar ki hai jo sameepavarti aadivaasi samoohon ki munda bhaashaaon se sarvatha bhinn hai. uraaainv bhaasha aur kannad mein anek samataaeain hain. sambhavat: inhein hi dhyaan mein rakhate hue, gate ne 1901 ki apni janaganana ki report mein yeh sambhaavana vyakt ki thi ki uraaainv moolat: Karnataka kshetr ke nivaasi the. unka anumaan tha ki is samooh ke poorvaj pehle Karnataka se narmada upatyaka mein aae aur vahaaain se baad mein Bihar raajya ke son tat ke bhaagon mein aakar bas gaye. paryaapt pramaanon ke abhaav mein is anumaan ko vaigyaanik maanana uchit naheen hoga.

adhikaansh uraaainv is samay raaainchi jile ke madhya aur pashchimi bhaag mein rahate hain. uraaainv samooh ke pratham vaigyaanik adhyeta svargeeya sharachchandr rai ka mat hai ki Bihar mein ye pehle shaahaabaad jile ke son aur karmanaasha nadiyon ke beech ke bhaag mein rahate the. yeh kshetr 'kurukh desh' ke naam se jaana jaata tha. kurukh shabd sambhavat: kisi mool Dravid shabd ka bigda hua roop hai. rai ka anumaan hai ki is mool shabd ka arth 'manushya' raha hoga.

is samooh ki arthavyavastha moolat: krushi par avalanbit hai. aakhet dvaara bhi ve anshat: apni jeevika arjit karte hain. jaal aur fandon dvaara ve jangali jaanavar aur machhaliyaaain pakadte hain.

uraaainv anek gotron mein vibhaajit hain. gotr ke bheetar vaivaahik sambandh nishiddh hote hain. pratyek gotr ka apna vishisht gotrachihn hota hai. rai ke anusandhaanon dvaara 68 gotron ki soochi praat hui hai. inmein se 16 ke gotrachihn jangali jaanvaron par, 12 ke pakshiyon par, 14 ke machhaliyon tatha anya jalacharon par, 19 ke vanaspatiyon par, 2 ke khanijon par, 2 ke sthaaneeya naamon par tathaa1 ka sarpo par aadhaarit hai. shesh do vibhaajit gotr hain. pratyek gotr apne aapko ek vishisht poorvaj ki santaan maanata hai, yadyapi gotrachihn ko hi poorvaj maanane ka vishvaas unamein naheen paaya jaata. gotrachihn ke sambandh mein unka vishvaas hai ki unke poorvajon ko usase praacheen kaal mein koi na koi avismaraneeya sahaayata mili thi jiske kaaran samooh ke ek khand ka naam usase avibhaajya roop se sambaddh ho gaya. pratyek gotr apne gotrachihnavaale praani, vruksh athva padaarth ka kisi bhi tarah upayog naheen karta. use kisi bhi prakaar haani pahuainchaana bhi unke saamaajik niyamon dvaara varjit hai. yadi unka gotrachihn koi praani ya pakshi hai to ve na to usaka shikaar kareinge aur na usaka maans khaaeainge. isi tarah yadi unka gotrachihn koi vruksh hai to ve usaki chhaaya mein bhi naheen jaayeinge.

uraaainv samaaj mein sambandh vyavastha vargeekrut sanjnyaaavyavastha par aadhaarit hoti hai. vivaah sada gotr ke baahar hote hain. teen peedhiyon tak ke katipya raktasanbandhiyon aur vaivaahik sanbandhiyon mein bhi vivaah ka nishedh hota hai.

pratyek uraaainv gram ki apni svatantr niyantran vyavastha hoti hai. saamaajik niyamon ke ullanghan par vichaar gaaainv ke panch karte hain. gaaainv ke 'mahato' aur 'paahan' is kaarya mein unka nirdesh karte hain. panchon ki baithak bahudha gaaainv ke akhaade mein hoti hai. raajya-shaasan-vyavastha ka vistaar ab aadivaasi kshetron mein ho chuka hai, isliye panchon ki paramparaagat shakti bahut anshon mein ksheen ho gayi hai. ve ab jaateeya paranparaaon ke ullanghan par hi vichaar kar sakte hain.

uraaainv logon ka antar-gram-sangathan bhi ullekhaneeya hai. kai samavarti gram 'paraha' ke roop mein sangathit hote hain. unke keindreeya sangathan ka naam 'paraha panch' hota hai. paraha ka sabse mahatvapoorn gaaainv raaja-gaaainv maana jaata hai. teen anya mahatvapoorn gaaainv apne mahatva ke anusaar kramash: deevaan gaaainv, paanare gaaainv (lipik gram) aur kotavaar gram maane jaate hain. shesh sab prajaagaaainv maane jaate hain. paraha sangathan apne sab sadasya graamon ki suraksha ka prabandh karta hai. maanaveeya tatha amaanaveeya praakrutik tatha daivee–pratyek prakaar ki shaktiyon se graamasamooh ko bachaana is sangathan ka mukhya kaarya hota hai. paraha sangathan ki or se saamoohik shikaar, nrutya, bhoj ityaadi ka bhi aayojan kiya jaata hai. ve mele aur jaatraaon ka bhi prabandh karte hain. jaateeya ladaaiyon mein paraha ke sadasya ek doosare ki sahaayata karte hain.

'dhoomakudiya' uraaainv ki ek vishisht sanstha thi. yeh ek prakaar ka yuvaagruh hota hai jiska prachalan Bhaarat tatha sansaar ke katipya anya aadivaasi samoohon mein vaas aur sangathan ke mahatvapoorn bhedon ke saath paaya jaata hai. uraaainv samaaj mein ladkon aur ladkiyon ki alag-alag dhoomakudiya hoti hai yadyapi ve ek doosare ke paas aa ja sakane ke liye svatantr rahate hain. kaha jaata hai, pehle tarun taruniyon ko in gruhon mein yaun sambandhon ki svatantrata rahati thi. is disha mein unka keval gotraniymon bhar ka paalan karna aavashyak maana jaata tha. samavarti jaatiyon ki aalochna ke kaaran is sanstha ka hraas hota ja raha hai. usaki sankhya kam ho gayi hai. jahaaain vah aaj bhi pai jaati hai vahaaain uske aantarik sangathan mein anek moolabhoot parivartan ho gaye hain. tarun-taruniyon ki svatantrata kai anshon mein seemit ho gayi hai.

uraaainv samaaj mein badi teevr gati se parivartan ho rahe hain. isaai dharm ke prachaar se unki sanskruti mein parivartan hua hai. aajeevika ke liye anek uraaainv khanij udyog tatha ispaat udyog ki or bhi agrasar hue hain. nai raajaneetik chetna ne bhi unhein sangathan ki ek nai disha di hai.

sandarbh granth

  • sharachchandr rai: di oraaainv;
  • dheereindranaath majoomadaar : resej aind kalchars ov idiya.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain