upanyaas

upanyaas gadya lekhan ki ek vidha hai.

anukram

parichay

arnest A. bekar ne upanyaas ki paribhaasha dete hue use gadyabaddh kathaanak ke maadhyam dvaara jeevan tatha samaaj ki vyaakhya ka sarvottam saadhan bataaya hai. yon to vishvasaahitya ka praarambh hi sambhavat: kahaaniyon se hua aur ve mahaakaavyon ke yug se aaj tak ke saahitya ka merudand rahi hain, fir bhi upanyaas ko aadhunik yug ki den kehna adhik sameecheen hoga. saahitya mein gadya ka prayog jeevan ke yathaarth chitran ka dyotak hai. saadhaaran bolachaal ki bhaasha dvaara lekhak ke liye apne paatron, unki samasyaaon tatha unke jeevan ki vyaapak prushthabhoomi se pratyaksh sambandh sthaapit karna aasaan ho gaya hai. jahaaain mahaakaavyon mein krutrimta tatha aadarshonmukh pravrutti ki spasht jhalak dekhne ko milti hai, aadhunik upanyaasakaar jeevan ki vishrunkhalataaon ka nagn chitran prastut karne mein hi apni kala ki saarthakata dekhta hai.

yathaarth ke prati aagrah ka ek anya parinaam yeh hua ki katha saahitya ke apaurusheya tatha alaukik tatv, jo praacheen mahaakaavyon ke vishisht ang the, poornataya lupt ho gaye. kathaakaar ki kalpana ab seemaabaddh ho gayi. yathaarth ki paridhi ke baahar jaakar manachaahi udaan lena uske liye praaya: asambhav ho gaya. upanyaas ka aavirbhaav aur vikaas vaigyaanik pragati ke saath hua. ek or jahaaain vigyaan ne vyakti tatha samaaj ko saamanya dharaatal se dekhne tatha chitrit karne ki prarena di vaheen doosari or usane jeevan ki samasayaaon ke prati ek nae drushtikon ka bhi sanket kiya. yeh drushtikon mukhyat: bauddhik tha. upanyaasakaar ke oopar kuchh nae uttaradaayitv aa gaye the. ab usaki saadhana kala ki samasyaaon tak hi seemit na rahakar vyaapak saamaajik jaagrukta ki apeksha rakhati thi. vastut: aadhunik upanyaas saamaajik chetna ke kramik vikaas ki kalaatmak abhivyakti hai. jeevan ka jitna vyaapak evam sarvaangeen chitr upanyaas mein milta hai utana saahitya ke anya kisi bhi roop mein upalabdh naheen.

saamaajik jeevan ki vishd vyaakhya prastut karne ke saath hi saath aadhunik upanyaas vaiyaktik charitra ke sookshm adhyayan ki bhi suvidha pradaan karta hai. vaastav mein upanyaas ki utpatti ki kahaani Europeeya punarutthaan (renaisaaain) ke falasvaroop arjit vyaktisvaatantraya ke saath lagi hui hai. itihaas ke is mahatvapoorn daur ke uparaant maanav ko, jo ab tak samaaj ki ikaai ke roop mein hi dekha jaata tha, vaiyaktik pratashtha mili. saamantavaadi yug ke saamaajik bandhan dheele pade aur maanav vyaktitv ke vikaas ke liye unmukt vaataavaran mila. yathaarthonmukh pravruttiyon ne maanav charitra ke adhyayan ke liye bhi ek naya drushtikon diya. ab tak ke saahitya mein maanav charitra ke saral vargeekaran ki parampara chali aa rahi hai. paatr ya to poornataya bhale hote the ya ekdam gaye gujre. achhaaiyon aur trutiyon ka sammishran, jaisa vaastavik jeevan mein sarvatr dekhne ko milta hai, us samay ke kathaakaaron ki kalpana ke pare ki baat thi. upanyaas mein pehli baar maanav charitra ke yathaarth, vishd evam gahan adhyayan ki sambhaavana dekhne ko mili.

angreji ke mahaan‌ upanyaasakaar henari feelding ne apni rachanaaon ko gadya ke likhe gaye vyangyaatmak mahaakaavya ki sanjnyaa di. unhonne upanyaas ki itihaas se tulana karte hue use apekshaakrut adhik mahatvapoorn kaha. jahaaain itihaas kuchh vishisht vyaktiyon evam mahatvapoorn ghatnaaon tak hi seemit rahata hai, upanyaas pradarshit jeevan ke satya, shaashvat aur sanrvadesheeya mahatva rakhate hain. saahitya mein aaj upanyaas ka vastut: vahi sthaan hai jo praacheen yug mein mahaakaavyon ka tha. vyaapak saamaajik chitran ki drushti se donon mein paryaapt saamya hai. lekin jahaaain mahaakaavyon mein jeevan tatha vyaktiyon ka aadarshavaadi chitr milta hai, upanyaas, jaisa feelding ki paribhaasha se spasht hai, samaaj ki aalochanaatmak vyaakhya prastut karta hai. upanyaasakaar ke liye kahaani saadhan maatr hai, saadhya naheen. usaka dhyeya paathakon ka manoranjan maatr bhi naheen. vah sachche arth mein apne yug ka itihaasakaar hai jo satya aur kalpana donon ka sahaara lekar vyaapak saamaajik jeevan ki jhaaainki prastut karta hai.

upanyaasika

upanyaas ke samaanaantar idhar upanyaasika naamak naveen gadya vidha ka sootrapaat hua hai jise laghu upanyaas bhi kaha jaata hai. upanyaasika apni sanghatana ki drushti se upanyaas ke nikat hone par bhi kalaver tatha aakaar ke chalte kahaani ke adhik nikat hoti hai. ismein na to kahani jaisi ekasootrata, saghan bunaavat aur prabhaavaanviti hoti hai aur na hi upanyaas jaisa failaav tatha niroopan vaividhya. dekha jaae to upanyaasika upanyaas aur kahaani ke beech ki vidha hai.

pratham upanyaas

baanabhatt ki kaadambari ko vishv ka pratham upanyaas maana ja sakta hai. kuchh log Japani bhaasha mein 1007 E. mein likha gaya “ajenji ki kahaani” naamak upanyaas ko duniya ka sabse pehla upanyaas maanate hain. ise muraasaaki shikibu naamak ek mahila ne likha tha. ismein 54 adhyaaya aur kareeb 1000 prushth hain. ismein prem aur vivek ki khoj mein nikle ek Rajkumar ki kahaani hai.

Europe ka pratham upanyaas servaintis ka “adon kviksota” maana jaata hai jo speni bhaasha ka upanyaas hai. ise 1605 mein likha gaya tha.

angreji ka pratham upanyaas hone ke daavedaar kai hain. bahut se vidvaan 1678 mein jon bunyaan dvaara likhe gaye “the pilgrims progresa” ko pehla angreji upanyaas maanate hain.

bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein upanyaas

hindi ka pratham upanyaas

aachaarya raamachandr shukl ke anusaar pareeksha guru hindi ka pratham upanyaas hai. iske lekhaklaala shreenivaas das hain. 'devaraani jethaani ki kahaani' (lekhak - pandit gaureedatt ; san 1870). shraddhaaraam fillauri ki bhaagyavati ko bhi hindi ke pratham upanyaas hone ka shreya diya jaata hai.

malayalam

indulekha - rachanaakaal, 1889, lekhak chandu menon

tamil

prataap mudaliyaar - rachanaakaal 1879, lekhak, mayooram vedanaayagam pillai

bangaali

durgeshanandini - rachanaakaal, 1865, lekhak, bankim chandra chatarji

maraathi

yamuna paryatan - rachanaakaal, 1857, lekhak, Baba padmaji.

ise bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein likha gaya pratham upanyaas maana jaata hai.

is tarah ham dekh sakte hain ki Bhaarat ki lagbhag sabhi bhaashaaon mein upanyaas vidha ka udbhav lagbhag ek hi samay das-bees varshon ke antaraal mein hua.

sandarbh granth

  • E.M. forstar : aispekts ov the naavel;
  • raalf fauks : di naavel ainu the peepul;
  • pasi kuvatak : the kraift ov fikshan;
  • edavin myor : the strakchar ov the naavel

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain