upagrah

yeh lekh krutrim upagrah ke baare mein hai. praakrutik upagrahon ke liye, jo chandramaaon ke roop mein jaane jaate hain, praakrutik upagrah dekhe.
pruthvi avlokan upagrah ka ek poorn aakaar model hai iaaraes 2 (ERS 2)

antariksh udaan (spaceflight) ke sandarbh mein, upagrah ek vastu (object) hai jise maanav (human) prayaas ke dvaara kaksha (orbit) mein rakha gaya hai. is tarah ki vastuon ko praakrutik upagrahon (natural satellite) jaise chandrama se alag karne ke liye kabhi kabhi krutrim upagrah bhi kaha jaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

poorv avadhaaranaaeain

ek upagrah ke kaksha mein prakshepan ki pehli kaalpanik chitran Edward everet haale (Edward Everett Hale) ke dvaara ek laghu kahaani (short story) hai, di brik moon (The Brick Moon).yeh kahaani di atalaantik manthali (The Atlantic Monthly) mein shrenit ki gayi thi, jo 1869 mein shuroo hua tha.[1][2] yeh vichaar jools verne (Jules Verne) ki The Begum's Millions (The Begum's Millions)(1879) mein fir se ubhar kar aaya tha.

1903 mein konstaanteen tsiolkovskya (Konstantin Tsiolkovsky) (1857-1935) ne di eksaploreshan of kausmik space baae meens of reeakshan divaayesis prakaashit kiya, jo antariksh yaan ke prakshepan mein raaketri ke upayog par pehla shaikshik nibandh hai. unhonne pruthvi ke chaaron or ki ek nyoonatam kaksha (orbit) ke liye aavashyak ek kaksheeya gati (orbital speed) ki 8 kimi/second ke roop mein ganana ki hai aur yeh bhi ki taral pranodak (propellant) dvaara indhit kiya gaya ek bahumanjila rocket (multi-stage rocket) ise praapt karne ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. unhonne taral haaidrojan (liquid hydrogen) aur taral okseejan (liquid oxygen) ke prayog ka prastaav rakha, yadyapi anya sanyojan ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai.

1928 mein harman potochnik (Herman Potočanik) (1892-1929) ne, apni ekamaatr kitaab prakaashit ki, das praublam der befahrung des veltraums - der raketein-motor (di praublam of space treval — di rocket motor), yeh antariksh mein ek safalta aur vahaaain sthaayi maanav upasthiti ke liye ek yojana hai. unhonne antariksh station ka vistaar se adhyayan ki aur apne garbheeya kaksha (geostationary orbit) ki ganana ki.unhonne bhoomi ke vistrut shaantipoorn aur sainya avlokan ke liye antariksh yaan ki parikrama ke prayog ka varnan kiya aur kaise antariksh ki vishesh sthitiyon vaigyaanik prayogon ke liye upayogi ho sakta hai bhi varnit ki.is kitaab mein garbhaakaksheeya upagrahon (tsiolkovskya dvaara pehle laaye gaye) ka varnan hai aur unke evam bhoomi ke beech radio ke dvaara sanchaar bhi varnit hai, lekin jan prasaaran ke liye upagrahon ka upayog karne ke aur doorasanchaar rile ke roop mein yeh vichaar kam tha.

1945 mein wireless world (Wireless World) lekh mein angreji vigyaan katha lekhak aarthar si. Clark (Arthur C. Clarke) (1917-2008) ne sanchaar upagrah (communications satellite) ke jan sanchaar ke liye sambhaavit upayog ke baare mein vistaar se varnit kiya hai.[3] Clark ne upagrah prakshepan ke rasad, sambhav kakshaaon (orbits) aur duniya ke chakkar lagaate upagrahon ke ek network ke nirmaan ke anya pahaluon ki jaanch ki, uchch-gat sanchaar ki gati. ke laabhon ki or ishaara karateunhonne yeh bhi sujhaav diya hai ki teen garbhaayojit (geostationary) upagrah poore grah par coverage pradaan karega.

krutrim upagrahon ka itihaas

pehla krutrim upagrah sputanik 1 (Sputnik 1), soviyt sangh (Soviet Union) dvaara 4 October (4 October) 1957, ko shuroo kiya gaya tha aur usane sergei korolev (Sergei Korolev) ke saath mukhya designer ke roop mein poore soviyt (Soviet) sputanik kaaryakram (Sputnik program) shuroo kiya. isne soviyt sangh (Soviet Union) aur sanyukt raajya America ke beech antariksh race (Space Race) ko sharoo kar diya.

sputanik 1 ne apni kaksha ke parivartan ke maap se vaayumandaleeya paraton (atmospheric layers) ke uchch ghanatv ki pehchaan karne mein madad ki aur yon kshetr (ionosphere) mein rediyotarango ke vitran ka vivran diya.kyonki yeh upagrah badhe hue dabaav vaale naaitrojan se bhar gaya tha, sputanik 1 ke liye bhi ulkaapind (meteoroid) pata lagaane ka pehla avsar pradaan kiya, aantarik dabaav baahari satah par ulkaapind ke pravesh ke kaaran ki haani ke roop mein kiya gaya pruthvi par vaapas bheje gaye taapamaan vivran mein spasht hua hoga.sputanik 1' ki safalta ki apratyaashit ghoshana ne sanyukt raajya America mein sputanik sankat (Sputnik crisis) ko ubaar diya is mein aur sheet yuddh ke bheetar tathaakathit antariksh race (Space Race) ko prajvalit is.

November 31957 ko sputanik 2 (Sputnik 2) shuroo kiya gaya tha aur laika (Laika) naam ka ek kutta (dog) pratham jeevit yaatri ke roop mein kaksha mein gaya tha.[4]

May, 1946 mein, pariyojana raind (Project RAND) ne jaari kiya tha ek praayogik vishv ke chakkar kaat antariksh jahaaj (Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship) hai, jo, "upayukt upakaran ke saath ek upagrah vaahan varnit ek beesaveen shataabdi ke sabse shaktishaali vaigyaanik upakaranon ke hone ki ummeed ki ja sakti hai.[5] sanyukt raajya America 1945 ke baad se sanyukt raajya America nausena (United States Navy) ke bureau of eyaronaatiks (Bureau of Aeronautics) ke antargat kaksheeya (orbit) upagrahon ko prakshepit karne par vichaar kar rahi thi.sanyukt raajya vaayu sena (United States Air Force)'ke pariyojana raind ne antat: uparokt report jaari ki hai, lekin is par ki upagrah ek sambhaavit sainya hathiyaar tha, vishvaas naheen kiya, balki, ve ise vigyaan, raajaneeti aur prachaar ke liye ek upakaran maanate hai. 1954 mein, raksha sachiv ne yeh bayaan diya ki, "mujhe kisi bhi ameriki upagrah kaaryakram ka pata nahi hai."[tathya vaanchhit]July 29 (July 29), 1955 ko, white house (White House) ne yeh ghoshana ki, ki America 1958 ke basant mein, upagrahon ko prakshepit karne ke iraade rakhata hai. yeh vanagaard pariyojana (Project Vanguard) ke naam se jaana gaya. 31 July (July 31) ko, soviyt sangh ne ghoshana ki ki vo 1957 ke ant tak ek upagrah prakshepit kareinge.

ameriki rocket society (American Rocket Society), raashtreeya vigyaan foundation (National Science Foundation) aur antarraashtreeya bhoobhautikeeya varsh (International Geophysical Year) ke dabaav ke chalte, sainya dilach uthaaya aur jaldi 1955 ko vaayu sena aur nausena pariyojana orbitr (Project Orbiter), jo ek upagrah prakshepan karne ke liye ek jyoopitr si rocket (Jupiter C rocket) ka upayog karta hai, par kaam kar rahe the mein. yeh pariyojana safal hui aur eksplorar 1 (Explorer 1) January 31, 1958 ko sanyukt raajya America ka pehla upagrah bana.[6]

antararaashtreeya antariksh station, sabse bada krutrim upagrah jo is samay pruthvi ki parikrama kar raha hai.

antariksh nigraani network

sanyukt raajya America antariksh nigraani network (United States Space Surveillance Network) (esaesaen) 1957 se, jab se soviyt sangh ne sputanik ke prakshepan ke saath antariksh yug ko khola hai, tab se antariksh pindon par nazar rakhi hai aur ab tak esaesaen pruthvi ki parikrama karte 26000 antariksh pindon ko khoj chuka hai. esaesaen abhi 8,000 se jyaada aadmi dvaara banaaye gaye kaksheeya pindon ko khoj chuka hai. baakiyon ne fir se pruthvi ke ashaant vaataavaran mein pravesh kiya hai evam vightit, ya bachane ke baad pun: pravesh kiya hai aur pruthvi par asar daala hai. pruthvi ki parikrama kar rahe antariksh pindon mein kai tan vajani upagrahon se lekar 10 pound vajan ke rocket ke tukade shaamil hain. antariksh pindon ka saat pratishat parichhaalit upagrah hain (yaani ~ 560 upagrah), baaki antariksheeya malabe (space debris) hain.[7]yooesaesateeaaraaiteeseeoem (USSTRATCOM) ko mukhya roop se sakriya upagrahon mein dilchaspi hai, lekin antariksheeya malabe par bhi nazar rakhata hai jo pun:pravesh par aane waali misaailon ka galat aabhaas de sakta hai. esaesaen 10 seinteemeetar ya usase bade vyaas ke (besabaul ke aakaar ka) antariksh pindon ko khoj leta hai.

gair sainya upagrah sevaaen

gair-sainya upagrah sevaaen ki teen buniyaadi shreniyon hain:[8]

niyat upagrah seva

niyat upagrah sevaaen, pruthvi ki satah par kuchh binduon ke beech sabhi deshon aur mahaadveepon ke saikadon aavaajon, deta aur video prasaaran ke kaaryon ko sanbhaal rahe hai.

mobile upagrah pranaaliyaaain

mobile upagrah pranaaliyaaain neveegeshan pranaali ke roop mein seva karne ke alaava, dooradaraaj ke kshetron, vaahanon, jahaaj aur vimaan ko vishv ke anya bhaagon ke liye aur/ya anya mobile ya sthir sanchaar ikaaiyon ko aapas mein jodne mein madad karta hai.

vaigyaanik anusandhaan saitelaait (vaanijyik aur avaanijyik)

vaigyaanik anusandhaan upagrah hamein mausam vigyaan sambandhi jaankaari, bhoomi sarvekshan deta (jaise, sudoor sanvedan) aur anya vibhinn vaigyaanik anusandhaan anuprayogon jaise pruthvi vigyaan, samudri vigyaan aur vaayumandaleeya anusandhaan, pradaan karta hai.

prakaar

milstaar (MILSTAR): ek sanchaar upagrah
  • upagrah virodhi hathiyaar/"kilr upagrah" (Anti-Satellite weapons/"Killer Satellites") vo sashastr upagrah hain jo ki, dushman yuddh gruhon, upagrahon aur anya antariksh poonjiyon ko khoj nikaalne ke liye dijaain kiye gaye hain. unke paas kan hathiyaar, oorja hathiyaar, gati hathiyaar, parmaanu/ya paaramparik prakshepaastron aur/ya in hathiyaaron ke ek sanyojan ho sakte hain.
  • khagoleeya upagrah (Astronomical satellite) vo upagrah hain jinka istemaal door ke grahon ke prekshan ke liye, aakaashagangaaon aur anya baahari antariksh pindon ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • jaiveeya upagrah (Biosatellite) vo upagrah hain jo aam taur par vaigyaanik prayogon ke liye jeevit avayavon ko le jaane ke prayog liye jaate hai.
  • sanchaar upagrah (Communications satellite) vo upagrah hain jinhein antariksh mein doorasanchaar ke prayojan ke liye tainaat kiya jaata hai. aadhunik sanchaar upagrah aamtaur par garbhaayojit kakshaaon (geosynchronous orbit), molaniya kakshaaon (Molniya orbit) ya pruthvi ki nichli kakshaaon (Low Earth orbit) ka prayog karte hai.
  • chhote upagrah (Miniaturized satellites) asaamaanya roop se kam vajan aur chhote aakaar ke upagrah hote hain.[9] in upagrahon ko vargeekrut karne ke liye nae vargeekaran ka upayog kiya jaata hai: minisetelaait (500-200 kigra), maaikrosetelaait (200 kigra ke neeche), naanosetelaait (10 kigra se neeche).
  • neveegeshan upagrah (Navigational satellites) vo upagrah hain jo radio samay ke sancharit sanketon ka prayog kar rahe hain, jinse jameen par mobile lene vaalon ko saksham karte hain taaki unka sahi sthaan nirdhaarit kar sakein upagrahon aur jameen par maujood lene vaalon ke beech drushti ki apekshaakrut saaf line, electronics mein sudhaar ke saath sanyukt, upagrah nevigeshan pranaaliyaan, kuchh hi meter ke aadesh par vaastavik samay mein satyata ke sthaan ko maapane ke liye anumati deta hai.
  • aavikshan upagrah (Reconnaissance satellite) pruthvi avlokan upagrah (Earth observation satellite) ya sanchaar upagrah (communications satellite) hain, jo sainya (military) ya khufiya (intelligence) kaaryon ke liye tainaat kiye jaate hain. in upagrahon ki poori shakti ke baare mein kam jaana jaata hai, jo sarkaar inhein sanchaalit karti hai vo aamtaur par apne aavikshan upagrah se sambandhit jaankaari ko vargeekrut rakhati hai.
  • pruthvi avlokan upagrah (Earth observation satellite) vo upagrah hain jo gair sainya jaise paryaavaran (environment) al nigraani, mausam vigyaan (meteorology), naksha banaane (map making) aadi ka upayog karta hai. (vishesh roop se pruthvi avlokan pranaali (Earth Observing System) dekhein.)
  • antariksh station (Space station) maanav dvaara design ki gayi sanrachana hain jo baahari antariksh (outer space) mein aur uske baahar rahane vaale maanav (human beings) ke liye hain. ek antariksh station ko antariksh yaan ko usaki pramukh pranodan (propulsion) ki kami ya lainding (landing) suvidhaaon ke dvaara bhinn kiya jaata hai- balki, anya vaahanon ko is station tak ya station se parivhan ke roop mein upayog kiya jaata hai. antariksh stationon ko madhyaavadhi tak kaksha (orbit) mein rahane ke liye design kiya jaata hai, saptaah, maah, ya yahaaain tak ki saal (year) avadhiyon ke liye.
  • tithr upagrah (Tether satellite) ve upagrah hain jo ek aur upagrah se ek patale taar se jude hue hain jise tithr (tether) kehte hain.
  • mausam upagrah (Weather satellite) mukhya roop se pruthvi ke mausam aur jalavaayu (climate) ki nigraani karne ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai.[10]

kaksha ke prakaar

vibhinn pruthvi kakshaaon ke liye paimaane; siyaan pruthvi ki nichli kaksha ka pratinidhitv karta hai, peela pruthvi ki maadhyam kaksha ka pratinidhitv karta hai, kaale chitteedaar line garbh sam kaksha ka pratinidhitv karta hai, hari chitteedaar bindeedaar rekha global pojeeshaning system (Global Positioning System) (jeepeees) upagrahon pratinidhitv karti hai aur laal bindeedaar rekha antararaashtreeya antariksh station (ISS) ki kaksha ka pratinidhitv karti hai.

pehle upagrah, sputanik 1 (Sputnik 1), ko pruthvi chaaron or ki kaksha mein rakha gaya tha aur isliye garbhaayojit kaksha (geocentric orbit) mein tha. ab tak ye sabse saamaanya kism ki kaksha hai lagbhag 2456 krutrim upagrahon ki pruthvi ke saath parikrama.garbhaayojit kakshaaon ko aage unke ooainchaai, jhukaav (inclination) aur utkendrata (eccentricity) dvaara vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai.

ooainchaai vargeekaran ke liye saamaanyat: jiska prayog kiya jaata hai jo hain pruthvi ki nichli kaksha (Low Earth Orbit) (LEO), pruthvi ki madhyam kaksha (Medium Earth Orbit) (MEO) aur pruthvi ki uchch kaksha (High Earth Orbit) (HEO).pruthvi ki nichli kaksha 2000 kimi se neeche ki kaksha hai aur pruthvi ki madhyam kaksha kisi bhi kaksha ki tulana mein adhik hai lekin is oonchaai abhi bhi neeche hai ki garbhaayojit kaksha (geosynchronous orbit) se kam hai, 35786 kimi ki doori par.uchch pruthvi kaksha aisi kaksha hai jiski oonchaai garbh sam kaksha se bhi adhik hai.

keindreeya vargeekaran

ooainchaai ka vargeekaran

pruthvi ke kai mahatvapoorn upagrahon ki kaksheeya lambaai.

jhukaav ke vargeekaran

vikeindron ke vargeekaran

samakeeya vargeekaran

vishesh vargeekaran

krutrim-kaksheeya vargeekaran

upagrah maudyools

is upagrah ke kaaryaatmak bahumukhi apni takaneeki ghatakon ke bheetar aur uske operation visheshataaon mein sthaapit hai. ek vishisht upagrah ke "rachana" par dekhne se, do maudyool pata lagte hain.[8] not kiya jaae ki kuchh upanyaas vaastushilp avadhaaranaaon jaise khandit antariksh yaan (Fractionated Spacecraft) is vargeekaran ko kuchh chhed dete hain.

antariksh yaan bas ya seva maudyool

is pehle maudyool mein paaainch upapranaaliyaaain hain:

  • sanrachanaatmak upapranaaliyaaain

sanrachanaatmak upatantr, atyadhik taapamaan parivartan aur sookshm ulka nuksaan se yaantrik aadhaar sanrachana, dhaalein upagrah pradaan karta hai aur upagrah ke spin kaaryon ko niyantrit karta hai.

  • di teleemetari upapranaaliyaaain

teleemetari upatantr on-board upakaran ke operation par nazar rakhata hai tatha pruthvi station par niyantran karne ke liye, upakaran operation deta sthaanaantarit karta hai aur pruthvi par niyantran station ko aadesh deta hai upakaran operation samaayojan karne ke liye.

  • di power upapranaaliyaaain

shakti upatantr, saur painalon ki aur baitari baikaap jo ki upagrah ke dharati ki chhaaya se nikalne par oorja paida karta hai, se bana hota hai.

  • tharmal niyantran upapranaaliyaaain

tharmal niyantran upatantr, electronic upakaranon ki gahan soorya ke prakaash se uttpann charam taapamaan ya upagrah ke vibhinn pakshon par soorya ke abhaav ke kaaran se suraksha mein madad karta hai

  • lambaai aur kaksha niyantrit niyantran upapranaaliyaaain

is ravaiye aur kaksha ko niyantrit karne ke upatantr chhote rocket thrusters se bane hote hain, jo upagrah ko sahi kaksheeya sthiti mein rakhane aur sahi disha mein entena pojeeshaning rakhate hai.

sanchaar pelod

doosra pramukh maudyool sanchaar pelod hai, jo traansapondar se bana hua hai. ek traansapondar saksham hai:

  • pruthvi upagrah prasaaran stationon (entena) se upalinked radio sanketon ko praapt karna.
  • praapt radio sanketon ka vrustran
  • input sanketon ko dhooaindhane aur outaput sanketon ko nirdeshit karne ko bahungeeya input/outaput signals se pruthvi upagrah stationon (entena) ko fir se uchit daaunalink entina ko for se bhejate hain.

prakshepan-saksham desh

pehle british sainya upagrah skaainet (Skynet) ka prakshepan.

is soochi mein svatantr kshamata ke desh jo kaksha mein upagrahon ko prakshepit karne, aavashyak prakshepan vaahan ke utpaadan sahit, shaamil hain. not: bahut se deshon upagrahon ko design karne aur banaane ki kshamata hai - jinhein apekshaakrut, jyaada vaigyaanik, aarthik aur audyogik kshamata ki aavashyakta naheen hai - lekin unhein launch karne mein asamarth hain aur videshi launch sevaaon par nirbhar hain. is soochi mein vo desh nahi hain, lakin unako shaamil kiya hai jo upagrahon ko prakshepit karne mein saksham hain aur jis taareekh mein ye kshamata pehli baar prardashit ki gayi thi. sangheeya upagrahon ya bahu raashtreeya upagrahon ko shaamil naheen kiya gaya hai.

desh ka sabse pehla prakshepan
desh pehle prakshepan ka saal pehla upagrah
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Soviet Union 1957 sputanik 1 (Sputnik 1)
Flag of the United States.svg United States 1958 eksplorar 1 (Explorer 1)
Flag of France.svg France 1965 esasteriks (Astéarix)
Flag of Japan.svg Japan 1970 osumi (Osumi)
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 1970 daung feing haang I (Dong Fang Hong I)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 1971 prospero X-3 (Prospero X-3)
Flag of India.svg India 1980 rohini (Rohini)
Flag of Israel.svg Israel 1988 ofek 1 (Ofeq 1)

donon uttari Korea (1998) aur iraak (1989) ne kaksha ke prakshepan ka daava kiya hai (upagrah aur vaarahed tadanusaar), lekin ye daavon apusht rahe hain.

uparokt, deshon ke atirikt anya deshon jaise dakshin Africa, Spain, Italy, pashchimi Germany (West Germany), Canada, Australia, Argentina, ijipt aur niji companiyaan jaise otraag (OTRAG), ne apne prakshepanon ka vikaas kiya hai, par safalataapoorvak prakshepan nahi kar paae hain.

2008 tak, uparokt soochi mein se sirf saat desh (rus aur yooesaesaaar (USSR) ki jagah ukren, sanyukt raajya America, Japan, China, India aur Israel bhi) aur ek kshetreeya sangathan (Europeeya antariksh agency (European Space Agency), iesae) ne svatantr roop se apne hi desh mein viksit prakshepan vaahanon par upagrahon ko launch kiya hai. (United kingadam aur fraans ki launch kshamataaen ab ESA (ESA) mein aati hain.)

dakshin Korea, Iran, braajeel, Pakistan, romaaniya, kajaakastaan, Australia, Malaysia[tathya vaanchhit] aur Turkey sahit kai anya desh, apne chhote paimaane par laanchar kshamataaon ke vikaas ke vibhinn charanon mein hain aur antariksh shaktiyon ke club mein sadasyata chaahate hain.

yeh nirdhaarit hai ki 2008 ki shuroo mein dakshin Korea (South Korea) ek shubhaaranbh kareinge KSLV (KSLV) rocket (roos ki sahaayata se banaaya gaya) aur agali antariksh shakti ban jaaega.Iran ne pehle se hi safalataapoorvak apne swayam ke antariksh prakshepan vaahan ka pareekshan kiya hai (Kavoshgar 1 (Kavoshgar 1)) aur apne pehle ghareloo upagrah ko bhejane ke liye nirdhaarit hai (omid 1 (Omid 1)) kaksha mein 4 February2008se ek saal ke bheetar.aisi ummeed hai ki Brazil aur Pakistan nikat bhavishya mein aisa kareinge[tathya vaanchhit]

anya dalon ki madad se desh ke sabse pehle prakshepan[12]
desh pehle prakshepan ka saal pehla upagrah 2008 mein kaksha mein pelod[13]
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Soviet Union 1957 sputanik 1 (Sputnik 1) 1398
Flag of the United States.svg United States 1958 eksplorar 1 (Explorer 1) 1042
Flag of Canada.svg Canada 1962 alauette 1 (Alouette 1) 25
Flag of Italy.svg Italy 1964 sain Marco 1 (San Marco 1) 14
Flag of France.svg France 1965 asteriks (Astéarix) 44
Flag of Australia.svg Australia 1967 dabalyooaaraiesaaiti (WRESAT) 11
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 1969 ajur (Azur) 27
Flag of Japan.svg Japan 1970 osumi (Osumi) 111
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 1970 daung feing haang I (Dong Fang Hong I) 64
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 1971 prospero X-3 (Prospero X-3) 25
Flag of Poland.svg Poland 1973 interkosmos kopernikus 500 (Intercosmos Kopernikus 500) ?
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands 1974 aienaes (ANS) 5
Flag of Spain.svg Spain 1974 intaaset (Intasat) 9
Flag of India.svg India 1975 aaryabhatt (Aryabhata) 34
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia 1976 paalpa ai (Palapa A1) 10
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Czechoslovakia 1978 magion 1 (Magion 1) 5
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria 1981 intarakausmosa22 (Intercosmos 22)
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 1985 brasilsat ai1 (Brasilsat A1) 11
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico 1985 morelos 1 (Morelos 1) 7
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden 1986 viking (Viking) 11
Flag of Israel.svg Israel 1988 ofek 1 (Ofeq 1) 7
Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg 1988 estra 1 A (Astra 1A) 15
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina 1990 lusat (Lusat) 10
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 1990 badr-1 (Badr-1) 5
Flag of South Korea (bordered).svg South Korea 1992 kitsat A (Kitsat A) 10
Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal 1993 po esaeti-1 (PoSAT-1) 1
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand 1993 thaaikaum 1 (Thaicom 1) 6
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 1994 turksat 1bi (Turksat 1B) 5
Flag of Chile.svg Chile 1995 fasat-alfa (FASat-Alfa) 1
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia 1996 emieesaeti (MEASAT) 4
Flag of Norway.svg Norway 1997 thor 2 (Thor 2) 3
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines 1997 mabuhaya 1 (Mabuhay 1) 2
Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt 1998 nilesat 101 (Nilesat 101) 3
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark 1999 orsted (Øaarsted) 3
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 1999 esayooenaesaeti (SUNSAT) 1
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia 2000 saudist 1 A (Saudisat 1A) 12
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates 2000 thuraaya 1 (Thuraya 1) 3
Flag of Algeria.svg Algeria 2002 alsat 1 (Alsat 1) 1
Flag of Greece.svg Greece 2003 hellaas set 2 (Hellas Sat 2) 2
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Nigeria 2003 naaijeeriyaasait 1 (Nigeriasat 1) 2
Flag of Iran.svg Iran 2005 seena-1 (Sina-1) 1
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Kazakhstan 2006 kaajasait 1 (KazSat 1) 1
Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia 2007 libertaad 1 (Libertad 1) 1
Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam 2008 vinaasait-1 (VINASAT-1) 1

jabki Canada teesara desh hai jisne antariksh mein staapit upagrah banaaya tha,[14] yeh videsh mein ek ameriki antarikshatat se ek ameriki rocket shuroo ki gayi thi. yehi jaata hai Australia ke liye, jinhonne on-board ek donaated redstone rocket shuroo kiya. pehla itaaliyn-prakshepan san Marco 1 (San Marco 1) tha, jo 15 December, 1964 ko vaallops dweep (viai, yooesaai) mein se ek ameriki skauut rocket (Scout rocket) par naasa dvaara prashikshit ek itaalavi prakshepan team ke saath shuroo kiya gaya tha.[15] November 1967 mein, Australia ki launch pariyojana, mein America ki ek daanit misaail aur ameriki staaf ke samarthan tatha unaayted kingadam suvidha ko bhi shaamil kiya gaya tha.[16] kajaakastaan ne daava kiya ki usane apne upagrah svatantr roop se[tathya vaanchhit] banaaye hai, lekin pehle jaise polish aur balgeriyaai ki tarah upagrah roosi madad ke saath banaaya gaya tha.

upagrahon par hamle

haal hi mein aatankvaadi sangathanon dvaara prachaar ke prasaaran karne ke liye aur sainya sanchaar network se vargeekrut jaankaari churaane ke liye upagrahon ko tod liya gaya hai.[17][18]

pruthvi ki nichli kaksha mein maujood upagrahon ko bailistik prakshepaastr se pruthvi par se nasht kar diya gaya hai. donon roos aur sanyukt raajya America ne upagrahon ko samaapt karne ke liye kshamata ka pradarshan kiya hai.[19] 2007 mein cheeni sena ne ek mausam upagrah daaga,[19] is ke baad ameriki nausena (US Navy) ne mrut jaasoosi upagrah (defunct spy satellite)February 2008 (February 2008) mein daaga.[20] sheet yuddh ke dauraan roos aur sanyukt raajya America ne bhi upagrahon ko daaga hai.

jaamaming

upagrah prasaaran ke kam praapt signal ki shakti ke kaaran bhoomi par aadhaarit traansameetaron se radio jaamaming (Radio jamming) rahati hai. is tarah ki jaamaming traansameetar ki seema ke bheetar bhaugolik kshetr ke liye seemit hai. jeepeees upagrah jaamaming ke liye sambhaavit lakshya hain,[21][22] lekin upagrah phone aur television ke sanketon ko bhi jaamaming ke liye niyojit kar diya gaya hai.[23][24]

upagrah sevaaeain

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

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  2. "Contents - The Atlantic monthly. Volume 24, Issue 141". cornell.edu. http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/pageviewer?frames=1&cite=http%3A%2F%2Fcdl.library.cornell.edu%2Fcgi-bin%2Fmoa%2Fmoa-cgi%3Fnotisid%3DABK2934-0024-50&coll=moa&view=50&root=%2Fmoa%2Fatla%2Fatla0024%2F&tif=00005.TIF. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  3. "The_1945_Proposal_by_Arthur_C._Clarke_for_Geostationary_Satellite_Communications". lakdiva.org. http://lakdiva.org/clarke/1945ww/. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  4. "A Brief History of Animals in Space". NASA. http://history.nasa.gov/animals.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-08.
  5. "Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship". RAND. http://www.rand.org/pubs/special_memoranda/SM11827/index.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  6. "News Reel - First US Satellite Launched". webcastr.com. http://www.webcastr.com/videos/news/news-reel-first-us-satellite-launched.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-05.
  7. "ORBITAL_DEBRIS_EDUCATION_PACKAGE". nasa.gov. http://www.orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/library/EducationPackage.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  8. a aa Grant, A.; Meadows, J. (2004)). Satellites Communication. Communication Technology Update ((ninth edition) san॰). Burlington: Focal Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0240806409.
  9. "Workshop on the Use of Microsatellite Technologies". United Nations. http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/reports/ac105/AC105_903E.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  10. "Earth_Observations_from_Space_The_First_50_Years_of_Scientific_Achievements". nas.edu. http://dels.nas.edu/dels/rpt_briefs/earth_observations_final.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  11. "PEARL HARBOR IN SPACE". jamesoberg.com. http://www.jamesoberg.com/pearl.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  12. "First time in History". tbs-satellite.com. http://www.tbs-satellite.com/tse/online/thema_first.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  13. "SATCAT Boxscore". celestrak.com. http://www.celestrak.com/satcat/boxscore.asp. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-05.
  14. "Canada's Churchill Spaceport". spacetoday.org. http://www.spacetoday.org/Rockets/Spaceports/Canada.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-06.
  15. "San Marco 1". nasa.gov. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/database/MasterCatalog?sc=1964-084A. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-05.
  16. "WRESAT_Australia's_First_Satellite". powerup.com.au. http://homepage.powerup.com.au/~woomera/wresat.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-05.
  17. "Hack a Satellite while it is in orbit". ittoolbox.com. http://blogs.ittoolbox.com/security/dmorrill/archives/hack-a-satellite-while-it-is-in-orbit-15690. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-25.
  18. "AsiaSat accuses Falungong of hacking satellite signals". Press Trust of India. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. https://archive.is/dwFb. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-25.
  19. a aa "China Tests Anti-Satellite Weapon, Unnerving U.S.". nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/18/world/asia/18cnd-china.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all&oref=slogin. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-25.
  20. "Navy Missile Successful as Spy Satellite Is Shot Down". popularmechanics.com. http://www.popularmechanics.com/blogs/science_news/4251430.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-25.
  21. "U.S.-Led Forces Destroy GPS Jamming Systems in Iraq". space.com. Archived on 2003-04-11. Error: If you specify |archivedate=, you must also specify |archiveurl=. http://web.archive.org/web/20030411080225/http://www.space.com/news/gps_iraq_030325.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-25.
  22. "Homemade GPS jammers raise concerns". computerworld.com. http://www.computerworld.com/securitytopics/security/story/0,10801,77702,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-25.
  23. "Iran government jamming exile satellite TV". iranfocus.com. http://www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=2852. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-25.
  24. "Libya Pinpointed as Source of Months-Long Satellite Jamming in 2006". space.com. http://www.space.com/spacenews/businessmonday_070409.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-25.

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