upasarg

sanskrut evam sanskrut se utpann bhaashaaon mein us avyaya ya shabd ko upasarg (prefix) kehte hain jo kuchh shabdon ke aarambh mein lagkar unke arthon ka vistaar karta athva unamein koi visheshata utpann karta hai. upasarg = upasruj (tyaag) + ghanya. jaise - a, anu, ap, vi, aadi upasarg hai.

anukram

upasarg aur unke arthabodh

sanskrut mein baais (22) upasarg hain. pr, para, ap, sam‌, anu, av, nis‌, nir‌, dus‌, dur‌, vi, aa (aaङ‌), ni, adhi, api, ati, su, ut /ud‌, abhi, prati, pari tatha up. inka arth is prakaar hai:

ati - excessive, surpassing, over, beyond

adhi - above, additional, upon

anu - after, behind, along, near, with, orderly

ap - away, off, back, down, negation, bad, wrong

api - placing over, uniting, proximity, in addition to

abhi - intensive, over, towards, on, upon

av - down, off, away

aa - towards, near, opposite, limit, diminutive

ut, ud - up, upwards, off, away, out, out of, over

up - near, inferior, subordinate, towards, under, on

dus, dur, du: - bad, hard, difficult, inferior

ni - negation, in, into, down, back

nis, nir, ni: - negative, out, away, forth, intensive

para - away, off, aside

pari - round, about, fully

pr - forth, on, onwards, away, forward, very, excessive, great

prati - towards, in opposition to, against, upon, in return,back, likeness, every

vi - without, apart, away, opposite, intensive, different

sam - with, together, completely

su - good, well, easy

udaaharan
  • ati - (aadhikya) atishya, atirek;
  • adhi - (mukhya) adhipti, adhyaksh
  • adhi - (var) adhyayan, adhyaapan
  • anu - (maagun) anukram, anutaap, anuj;
  • anu - (pramaanein) anukaran, anumodan.
  • ap - (khaaleen yenein) apakarsh, apamaan;
  • ap - (viruddh honein) apakaar, apajaya.
  • api - (aavaran) apidhaan = achhaadan
  • abhi - (adhik) abhinandan, abhilaap
  • abhi - (javal) abhimukh, abhinay
  • abhi - (pudhein) abhyutthaan, abhyudaya.
  • av - (khaaleen) avaganana, avataran;
  • av - (abhaav, virooddhata) avakrupa, avagun.
  • aa - (paasoon, paryant) aakanth, aajanm;
  • aa - (kincheet) aarakt;
  • aa - (ulat) aagaman, aadaan;
  • aa - (paleekade) aakraman, aakalan.
  • ut - (var) utkarsh, utteern, udbhijj
  • up - (javal) upaadhyaksh, upadisha;
  • up - (gaun) upagrah, upaved, upanetr
  • dur, dus - (vaait) duraasha, durukti, dushchinh, dushkrutya.
  • ni - (atyant) nimgn, nibandh
  • ni - (nakaar) nikaami, nijor.
  • nir - (abhaav) niranjan, niraasha
  • nis (abhaav) nishfal, nishchal, ni:shesh.
  • para - (ulat) paraajaya, paraabhav
  • pari - (poorn) paripaak, paripoorn (vyaapt), parimit, parishram, parivaar
  • pr - (aadhikya) prakop, prabal, prapita
  • prati - (ulat) pratikool, pratichhaaya,
  • prati - (ekek) pratidin, prativrsh, pratyek
  • vi - (vishesh) vikhyaat, vinanti, vivaad
  • vi - (abhaav) vifal, vidhva, visangati
  • sam - (chaangale) sanskrut, sanskaar, sangeet,
  • sam - (barobar) sanyam, sanyog, sankeern.
  • su - (chaangale) subhaashit, sukrut, sugraas;
  • su - (sopein) sugam, sukar, svalp;
  • su - (adhik) subodhit, sushikshit.

kuchh shabdon ke poorv ek se adhik upasarg bhi lag sakte hain.

udaaharan

  • prati + ap + vaad = pratyapavaad
  • sam + aa + lochan = samaalochan
  • vi + aa + karan = vyaakaran

atyutkrusht, nirvikaar, susangati ityaadi

urdoo upasarg

upasarg - arth - shabdaroop

al - nishrchit, antim - alvida, alabatta

kam - heen, thoda, alp - kamasin, kamaakl, kamzor

khush - shreshthata ke arth mein - khushboo, khushanaseeb, khushkismat, khushadil, khushahaal, khushamijaaj

gair - nishedh - gairahaajir gairakaanooni gairavaajib gairamumakin gairasarakaari gairamunaasib

dar - madhya mein - daramyaan daraasal darahakeekat

na - abhaav - naamumkin naamuraad naakaamayaab naapasand naasamajh naalaayak naacheej naapaak naakaam

fi - prati - feesadi feeaadami

b - se, ke, mein, anusaar - banaam badastoor bamushkil batakalluf

bad - bura - badnaam badmaash badakismat badaboo badahajmi badadimaag badamaja badahavaas badaduaa badaneeyat badakaar

bar - par, oopar, baahar - barkaraar baravakt baraaks barajamaan kanthasth

ba - sahit - baakaayada baakalam baaijjat baainsaaf baamulaahija

bila - bina - bilaavajh bilaalihaaj bilaashak bilaanaaga

be - bina - bebuniyaad beimaan bevakt beraham betarah beijjat beakl bekasoor bemaani beshak

la - bina, naheen - laapata laajabaab laavaaris laaparavaah laailaaj laamaani laailm laajvaal

sar - mukhya - sarhad sarataaj sarkaar saragana

upasarg ke anya arth

  • bura lakshan ya apashagun
  • vah padaarth jo koi padaarth banaate samay beech mein sanyogavash ban jaata ya nikal aata hai (baai praadakt). jaise-gud banaate samay jo sheera niklata hai, vah gud ka upasarg hai.
  • kisi prakaar ka utpaat, upadrav ya vighn

yogiyon ki yogasaadhana ke beech honevaale vighn ko upasarg kehte hain. ye paaainch prakaar ke bataae gaye hain : (1) pratibh, (2) shraavan, (3) daiv, (4). muniyon par honevaale ukt upasargon ke vistrut vivran milte hain. jain saahitya mein vishesh roop se inka ullekh rahata hai kyonki jain dharm ke anusaar saadhana karte samay upasargo ka hona anivaarya hai aur keval ve hi vyakti apni saadhana mein safal ho sakte hain jo ukt sabhi upasargon ko avichlit rahakar jhel lein. hindu dharmakathaaon mein bhi saadhana karanevaale vyaktiyon ko anek vighnabaadhaaon ka saamana karna padta hai kintu vahaaain unhein upasarg ki sanjnyaa yadaakada hi gayi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain