upaniveshavaad

upaniveshavaad ke viruddh sangharsh ke mahaan yoddha mahaatma gaaaindhi

kisi ek bhaugolik kshetr ke logon dvaara kisi doosare bhaugolik kshetr mein upanivesh (colony) sthaapit karna aur yeh maanyata rakhana ki yeh ek achha kaam hai, upaniveshavaad (Colonialism) kahalaata hai.

itihaas mein praaya: pandrahaveen shataabdi se lekar beesaveen shataabdi tak upaniveshavaad ka kaal raha. is kaal mein yurop ke logon ne vishv ke vibhinn bhaagon mein upanivesh banaaye. is kaal mein upaniveshavaad mein vishvaas ke mukhya kaaran the -

  • laabh kamaane ki laalasa
  • maatrudesh ki shakti badhaana
  • maatrudesh mein saja se bachana
  • sthaaneeya logon ka dharm badalavaakar unhein upaniveshi ke dharm mein shaamil karna

kuchh upaniveshi yeh bhi sochate the ki sthaaneeya logon ko isaai banaakar tatha unhein "sabhyata" ka darshan karaakar ve unki sahaayata kar rahe hain. kintu vaastavikta mein upaniveshavaad ka arth tha - aadhiptya (subjugation), visthaapan evam mrutyu.

upanivesh, maatrudesh ke saamraajya ka bhaag hota tha; at: upaniveshavaad ka saamraajyavaad se ghanisht sambandh hai.

anukram

parichay

upaniveshavaad ka aarambh

1453 E. mein turkon dvaara kustunatuniya par adhikaar kar lene ke pashchaat sthal maarg se Europe ka eshiyaayi deshon ke saath vyaapaar band ho gaya. at: apne vyaapaar ko nirbaadh roop se chalaane hetu naye samudri maargaan ki khoj praarambh hui. kutubanuma, gatimaapak yantr, vedh yantron ki sahaayata se kolambas, maigalan evam vaaskodigaama aadi saahasi naavikon ne naveen samudri maargaan ke saath-saath kuchh naveen deshon America aadi ko khoj nikaala. in bhaugolik khojon ke falasvaroop Europeeya vyaapaar mein abhootapoorv vruddhi hui. dhan ki bahulata evam svatantr raajyon ke udaya ne udyogon ko badhaava diya. kai naveen udyog sthaapit hue. Spain ko America roopi ek aisi dhan ki kunji mili ki vah samruddhi ke charamotkarsh par pahuainch gaya. isaai-dharm-prachaarak bhi dharm prachaar hetu naye khoje hue deshon mein jaane lage. is prakaar apne vyaapaarik hiton ko saadhane evam dharm prachaar aadi ke liye Europeeya desh upaniveshon ki sthaapana ki or agrasar hue aur is prakaar Europe mein upanivesh ka aarambh hua.

upaniveshavaad ka arth

upaniveshavaad ka arth hai - kisi samruddh evam shaktishaali raashtra dvaara apne vibhinn hiton ko saadhane ke liye kisi nirbal kintu praakrutik sansaadhanon se paripoorn raashtra ke vibhinn sansaadhanon ka shakti ke bal par upabhog karna. upaniveshavaad mein upanivesh ki janta ek videshi raashtra dvaara shaasit hoti hai, use shaasan mein koi raajaneetik adhikaar naheen hota. aargansaki ke anusaar,

''ve sabhi kshetr upaniveshon ke tahat aate hain jo videshi satta dvaara shaasit hain evam jinke nivaasiyon ko poore raajaneetik adhikaar praapt naheen hain.''

vastut: ham kisi shaktishaali raashtra dvaara nihit svaarthavash kisi nirbal raashtra ke shoshan ko upaniveshavaad kah sakte hain.

laitin bhaasha ke shabd 'koloniya' ka matlab hai ek aisi jaayadaad jise yojanaabaddh dhang se videshiyon ke beech kaayam kiya gaya ho. bhoomadhyasaagareeya kshetr aur madhyayugeen yurop mein is tarah ka upanivesheekaran ek aam parightana thi. iska udaaharan madhyayug aur aadhunik yug ki shuruaati avadhi mein inglaind ki hukoomat dvaara vels aur aayaralaind ko upanivesh banaane ke roop mein diya jaata hai. lekin, jis aadhunik upaniveshavaad ki yahaaain charcha ki ja rahi hai usaka matlab hai yuropeeya aur ameriki taakaton dvaara gair-pashchimi sanskrutiyon aur raashtron par jbaran kabja karke vahaaain ke raaj-kaaj, prashaasan, paryaavaran, paaristhitiki, bhaasha, dharm, vyavastha aur jeevan-shaili par apne vijaateeya moolyon aur sanrachanaaon ko thopane ki deerghakaaleen prakriya. is tarah ke upaniveshavaad ka ek srot kolambas aur vaaskodigaama ki yaatraaon ko bhi maana jaata hai. upaniveshavaad ke itihaasakaaron ne pandrahaveen sadi yuropeeya shaktiyon dvaara kiye saamraajyavaadi vistaar ki parightana ke vikaas ki shinaakht atthaarahaveen aur unneesaveen sadi mein upaniveshavaad ke roop mein ki hai. audyogik kraanti se paida hue haalaat ne upaniveshavaadi dohan ko apne charam par pahuainchaaya. yeh silsila beesaveen sadi ke madhya tak chala jab vi-upanivesheekaran ki prakriya ke tahat raashtreeya mukti sangraamon aur kraantiyon ki lahar ne iska ant kar diya. is parightana ki vaichaarik jadein vanikvaadi pooainjeevaad ke vistaar aur uske saath-saath viksit hui udaarataavaadi vyaktivaad ki vichaaradhaara mein dekhi ja sakti hain. kisi doosari dharati ko apna upanivesh bana lene aur svaamitv ke bhookhe vyaktivaad mein ek hi tarah ki mool pravruttiyaaain nihit hoti hain. naslavaad, yurokeindreeyata aur videshi-dvesh jaisi vikrutiyaaain upaniveshavaad ki hi den hain.

kaun desh kisase mukt hua

upaniveshavaad saamraajyavaad hote hue bhi kaafi-kuchh parasparavyaapi aur paraspar-nirbhar pad hain. saamraajyavaad ke liye zaroori naheen hai ki kisi desh par kabja kiya jaae aur vahaaain kabja karne vaale apne logon ko bhej kar apna prashaasan kaayam karein. iske bina bhi saamraajyavaadi kendra ke prati adheenasthata ke sambandh kaayam kiye ja sakte hain. par, upaniveshavaad ke liye zaroori hai ki vijit desh mein apni colony basaayi jaae, aakraamak ki vijiton bahusankhya pratyaksh ke jriye khud ko shreshth maanate hue apne kaanoon aur faisale aaropit karein. aisa karne ke liye saamraajyavaadi vistaar ko ek khaas vichaaradhaara ka tark haasil karna aavashyak tha. yeh bhoomika satrahaveen sadi mein pratipaadit John lauk ke darshan ne nibhaayi. lauk ki sthaapanaaon mein Britain dvaara bheje gaye adhivaasiyon dvaara America ki dharati par kabja kar lene ki kaarravaai ko nyaayasangat thaharaane ki daleelein maujood theen. unki rachana 'too treetaaij on civil gavarnameint' (1690) ki doosari theesis 'prakrut avastha' mein vyakti dvaara apne adhikaaron ki daavedaari ke baare mein hai. ve aisi jagahon par naagrik shaasan sthaapit karne aur vyaktigat prayaas dvaara hathiyaayi gayi sampada ko apne laabh ke liye viksit karne ko jaayaj karaar dete hain. yahi theesis aage chal kar dharati ke asamaan svaamitv ko uchit maanane ka aadhaar bani. lauk ki maanyata thi ki America mein anaap-shanaap jameen bekaar padi hui hai aur vahaaain ke moolavaasi yaani indiyn is dharati ka sadupayog karne ki yogyata se vanchit hain. lauk ne hisaab lagaaya ki yurop ki ek ekad jameen agar apne svaami ko paaainch shiling prati varsh ka munaafa deti hai, to uske mukaabale ameriki ki jameen se us par base indiyn ko hone wala kul munaafa ek peni se bhi bahut kam hai. chooainki ameriki indiyn baaki maanavata mein prachalit dhan-aadhaarit vinimay-pranaali apnaane mein naakaam rahe hain, isliye 'sampatti ke adhikaar' ke mutaabik unki dharati ko adhigraheet karke us par maanaveeya shram ka nivesh kiya jaana chaahiye. lauk ki isi theesis mein Asiaee aur ameriki mahaadveep ki sabhyata aur sanskruti par yuropeeya shreshthata ki granthi ke beej the jiske aadhaar par aage chal kar upaniveshavaadi sanrachanaaon ka sheeraaja khada kiya gaya.

upaniveshon mukhyat: do kismein theen. ek taraf America, Australia aur nyoojeelaind jaise the jinki jalavaayu yuropiynon ke liye suvidhaajanak thi. in ilaakon mein safed chamadi ke log bahut bade paimaane par basaaye gaye. unhonne vahaaain ki sthaaneeya aabaadi ke sanhaar aur daman ki bheeshan pariyojanaaeain chala kar vahaaain na keval poori tarah apna kabja jama liya, balki ve desh unke apne 'svadesh' mein badal gaye. jan-sanhaar se bach gayi deshaj janta ko unhonne alag-thalag pade ilaakon mein dhakel diya. doosari taraf ve upanivesh the jinka hava-paani yuropeeyanon ke liye pratikool tha (jaise Bhaarat aur Nigeria). in deshon par kabja karne ke baad yuropiyn thodi sankhya mein hi vahaaain base aur mukhyat: aarthik shoshan aur dohan ke liye un dharatiyon ka istemaal kiya. new inglaind sareekhe thode-bahut aise upanivesh bhi the jinki sthaapana yuropeeya isaaiyon ne dhaarmik aajaadi ki khoj mein ki.

upaniveshon ki sthaapana ke kaaran

vyaapaarik kraanti mein bhaugolik khojon ne mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. in bhaugolik khojon ke saath hi upaniveshavaad ka aarambh hua. Spain, Portugal, dach, France evam inglaind aadi Europeeya deshon ne sudoor deshon mein upanivesh sthaapit kiye. Europe mein upaniveshavaad ke aarambh ke nimnalikhit kaaran the -

tripl G neeti

bhaugolik khojon ke falasvaroop kolambas dvaara America ki khoj ne Europeeya deshon mein svarn jaisi bahumoolya dhaatu ke sangrah ki pratisparddha aarambh ki. svarn-sangrah ki pratisparddha ki sthiti yeh thi ki samast Europe mein 'adhik svarn, adhik samruddhi, adhik keerti' ka naara buland hua. ab samast Europeeya raashtron ka pramukh dhyaan sona, keerti evam ishvar arthaat Gold, Glory and God par kendrit ho gaya. upaniveshon ki sthaapana se Europeeya deshon ko sona bhi mila, keerti bhi faili evam dharm ka prachaar bhi hua. at: tripl G neeti ni:sandeh upaniveshon ki sthaapana ka ek kaaran avashya thi.

kachche maal ki praapti

vyaapaarik samruddhi ke falasvaroop Europeeya deshon mein kai udyogon ki sthaapana hui. Europe mein in udyogon ke liye aavashyak kachche maal ki kami thi. at: Europeeya deshon ne kachche maal ki praapti hetu praakrutik sansaadhanon evam afreeki evam eshiyaayi deshon mein upaniveshon ki sthaapana ki.

nirmit maal ki khapat

udyogon ki sthaapana evam kachche maal ki upalabdhata se audyogik utpaadan teevr gati se badha. chooainki is samay sabhi Europeeya desh aarthik sanrakshan ki neeti par chal rahe the. at: is nirmit maal ko khapaane ke liye bhi upaniveshon ki sthaapana ki gayi.

janasankhya mein vruddhi

Europe ke vibhinn deshon mein audyogeekaran ke parinaamasvaroop nagaron ki janasankhya mein atyaadhik vruddhi hui. kaalaantar mein atishesh janasankhya ko basaane ke liye bhi upaniveshon ki sthaapana ko bal mila.

pratikool jalavaayu

yooropavaasiyon ko vyaapaarik pragati evam naveen deshon se sampark ke falasvaroop kai naveen vastuon ka gyaan hua, aaloo, tanbaakoo, bhutta aadi ka gyaan unhein poorvi deshon ke saath sampark se hi hua. garm masaale, cheeni, kaufi, chaaval aadi ke bhi ab ve aadi ho gaye the. pratikool jalavaayu ke kaaran ye sabhi vastueain Europeeya deshon mein ugaana sambhav na tha. at: Europeeya visheshagya angrej chaahate the ki unhein aise pradesh praapt ho jaayein jahaaain inki kheti ki ja sake. at: anukool jalavaayu vaale sthaanon mein upanivesh sthaapana ki vichaaradhaara ko bal mila.

samruddhi ki laalasa

bhaugolik khojon ke parinaamasvaroop praarambhik upanivesh Portugal evam Spain ne sthaapit kiye. isse unki samruddhi mein vruddhi hui. at: inki samruddhi ko dekhte hue samruddhi ki laalasa mein anya Europeeya desh bhi upanivesh sthaapit karte hue agrasar hue.

upanivesheekaran ka itihaas

upaniveshavaad ki vyaakhya

upaniveshavaad ki maarksavaadi vyaakhyaaeain bhi yeh daava karti ki unneesaveen sadi ki ameriki aur yuropiyn audyogik pooainjeevaadi arthavyavasthaaon ke vikaas ke liye gair-pooainjeevaadi samaajon ka pratyaksh raajaneetik niyantran aavashyak tha. is lihaaj se maarksavaadi vidvaan pooainjeevaad ke ubhaar ke pehle aur baad ke upaniveshavaad ke beech frk karte hain. maarks ne apni Bhaarat sambandhi rachanaaon mein upaniveshavaad par khaas taur se vichaar kiya hai. maarks aur engels ka vichaar tha ki upaniveshon par niyantran karna na keval baajaaron aur kachche maal ke sroton ko hathiyaane ke liye zaroori tha, balki pratidvandvi audyogik deshon se hod mein aage nikalne ke liye bhi aavashyak tha. upaniveshavaad sambandhi maarksavaadi vichaaron ko aage viksit karne ka shreya roja lakjemabarg aur lenin ko jaata hai.

maarksavaadi pariprekshya ko aalochna ka bhi saamana karna pada hai. aalochakon ka kehna hai ki maarks, roja aur lenin ne apni theesis ke paksh mein jo pramaan pesh kiye hain ve paryaapt naheen hain, kyonki unase audyogik kraanti va pooainjeevaad ke vikaas ke liye upaniveshavaad ki anivaaryata saabit naheen hoti. doosare, maarksavaadi vishleshan ke paas upaniveshit samaajon ka paryaapt adhyayan aur samajh maujood naheen hai. maarks jis Asiaee utpaadan pranaali ki charcha karte hain aur roja jis ki shreniyon ko Asiaee samaajon par aaropit karti hain, unhein in samaajon ke itihaas ke gahan adhyayan ke aadhaar par bahut door tak naheen kheencha ja sakta.

sandarbh

1. erik (1987), the of 1875-1914, veedanafeeld aind niklsan, London.

2. William paumarauya American intaranaishanal pablishrs, New York.

3. John ji. Taylor (2000), 'koloniylijm', sankalit : Tom bautamor vagairah (sampa.), a dikshanari of maarksist thaut, maaya Blackwell, nayi Delhi.

4. mark fero (1997), kolonaaijeshan : a global history, rautalej, London.

5. yuragan (1997), koloniylijm, vaainar, prinsatan, enaje.

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