upayogitaavaad

upayogitaavaad (Utilitarianism) ek aachaar siddhaant hai jiski ekaantik maanyata hai ki aacharan (action) ekamaatr tabhi naitik hai jab vah adhiktam vyaktiyon ke adhiktam sukh ki abhivruddhi karta hai. raajaneetik tatha anya kshetron mein iska sambandh mukhyat: beintham (1748-1832) tatha jaan stuart mil (1806-73) se raha hai. parantu iska itihaas aur praacheen hai, hyoom jaise daarshanikon ke vichaaron se prabhaavit, jo udaarata ko hi sabse mahaan gun maanate the tatha vyaktivishesh ke vyavahaar se doosaron ke sukh mein vruddhi hi udaarata ka maapdand samajhte the.

upayogitaavaad ke sambandh mein praaya: kuchh aspasht ochhi dhaaranaaeain hain. iske aalochakon ka kehna hai ki yeh siddhaant, sundarata, shaaleenata evam vishishtata ki upeksha kar keval upayogita ko mahatva deta hai. poorvapaksh ka ispar yeh aarop hai ki yeh keval laukik svaarth ko mahatva deta hai. kintu aisi aalochna sarvatha samuchit naheen kahi ja sakti.

parichay

upayogitaavaad anek saapeksh vichaaron ko mahatva deta hai. jaise, aanand hi sabse vaanchhaneeya vastu hai aur yeh jitna adhik ho utana hi shreyaskar hai. iska ek bhraamak nishkarsh yeh hai ki du:kh hi sabse avaanchhaneeya vastu hai aur yeh jitna kam bhogana pade utana hi achha hai. isse yeh nirdisht hai ki naitik abhikrta ka kisi bhi paristhiti mein aisa hi aacharan sadaachaar maana jaaega jo svechhaya kiya gaya ho, jo sambandhit logon ke liye mahattam sukh ki srushti karta ho athva kar sakane ki

sambhaavana rakhata ho aur jahaaain par du:kh avashyambhaavi hai vahaaain use yathaasanbhav kam-se-kam karne ka prayatn karta ho.

aise vichaaron mein nihit bhaavon ki vivechana ekapaksheeya naheen ho sakti, fir bhi aanand bhi tuchh tatha du:kh bhi mahaan ho sakta hai aur koi yeh siddh naheen kar sakta ki aanand nitya shreya tatha du:kh nitya heya hai. yeh bhi spasht hai ki "sukh" ki theek-theek paribhaasha karna, yadi asambhav naheen to, kathin avashya hai. jarman daarshanik neetshe ne ek baar prasiddh ghoshana ki ki "sukh kaun chaahata hai? keval angrej." adhikaansh bhaarateeya vichaaron mein jor niraashakti par hi diya gaya hai, jisse aanand ki maap kshanasthaayi evam sukh kuchh ni:saar prateet hota hai. vaastav mein upayotigtaavaad ka poornat: tarkasammat evam sthaayi anuyaayi hona kuchh saral naheen, fir bhi siddhaant tatha vyavahaar mein saamanjasya sthaapit karne ke prayatn ke kaaran aur jeevatatv ke liye svasth tatha naitik achhaai ka maarg nirdisht karanevaale aanand ko manushya ke svaabhaavik maargadarshan ke roop mein pratishthit karne ke kaaran upayogitaavaad kuchh aakarshan rakhata hai aur etadarth saamaanya bhi hai.

beintham ne likha hai, "prakruti ne manushya ko do prabhuon sukh evam du:kh, ke shaasan mein rakha hai. keval inheen ko you soochit karne ki shakti praapt hai ki hamein kya karna chaahiye tatha ham kya kareinge. inke sinhaasan ke ek or uchitaanuchit nirdhaaran ka maan baindha hai, doosari or kaarya kaaran ka chakr." koi bhi is kathan mein truti nikaal sakta hai. vastut: upayogitaavaadiyon ki sabse badi truti unki daarshanik pakad ki kamjori mein hi rahi hai. parantu unke dvaara vaastavik sudhaaron ko jo mahatva diya gaya, tatkaaleen paristhitiyon mein vah saamaajik chintan ke kshetr mein nissandeh naya kadam tha. dooradarshi tatha kushal vyavasthaapakon dvaara hi samaajakalyaan sampann ho sakta hai, aisi kalpana ki gayi. beintham ke shabdon mein, vyavasthaapak hi buddhi tatha vidhi (kaanoon) dvaara sukh roopi pat bun sakta hai.

beintham ne na keval England varan Europe ke anya deshon ke vichaaron ko bhi atyant prabhaavit kiya. jailon mein sudhaar mein, nyaayavyavahaar ko saral karne mein, amaanushik parinaamaheen dand vyavastha hataane mein, beintham se badi sahaayata praapt hui. jab use nishchaya ho gaya ki sansadeeya sudhaar ke bina vaidhaanik sudhaar asambhav hai tab vah us or aakarshit hua. upayogitaavaad ke aarthik uddeshyon ka niroopan, jo mukhyat: nirbandh vyaapaar par vaidhaanik niyantranon ki samaapti se sambandhit hai, rikaardon ke saahitya mein atyant sundar dhang se hua hai. siddhaant niroopan ki apeksha, jo upayogitaavaadiyon ka vishesh isht kabhi na raha, aajkal raajaneetik kaaryakramon ko adhik mahatva diya jaane laga hai. kintu is darshan ki sthaayi den naitikta tatha saamaajik angon ke kaarya mein pratyaksh sambandh ka siddhaant hai. (

baahari kadiyaaain