upanishd

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

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praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

HinduSwastika.svg

hindu maapan pranaali

upanishd hindu dharm ke mahattvapoorn shruti dharmagranth hain. ye vaidik vaangmaya ke abhinn bhaag hain. inmein parameshvar, paramaatma-brahm aur aatma ke svabhaav aur sambandh ka bahut hi daarshanik aur jnyaaanapoorvak varnan diya gaya hai. upanishdon mein karmakaand ko 'avar' kehkar gyaan ko isliye mahatva diya gaya ki gyaan sthool se sookshm ki or le jaata hai. brahm, jeev aur jagat‌ ka gyaan paana upanishdon ki mool shiksha hai. bhagavadgeeta tatha brahmasootr upanishdon ke saath milkar vedaant ki 'prasthaanatrayi' kahalaate hain.

upanishd hi samast bhaarateeya darshanon ke mool strot hain, chaahe vo vedaant ho ya saankhya ya jain dharm ya bauddh dharm. upanishdon ko swayam bhi vedaant kaha gaya hai. duniya ke kai daarshanik upanishdon ko sabse behatareen jnyaaanakosh maanate hain. upanishd bhaarateeya sabhyata ki vishv ko amoolya dharohar hai. mukhya upanishd 12 ya 13 hain. harek kisi na kisi ved se juda hua hai. ye sanskrut mein likhe gaye hain. 17vi sadi mein daara shikoh ne anek upanishdon ka faarasi mein anuvaad karaaya. 19veen sadi mein jarman tattvaveta shopenahaavar aur maiksamoolar ne in granthon mein jo ruchi dikhlaakar inke anuvaad kiye vah sarvavidit hain aur maananeeya hain.

anukram

upanishd shabd ka arth

upanishd shabd ka saadhaaran arth hai - 'sameep upaveshan' ya 'sameep baithna (brahm vidya ki praapti ke liye shishya ka guru ke paas baithna). yeh shabd 'up', 'ni' upasarg tatha, 'sad' dhaatu se nishpann hua hai. sad dhaatu ke teen arth hain: vivran-naash hona; gati-paana ya jaanana tatha avasaadan-shithil hona. upanishd mein rishi aur shishya ke beech bahut sundar aur goodh samvaad hai jo paathak ko ved ke marm tak pahunchaata hai.

aadhyaatmik chintan ki amoolya nidhi

upanishd bhaarateeya aadhyaatmik chintan ke moolaadhaar hai, bhaarateeya aadhyaatmik darshan strot hain. ve brahmavidya hain. jijnyaaasaaon ke rishiyon dvaara khoje hue uttar hain. ve chintanasheel rishiyon ki jnyaaanacharchaaon ka saar hain. ve kavi-hrudaya rishiyon ki kaavyamaya aadhyaatmik rachanaaeain hain, agyaat ki khoj ke prayaas hain, varnanaateet paramashakti ko shabdon mein baaaindhane ki koshishein hain aur us niraakaar, nirvikaar, aseem, apaar ko antardrushti se samajhne aur paribhaashit karne ki adamya aakaanksha ke lekhabaddh vivran hain.

upanishdakaal ke pehle : vaidik yug

vaidik yug saansaarik aanand evam upabhog ka yug tha. maanav man ki nishchintata, pavitrata, bhaavukata, bholepan va nishpaapata ka yug tha. jeevan ko sampoorn alhadpan se jeena hi us kaal ke logon ka preya va shreya tha. prakruti ke vibhinn manohaari svaroopon ko dekhkar us samay ke logon ke bhaavuk manon mein jo ud‍aagaar svayansfoort aalokit tarangon ke roop mein ubhare un manobhaavon ko unhonne prashastiyon, stutiyon, divyagaanon va kaavya rachanaaon ke roop mein shabdabaddh kiya aur ve vaidik richaaeain ya mantra ban gaye. un logon ke man saansaarik aanand se bhare the, sampannta se santusht the, praakrutik divyataaon se bhaav-vibhor ho uthate the. at: unke geeton mein yeh kaamna hai ki yeh aanand sada bana rahe, badhta rahe aur kabhi samaapt na ho. unhonne kaamna ki ki is aanand ko ham poorn aayu sau varshon tak bhogein aur hamaare baad ki peedhiyaaain bhi isi prakaar trupt rahein. yahi naheen kaamna yeh bhi ki gayi ki is jeevan ke samaapt hone par ham svarg mein jaaeain aur is sukh va aanand ki nirantarata vahaaain bhi bani rahe. is uddeshya ki praapti ke liye vibhinn anushthaan bhi kiye gaye aur devataaon ko prasann karne ke aayojan karke unase ye varadaan bhi maaainge gaye. jab prakruti karvat leti thi to praakrutik vipdaaon ka saamana hota tha. tab un vipttiyon kekaalpanik niyantrak devataaon yatha marut, agni, rudr aadi ko tusht va prasann karne ke anushthaan kiye jaate the aur unase praarthana ki jaati thi ki aisi vipttiyon ko aane na dein aur unke aane par praja ki raksha karein. kul milaakar vaidik kaal ke logon ka jeevan prafullit, aahlaadamaya, sukhaakaankshi, aashaavaadi aur‍ jijeevishaapoorn tha. unamein vishaad, paap ya kashtamaya jeevan ke vichaar ki chhaaya naheen thi. narak va usamein milne waali yaatanaaon ki kalpana tak naheen ki gayi thi. karm ko yagya aur yagya ko hi karm maana gaya tha aur usi ke sabhi sukhon ki praapti tatha sankaton ka nivaaran ho jaane ki avadhaarana thi. yeh jeevanashaili deerghakaal tak chali. par aisa kab tak chalta. ek na ek din to manushya ke anant jijnyaaasu mastishk mein aur vartamaan se kabhi santusht na hone vaale man mein yeh jijnyaaasa, yeh prashn uthana hi tha ki prakruti ki is vishaal rangabhoomi ke peechhe sootradhaar kaun hai, iska srushta/nirmaata kaun hai, iska ud‍aagam kahaaain hai, ham kaun hain, kahaaain se aae hain, yeh srushti antat: kahaaain jaaegi. hamaara kya hoga? shanai:-shanai: ye prashn ankurit hue. aur fir shuroo hui in sabke uttar khojane ki lalak tatha jijnyaaasu man-mastishk ki anant khoj yaatra.

upanishdakaaleen vichaaron ka udaya

aisa naheen hai ki aatma, punarjanm aur karmafalavaad ke vishay mein vaidik rishiyon ne kabhi socha hi naheen tha. aisa bhi naheen tha ki is jeevan ke baare mein unka koi dhyaan na tha. rishiyon ne yada-kada is vishay par vichaar kiya bhi tha. iske beej vedon mein yatr-tatr milte hain, parantu yeh keval vichaar maatr tha. koi chinta ya bhaya naheen. aatma shareer se bhinn tatv hai aur is jeevan ki samaapti ke baad vah paralok ko jaati hai is siddhaant ka aabhaas vaidik richaaon mein milta avashya hai parantu sansaar mein aatma ka aavaagaman kyon hota hai, iski khoj mein vaidik rishi pravrutt naheen hue. apni samast seemaaon ke saath saansaarik jeevan vaidik rishiyon ka preya tha. preya ko chhodkar shreya ki or badhne ki aaturata upanishdon ke samay jagi, tab moksh ke saamane grahasth jeevan nissaar ho gaya evam jab log jeevan se aanand lene ke bajaay usase peeth ferakar sannyaas lene lage. haaain, yeh bhi hua ki vaidik rishi jahaaain yeh poochh kar shaant ho jaate the ki 'yeh srushti kisne banaai hai?' aur 'kaun devata hai jiski ham upaasana karein'? vahaaain upanishdon ke rishiyon ne srushti banaane vaale ke sambandh mein kuchh siddhaanton ka nishchaya kar diya aur us 'sat' ka bhi pata pa liya jo pooja aur upaasana ka vastut: adhikaar hai. vaidik dharm ka puraana aakhyaan ved aur naveen aakhyaan upanishd hain.'vedon mein yagya-dharm ka pratipaadan kiya gaya aur logon ko yeh seekh di gayi ki is jeevan mein sukhi, sampann tatha sarvatr safal va vijayi rahane ke liye aavashyak hai ki devataaon ki tushti va prasannata ke liye yagya kiye jaaeain. 'vishv ki utpatti ka sthaan yagya hai. sabhi karmon mein shreshth karm yagya hai. yagya ke karmafal se svarg ki praapti hoti hai.' ye hi sootr chaaron or guainjit the. doosare, jab braahman granthon ne yagya ko bahut adhik mahatva de diya aur purohitvaad tatha purohiton ki manamaani atyadhik badh gayi tab is vyavastha ke viruddh pratikriya hui aur virodh ki bhaavana ka sootrapaat hua. log sochane lage ki 'yajnyaon ka vaastavik arth kya hai?' 'unke bheetar kaun sa rahasya hai?' 've dharm ke kis roop ke prateek hain?' 'kya ve hamein jeevan ke charam lakshya tak pahuaincha deinge?' is prakaar, karmakaand par bahut adhik jor tatha karmakaandon ko hi jeevan ki sabhi samasyaaon ke hal ke roop mein pratipaadit kiye jaane ki pravrutti ne vichaaravaan logon ko unke baare mein punarvichaar karne ko prerit kiya. prakruti ke pratyek roop mein ek niyantrak devata ki kalpana karte-karte vaidik aarya bahudevavaadi ho gaye the. unke devataaon mein ullekhaneeya hain- Indra, varun, agni, savita, som, ashvineekumaar, marut, pooshan, mitr, pitr, yam aadi. tab ek bauddhik vyagrata praarambh hui us ek paramashakti ke darshan karne ya uske vaastavik svaroop ko samajhne ki ki jo sampoorn srushti ka rachayita aur in devataaon ke oopar ki satta hai. is vyagrata ne upanishd ke chintanon ka maarg prashast kiya.

upanishdon ka svaroop

upanishd chintanasheel evam kalpaasheel maneeshiyon ki daarshanik kaavya rachanaaeain hain. jahaaain gadya likh gaye hain ve bhi padyamaya gadya-rachanaaon mein aisi shabd-shakti, dhvanyaatmakata, love evam arthagarbhita hai ki ve kisi daivi shakti ki rachanaaon ka aabhaas dete hain. yeh sachmuch atyukti naheen hai ki unhein 'mantra' ya 'richa' kaha gaya. vaastav mein mantra ya richa ka sambandh ved se hai parantu upanishdon ki hamatta darshaane ke liye in sanjnyaaaon ka upayog yahaaain bhi katipya vidvaanon dvaara kiya jaata hai. upanishd apne aaspaas ke drushya sansaar ke peechhe jhaaainkane ke prayatn hain. iske liye na koi upakaran upalabdh hain aur na kisi prakaar ki prayog-anusandhaan suvidhaaeain sambhav hai. apni manashchetana, maanasik anubhooti ya antardrushti ke aadhaar par hue aadhyaatmik sfuran ya divya prakaash ko hi varnan ka aadhaar banaaya gaya hai. upanishd adhyaatmavidya ke vividh adhyaaya hain jo vibhinn ant:prerit rishiyon dvaara likhe gaye hain. inmein vishv ki paramasatta ke svaroop, uske avasthaan, vibhinn praakrutik shaktiyon ke saath uske sambandh, maanaveeya aatma mein usaki ek kiran ki jhalak ya sookshm pratibinb ki upasthiti aadi ko vibhinn roopakon aur prateekon ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai. srushti ke ud‍aagam evam usaki rachana ke sambandh mein gahan chintan tatha svayanfoort kalpana se upaje roopaankan ko vividh binbon aur prateekon ke maadhyam se prastut karne ka prayatn kiya gaya hai. ant mein kaha yeh gaya ki hamaari shreshth parikalpana ke aadhaar par jo kuchh ham samajh sake, vah yeh hai. iske aage is rahasya ko shaayad paramaatma hi jaanta ho aur 'shaayad vah bhi naheen jaanta ho.'

sankshep mein, vedon mein is sansaar mein drushyamaan evam prakat praakrutik shaktiyon ke svaroop ko samajhne, unhein apni kalpanaanusaar vibhinn devataaon ka jaama pahanaakar unki aaraadhana karne, unhein tusht karne tatha unase saansaarik safalta va sampannta evam suraksha paane ke prayatn kiye gaye the. un tak apni shraddha ko pahuainchaane ka maadhyam yajnyaon ko banaaya gaya tha. upanishdon mein un anek prayatnon ka vivran hai jo in praakrutik shaktiyon ke peechhe ki paramashakti ya srushti ki sarvochch satta se saakshaatkaar karne ki manokaamana ke saath kiye gaye. maanaveeya kalpana, chintan-kshamata, antardrushti ki kshamata jahaaain tak us samay ke daarshanikon, maneeshiyon ya rishiyon ko pahuaincha sakeen unhonne pahuainchane ka bharsak prayatn kiya. yahi unka tap tha.

vishay-vastu

ved ke chaar bhaag hain - sanhita, braahman, aaranyak aur upanishd.

(1) sanhita mein vaidik devi devataaon ki stuti ke mantra hain;
(2) braahman mein vaidik karmakaand aur yajnyaon ka varnan hai;
(3) aaranyak mein karmakaand aur yajnyaon ki roopak kathaaeain aur tat sambandhi daarshanik vyaakhyaaeain hain; aur
(4) upanishd mein vaastavik vaidik darshan ka saar hai.

upanishd mein aatm aur anaatm tattvon ka niroopan kiya gaya hai jo ved ke maulik rahasyon ka pratipaadan karta hai. praaya: upanishd ved ke ant mein hi aate hain. isliye ye vedaant ke naam se bhi prakhyaat hain. vaidik dharm ke maulik siddhaanton ko teen pramukh granth pramaanit karte hain jo prasthaanatrayi ke naam se vikhyaat hain, ye hain - upanishd, brahmasootr aur shreemadbhagavadgeeta.

upanishd brahm vidya ka dyotak hai. kehte hain is vidya ke abhyaas se mumukshujan ki avidya, nasht ho jaati hai (vivran); vah brahm ki praapti kara deti hai (gati); jisse manushyon ke garbhavaas aadi saansaarik du:kh sarvatha shithil ho jaate hain (avasaadan). falat: upanishd ve 'tattv' pratipaadak granth maane jaate hain jinke abhyaas se manushya ko brahm athva paramaatma ka saakshaatkaar hota hai.

teen sheersh mahatvapoorn upanishdon ke brahmaand vigyaan ke liye bruhadaaranyak, darshan ke liye katha, aur rahasyavaad ke liye chandojnya hain.

dharmashaastr, brahmaand vigyaan, manovijnyaaan, paralok vidya aur naitikta: Paul Deussen ke anusaar upanishdon vishyon ka paalan kar rahe hain.[1] upanishdon brahmavaad, aatmavaad, maayaavaad, karmavaad aur mokshavaad se milkar banta hai. maanav jeevan ka uddeshya param satya ka matlab, brahm aur aatm ke beech ekta ki hai.[2] Mircea Eliade upanishdon mein aatm aur brahm ke beech ekta ki pehchaan ke baare mein likha hai, karm par aadhaarit hai ki rahasyodghaatan Bhagwan tak maarg hai par bal hai, jabki anya tippaneekaaron upanishdon ke rahasyavaad aur Bhagwan tak maarg mein antarjnyaaan ko rekhaankit kiya hai.[3]

108 upanishd evam unka vargeekaran

108 upanishdon ko nimnalikhit shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai-

(1) rigvedeeya -- 10 upanishd

(2) shukl yajurvedeeya -- 19 upanishd

(3) Krishna yajurvedeeya -- 32 upanishd

(4) saamavedeeya -- 16 upanishd

(5) atharvavedeeya -- 31 upanishd

kul -- 108 upanishd

inke atirikt Narayan, nrusinh, raamataapani tatha gopaal chaar upanishd aur hain.

mukhya upanishd

vishay ki gambheerata tatha vivechan ki vishdata ke kaaran 13 upanishd vishesh maanya tatha praacheen maane jaate hain.

jagadguru aadi shankaraachaarya ne 10 par apna bhaashya diya hai-
(1) ish, (2) aitareya (3) kath (4) ken (5) chhaandogya (6) prashn (7) taittireeya (8) bruhadaaranyak (9) maandookya aur (10) mundak.

unhone nimn teen ko pramaan koti mein rakha hai-
(1) shvetaashvatar (2) kausheetaki tatha (3) maitraayani.

anya upanishd tattad devata vishyak hone ke kaaran 'taantrik' maane jaate hain. aise upanishdon mein shaiv, shaakt, vaishnav tatha yog vishyak upanishdon ki pradhaan ganana hai.

pratipaadya vishay

dau॰ daasan, dau॰ belvekar tatha raanade ne upanishdon ka vibhaajan pratipaadya vishay ki drushti se is prakaar kiya hai:

1. gadyaatmak upanishd

1. aitareya, 2. ken, 3. chhaandogya, 4. taittireeya, 5. bruhadaaranyak tatha 6. kausheetaki;
inka gadya braahmanon ke gadya ke samaan saral, laghukaaya tatha praacheen hai.

2.padyaatmak upanishd

1.ish, 2.kath, 3. shvetaashvatar tatha Narayan
inka padya vaidik mantron ke anuroop saral, praacheen tatha subodh hai.

3.avaantar gadyopanishd

1.prashn, 2.maitri (maitraayani) tatha 3.maandookya

4.aatharvan (arthaat karmakaandi) upanishd

anya avaantarakaaleen upanishdon ki ganana is shreni mein ki jaati hai.

bhaasha tatha upanishdon ke vikaas kram ke aadhaar par

bhaasha tatha upanishdon ke vikaas kram ki drushti se dau॰ daasan ne unka vibhaajan chaar star mein kiya hai:

praacheenatam

1. ish, 2. aitareya, 3. chhaandogya, 4. prashn, 5. taittireeya, 6. bruhadaaranyak, 7. maandookya aur 8. mundak

praacheen

1. kath, 2. ken

avaantarakaaleen

1. kausheetaki, 2. maitri (maitraanayi) tatha 3. shvetaashvatar

upanishdon ki bhaugolik sthiti evam kaal

upanishdon ki bhaugolik sthiti madhyadesh ke kurupaanchaal se lekar videh (mithila) tak faili hui hai. upanishdon ke kaal ke vishay me nishchit mat nahi hai par upanishdo ka kaal 3000 isa poorv se 3500 E poo maana gaya hai. vedo ka rachana kaal bhi yahi samay maana gaya hai. upanishd kaal ka aarambh buddh se paryaapt poorv hai. "great ejej of main" ke sampaadak ise lagbhag 800 E.poo. batalaate hain.

upanishdon ke rachanaakaal ke sambandh mein vidvaanon ka ek mat naheen hai. kuchh upanishdon ko vedon ki mool sanhitaaon ka ansh maana gaya hai. ye sarvaadhik praacheen hain. kuchh upanishd 'braahman' aur 'aaranyak' granthon ke ansh maane gaye hain. inka rachanaakaal sanhitaaon ke baad ka hai. upanishdon ke kaal ke vishay me nishchit mat nahi hai samaanyat upanishdo ka kaal rachanaakaal 3000 isa poorv se 500 isa poorv maana gaya hai. upanishdon ke kaal-nirnaya ke liye nimn mukhya tathyon ko aadhaar maana gaya hai—

  1. puraatatv evam bhaugolik paristhitiyaan
  2. pauraanik athva vaidik riashiyon ke naam
  3. sooryavanshi-chandravanshi raajaaon ke samayakaal
  4. upanishdon mein varnit khagoleeya vivran

nimn vidvaanon dvaara vibhinn upanishdon ka rachana kaal nimn kram mein maana gaya hai[4]-

vibhinn vidvaanon dvaara vaidik ya upanishd kaal ke liye vibhinn nirdhaarit samayaavadhi
lekhak shuruvaat (BC) samaapan (BC) vidhi
lokamaanya tilk (Winternitz bhi isse sahamat hai)
6000
200
khagoliya vidhi
bi. vi. kaameshvar
2300
2000
khagoliya vidhi
maiks moolar
1000
800
bhaashaai vishleshan
ranaade
1200
600
bhaashaai vishleshan, vaichaarik sidaant, etc
raadha Krishnan
800
600
vaichaarik sidaant
mukhya upanishdon ka rachanaakaal
dayusen (1000 or 800 – 500 BC) ranaade (1200 – 600 BC) raadha Krishnan (800 – 600 BC)
atyant praacheen upanishd gadya shaili mein: bruhadaaranyak, chhaandogya, taittireeya, aitareya, kausheetaki, ken
kavita shaili mein: ken, kath, ish, shvetaashvatar, mundak
baad ke upanishd gadya shaili mein: prashn, maitri, maandookya
samooh I: bruhadaaranyak, chhaandogya
samooh II: ish, ken
samooh III: aitareya, taittireeya, kausheetaki
samooh IV: kath, mundak, shvetaashvatar
samooh V: prashn, maandookya, maitraanayi
buddh kaal se poorv ke:' aitareya, kausheetaki, taittireeya, chhaandogya, bruhadaaranyak, ken
madhyakaaleen: ken (1–3), bruhadaaranyak (IV 8–21), kath, maandookya
saankhya evam yog par adhaarit: maitri, shvetaashvatar

sandarbh

  1. paul devasen, upanishdon ke darshan, romaaniyaai mein anuvaad, bukhaarest, takaneek ka prakaashan sanstha, ek hajaar nau sau nabbe chaar, unachaalees ka prushth. (ISBN 973-31-0704-2)
  2. meercha itu, darshan aur dharm ka itihaas, bukhaarest, kal ki romaaniya ka prakaashan sanstha, do hajaar chaar, ek sau bayaalees ka prushth. (ISBN 973-582-971-1)
  3. Bryan Rennie, meercha eleeyaade, upanishdon ke baare mein, [1]
  4. Ranade 1926, pp. 13–14

inhein bhi dekhiye

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