upanivesh

upanivesh (kaaloni) kisi raajya ke baahar ki us doorasth basti ko kehte hain jahaaain us raajya ki janta nivaas karti hai. kisi poorn prabhusatta sampann raajya (saavaren state) ke logon ke anya desh ki seema mein jaakar basane ke sthaan ke liye bhi is shabd ka prayog hota hai. is arth mein adhiktar Europeeya deshon ke "upanivesh" London mein sthit hain.

parantu saadhaaranat: adhik sankuchit arth mein hi is shabd ka prayog hota hai, visheshakar nimnalikhit dashaaon mein :

(k) ek raajya ke nivaasiyon ki apne raajya ko bhaugolik seemaaon ke baahar anya sthaan par basi basti ko tab tak upanivesh kehte hain, jab tak vah sthaan us raajya ke hi prashaasakeeya kshetr mein aata ho, athva

(kh) koi svatantr raashtra, jo kisi anya (pradhaan) raashtra ki raashtreeyata, prashaasan, tatha aarthik ekta se ghanisht sambandh rakhata ho. udaaharanaarth, pratham shreni ke antargat tyootanik upanivesh hain jo baaltik praanton mein sthit hain tatha isi prakaar ke upanivesh baalakan praayadveep mein bhi hain. doosari shreni ke upanivesh-aur yahi adhik prachalit prayog hai-Africa athva Australia mein angrejon ke hain.

सन १९४५ में उपनिवेश

anukram

upanivesh banaane athva basaane ki pravrutti tatha dhang

upanivesh banaane athva basaane ki pravrutti tatha dhang anek prakaar ke hain, jaise, raajya ki seema badhaane ka lobh, vyaapaar badhaane ki ichhaaeain, dhanavruddhi ka lobh, dushkar kaarya karne ki pravrutti, badhti hui janansakhya ke bhaar ko kam karne ki ichha, raajaneetik padalolupata, vivshata, vidrohiyon ko desh se door rakhane pradhaanat: saanghaatik evam bheeshan aparaadhiyon ko desh se nishkaasit karne ki aavashyakta aadi mukhya kaaran hi upaniveshavaad ko protsaahan dete rahe hain. saadhaaran roop mein yeh ek pravaasi pravrutti ka hi viksit roop hai tatha upanivesh ko ek prakaar se pravaasiyon ka sthaayi tatha vyavasthit roop kaha ja sakta hai.


itihaas

upaniveshon ki sthaapana ne vibhinn samayon evam kshetron mein vibhinn roop dhaaran kiye hain. fineeshiyaaiyon dvaara bhoomadhyasaagar ke tatavarti bhaagon mein sthaapit upanivesh apni maatrubhooti ke vyaapaarakeindron ke roop mein kaarya karte the. vibhinn greek samudaayon ko upanivesh ki sthaapana karne ke liye aarthik samasyaaon ne baadhya kiya jo ab, Athens ke upananiveshon ko chhodkar, maatrubhoomi se svatantr the. rom ne saamraajyaraksha ke liye apne naagrikon ke chhote-chhote upaniveshon ki sthaapana vijit videshiyon ke beech ki thi. dakshin poorvi Asia ke bhoobhaag bhaarateeya bastiyon se bhare pade the, kintu hindeshiya S kshetr, jo kisi samay bruhad Bhaarat ke ang the, maatrubhoomi svatantr the.

14veen shataabdi tatha uske anantar Europe Asia se aage badh gaya tatha vaanijya evam anveshan dvaara atalaantik, hind aur prashaant mahaasaagaron ke aar paar usane apna adhikaar badha liya. 16veen shataabdi mein madhya tatha dakshin amareeka mein Spain ke saamraajya ki sthaapana hui. Portugal ne Brazil, Bhaarat ke pashchimi samudratat tatha masaalonvaale poorvi dveepasamoohon mein apna adda jamaaya. inheen ka anukaran kar, France, England evam Holland ne uttari amareeka tatha pashchimi dveepasamooh mein upaniveshon ki tatha Africa ke samudratat par, Bhaarat tatha dakshin-poorvi Asia mein vyaapaarik keindron ki sthaapana ki. deenamaark tatha sveedan nivaasi bhi, in logon se peechhe naheen rahe. kintu mukhya aupaniveshik shaktiyaaain England, France tatha Holland ki hi siddh hui. in teenon ke saamraajya mein "soorya kabhi naheen ast hota tha" tatha Asia aur Africa, maanav sabhyata ke aadi desh, ke adhikaansh bhaagon par, inka adhikaar ho gaya.

audyogik kraanti tatha aarthik reetiyon ke naveenatam roopon ke dhooaindh nikaalne ke saath hi pashchim ke raashtron mein saamraajya ke liye chheena-jhapati chalti rahi. yeh ek lambi kahaani hai, jiska varnan yahaaain naheen kiya ja sakta. kintu isak gyaan aavashyak hai ki jahaaain kaheen bhi vistaar ki sambhaavana thi, pooainjeevaad apne nae saamraajyavaadi roop mein saamane aaya. isliye Germany, 19veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein, sansaar mein apne astitv ke liye bhoomi chaahata tha, arthaat doosare shabdon mein, upanivesh ki loot-khasot mein hissa baintaana chaahata tha. Italy ne bhi is daud mein bhaag liya. roos, saare uttari tatha madhya Asia mein failakar, Britain ko bhayabhat karne laga. sanyukt amareeka tak pratyaksh roop se, jaise fileepaains mein tatha anya bahut se kshetron par, apratchaksh roop se shaasan karne laga. Japan ne pashchimi saamraajyavaadiyon se shiksha praapt ki tatha pehle Korea fir sampoorn poorvi Asia par, apna aadhiptya sthaapit karna chaaha. mahaan desh Bhaarat, jo angrejon ke pratyaksh adhikaar mein tha, tatha cheen, jo naamamaatr ke liye svatantr kintu vastut: kai shaktiyon ki gulaami mein jakada hua tha, upanivesh pratha ke moort udahaaran hain. itihaas ke is roop ki anya visheshataaeain Africa ke bheetari bhaagon mein pravesh, laabhadaayak daasavyaapaar ki vibheeshika, usaki bhoomi ka baintavaara aur pratispardha, saamraajyavaadiyon dvaara uske saadhanon ka nirdaya shoshan aadi hai.

ismein koi sandeh naheen ki bhaugolik anusandhaan tatha upaniveshon ki sthaapana ke liye bahut se logon mein dussaahasik kaarya ke prati anuraag tatha iski kshamata aavashyak thi, kintu upaniveshasthaapan ke peechhe dussaahas hi pramukh shaktisrot ke roop mein naheen tha. vyaapaarik laabh sabse bada kaaran tha tatha raajyavistaar ke saath vyaapaar ka vistaar hone ke kaaran kshetreeya vijay aavashyak thi. bahudha doorasth upaniveshon ke liye Europe mein yuddh hote the. is tarah Holland ne Portugal ko dakshin poorvi Asia ke poorvi dveepasamooh se nikaal baahar kiya. England ne kainaada, Bhaarat tatha anya sthaanon se France ko nikaal baahar kiya. jarman yuddhavisheshajnya faan moltake ne ek baar kaha tha, ""poorvi baajaar ne itni shakti sanchit kar li hai ki vah yuddh mein sainya sanchaalan karne mein bhi samarth hai."" jab maiksim dvaara bandook ka prasiddh aavishkaar hua, anveshak stainli (jinhonne apne poorvavarti dau॰ livingstan ka pata Africa mein lagaaya) ne kaha tha, "" yeh ek aagneyaastr hai jo moortipoojakon ko dabaane mein amoolya siddh hoga."" saamraajya ke samarthakon (yatha rudayaard kipling) dvaara ""shveton ki jimmedaari"" ke roop mein ek puraanaroodh darshan (mith) hi prastut kar liya gaya. "netiv" shabd ka prayog "niyam rahit nimnastar jaati" jinka bhaagya hi shveton dvaara shaasit hota tha, ke apamaanajanak arth mein hone laga.

vikaasasheel pooainjeevaadi shaktiyon ko vistaar evam sanchaya ke liye nikaas ki aavashyakta thi. aviksit deshon ke kachche maalon ki unhein aavashyakta thi. unhein aise deshon ki aavashyakta apne utpaadit maalon ke baajaar ke roop mein thi aur aise kshetron ke roop mein thi jahaaain atirikt pooainji lagaai ja sake tatha usase akalpit laabh, adheen deshon ke majadooron ka saralata se shoshan ho sakane ke kaaran, nishchit kiya ja sake. pratyek shaktisrot S kshetron ke ekamev sanniyantrak aur ekaadhikaari hona chaahate the. kabhi kabhi upanivesh khareede bhi gaye, kabhi talavaar ke bal tatha dhokhe se, jaise Bhaarat mein, jeene gaye, kabhi rin vasoolanevaale abhiyaan ka ant, adhikaar ke roop mein hua, kabhi dharmaprachaarakon ke oopar aakraman athva hatya hi, jaise cheen mein, videshi basti ki sthaapana ka kaaran batalaai gayi. kaaran shaktiyon ke beech upanivesh ke liye aapasi spardha evam ishrya ke vibhinn asankhya yuddh vishvayuddh se bhi dugune vyaapak roop mein hue hain.

19veen shataabdi mein, upaniveshi ki svatantrata ka aandolan praarambh hua tatha Canada S "shvet" upaniveshon ne, svashaasan ka adhikaar praapt kar liya. pashchaat 20 veen shataabdi ke praanrabh mein Bhaarat, barma aadi deshon ne upanivesh ka juaa utaar feinka aur svatantr ho gaye. kintu to bhi sansaar mein anek desh upanivesh bane rahe. san 1960 mein sanyukt raashtrasangh ne upaniveshavaad ke khilaaf apna aitihaasik ghoshanaapatr jaari kiya jiske baad saaipras, keniya, goaa tatha anek afreeko deshon ki mukti sambhav hui. (ho.na.mu.)

prabhaav

deerghakaaleen parampara ke kaaran upaniveshavaad ka vyavasthit roop prastut hua hai aur uske vibhinn parinaam spasht roop se saamane aae hain. shaasit desh mein lokasevakon ke maadhyam se shaasan hua hai. isi aadhaar par "shvet purushon ke daayitv" ka siddhaant viksit hua. shaasiton mein aatmavishvaas ka lop saamaanya baat hai. falat: sarvamaanya vishvaas ki baat hi naheen uth sakti. saara shaasan apratyaksh roop se hota raha hai. shaasan ki bhaasha baahar se aane par raashtreeya bhaasha ka vikaas avaruddh ho jaata hai. sarkaari padon par alpasankhyakon ki niyukti ka anupaat asantulit kiya gaya hai. shaasan ki kramabaddhata nasht hone se janasveekruti janamat, hitraksha aadi asambhav hain. vikaasaheenata mein shaasan yathaasthiti banaae rakhana chaahata hai aur roodhivaadita evam anudaar paranparaaon ka vah abhibhaavak ban gaya. aarthik vikaas utana hi ho saka jitna shaasakon ne chaaha. aarthik shoshan mein saare laabh shaasak praapt karte rahe hain. aarthik neeti moolat: kachche maal ke niryaat ki aur pakke maal ke aayaat ki rahi hai. isi mein mukt vyaapaar aadi ka saiddhaantik vishleshan hua hai. shaasakon ke dvaara udyaageekaran hone se upanivesh sada shaasak raashtra ke poorak bane rahate hain, unka swayam aarthik vyakti ho naheen rahata. shaasak shaasit mein bhaavi shatruta evam hinsa ko raajaneeti ka beejaaropan isi vyavastha ka fal hai. falat: ugrata, dhvans, sangharsh ka manobhaav bana hai. upanivesh daridrata, ashiksha, rog, maanasik heenata aadi ke prateek ban jaate hain.

drushtikon

iski vyaakhya prajaateeya uchchata ke roop mein bhi ki gayi hai. fraanseesi vichaarakon ne upaniveshavaad ko sabhyata ke vikaas ka saadhan maana hai. John stuart mil ke anusaar is vyavastha ne pichhde deshon ko uchch deshon ke sampark mein aane ka avsar diya hai. lugaard (1922) ise do drushtiyo se prastut karta hai. upaniveshon ke vikaas ka daayitv shreshth desh par ho jaata hai aur unako sankuchit sthiti vishv ke sandarbh mein pramukh hoti hai. lekin bhaarateeya svatantrata aur afreshiyaayi jaagaran se in maanyataaon ki chunautiyaaain mili hain. panchasheel ki neeti upaniveshavaad ka antararaashtreeya prativaad hai aur 1955 mein baandung prastaav iska parinaam. sanyukt raashtra ka ghoshanaapatr (1960) isi ki sveekruti hai. ismein raajaneetik, aarthik, saamaajik, shekshanik aadi sabhi prakaar ke upaniveshavaad ki ninda ki gayi hai. iske saath hi upanavishevaad ne naya roop dhaaran kiya hai. vishv ko viksit aviksit jaise bhaagon mein baaaint diya gaya hai. ismein praavidhik, shaikshanik, sainik, sahaayata aadi ka kaarya upanivesh kar raha hai. ise Abhinav upaniveshavaad kaha jaata hai. iska prateek hai amareeka.

aarthik paksh

raajaneeti se adhik mahatvapoorn hai aarthik paksh. iski vyavastha aidam smith ki pustak "velth aav neshans" (1776) se praarambh hoti hai. aarthik siddhaant se vibhinn kaal rahe hain-1660 se poorvavarti, 1660 se 1776 tak, 1776 se 1870 tak, 1870 se aage. beesaveen shataabdi mein sabhi prakaar ke upaniveshavaad ki aalaachenaaeain hui hain. inmein mukhya hai maakrsavaadi aalochna. lenin ne upaniveshon ka sansthaagat evam anraraashtreeya svaroop prastut karte hue kaha ki saamraajyavaad ka antim charan hai "mahaajani pooainjeevaad." prativaadi vichaaradhaara J.A. haabsan (inpeeriylijm : A stadi, 1902) ne prastut ki. uske anusaar Europe ke videshon ko swayam apne desh mein kharch karna chaahiye. upaniveshavaad ke prayog ke teen star hain-praarambh se 1830 tak, 1830 se 19veen shati ke ant tak, 1890 se 1945 tak.

upaniveshavaad mein Europeeya deshon ne pooainji ke dvaara "sarvochch laabh" praapt kiya hai. unhonne ekaadhikaaravaadi pooainjeevaad ko janm diya hai. Abhinav upaniveshavaad ka taatparya hai aarthik drushti se viksit deshon ke dvaara aviksit deshon ka shoshan. pichhde deshon ki saari aarthik vyavastha unapar nirbhar rahati hai. unamein vishesh vyaapaarik sambandh hote hain. videshi poonji par unhein nirbhar rahana padta hai. baajaar, videshi vastu, pooainji, praavidhik kushalata, apne desh ke logon ko prashikshan dena sabhi viksit deshon ke niyantran mein rahate hain. isi mein "sahaayata ki raajaneeti", "videshi pooainji", "antararaashtreeya ekeekaran", "aarthik sanghatan", "antararaashtreeya vyaapaar niyantran", jaisi vyavasthaaeain viksit hui hain. vastut: viksit aur aviksit deshon mein antarniheet asantulan ka parinaam hai "Abhinav upaniveshavaad".

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain